List of elements

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The following is a list of the 118 identified chemical elements.

List[edit]

ZSymElementOrigin of name[1]GroupPeriodAtomic weight
u ()
Density
g / cm3
Melt
K
Boil
K
Heat
J/g·K
Neg10Abundance
(mg/kg)
 
−999 !a !a !a−999−999−999−999−999−999−999−999−999
1HHydrogenthe Greek 'hydro' and 'genes' meaning water-forming111.0082 3 4 90.0000898814.0120.2814.3042.201400
2HeHeliumthe Greek 'helios' meaning sun1814.002602(2)2 40.00017850.9564.225.1930.008
3LiLithiumthe Greek 'lithos' meaning stone126.942 3 4 5 90.534453.6915603.5820.9820
4BeBerylliumthe Greek name for beryl, 'beryllo'229.012182(3)1.85156027421.8251.572.8
5BBoronthe Arabic 'buraq', which was the name for borax13210.812 3 4 92.34234942001.0262.0410
6CCarbonthe Latin 'carbo', meaning charcoal14212.0112 4 92.267380043000.7092.55200
7NNitrogenthe Greek 'nitron' and 'genes' meaning nitre-forming15214.0072 4 90.001250663.1577.361.043.0419
8OOxygenthe Greek 'oxy' and 'genes' meaning acid-forming16215.9992 4 90.00142954.3690.200.9183.44461000
9FFluorinethe Latin 'fluere', meaning to flow17218.9984032(5)0.00169653.5385.030.8243.98585
10NeNeonthe Greek 'neos', meaning new18220.1797(6)2 30.000899924.5627.071.030.005
11NaSodiumthe English word soda (natrium in Latin)[2]1322.98976928(2)0.971370.8711561.2280.9323600
12MgMagnesiumMagnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece2324.30591.73892313631.0231.3123300
13AlAluminiumthe Latin name for alum, 'alumen' meaning bitter salt13326.9815386(8)2.698933.47[3]27920.8971.6182300
14SiSiliconthe Latin 'silex' or 'silicis', meaning flint14328.0854 92.3296168735380.7051.9282000
15PPhosphorusthe Greek 'phosphoros', meaning bringer of light15330.973762(2)1.82317.305500.7692.191050
16SSulfurEither from the Sanskrit 'sulvere', or the Latin 'sulfurium', both names for sulfur[2]16332.062 4 92.067388.36717.870.712.58350
17ClChlorinethe Greek 'chloros', meaning greenish yellow17335.452 3 4 90.003214171.6239.110.4793.16145
18ArArgonthe Greek, 'argos', meaning idle18339.948(1)2 40.001783783.8087.300.523.5
19KPotassiumthe English word potash (kalium in Latin)[2]1439.0983(1)0.862336.5310320.7570.8220900
20CaCalciumthe Latin 'calx' meaning lime2440.078(4)21.54111517570.647141500
21ScScandiumScandinavia (with the Latin name Scandia)3444.955912(6)2.989181431090.5681.3622
22TiTitaniumTitans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology4447.867(1)4.54194135600.5231.545650
23VVanadiumVanadis, an old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja5450.9415(1)6.11218336800.4891.63120
24CrChromiumthe Greek 'chroma', meaning colour6451.9961(6)7.15218029440.4491.66102
25MnManganeseEither the Latin 'magnes', meaning magnet or from the black magnesium oxide, 'magnesia nigra'7454.938045(5)7.44151923340.4791.55950
26FeIronthe Anglo-Saxon name iren (ferrum in Latin)8455.845(2)7.874181131340.4491.8356300
27CoCobaltthe German word 'kobald', meaning goblin9458.933195(5)8.86176832000.4211.8825
28NiNickelthe shortened of the German 'kupfernickel' meaning either devil's copper or St. Nicholas's copper10458.6934(4)8.912172831860.4441.9184
29CuCopperthe Old English name coper in turn derived from the Latin 'Cyprium aes', meaning a metal from Cyprus11463.546(3)48.961357.77[3]28350.3851.960
30ZnZincthe German, 'zinc', which may in turn be derived from the Persian word 'sing', meaning stone12465.38(2)7.134692.8811800.3881.6570
31GaGalliumFrance (with the Latin name Gallia)13469.723(1)5.907302.914624770.3711.8119
32GeGermaniumGermany (with the Latin name Germania)14472.630(8)5.3231211.4031060.322.011.5
33AsArsenicthe Greek name 'arsenikon' for the yellow pigment orpiment15474.92160(2)5.7761090 78870.3292.181.8
34SeSeleniumMoon (with the Greek name selene)16478.96(3)44.8094539580.3212.550.05
35BrBrominethe Greek 'bromos' meaning stench17479.90493.122265.8332.00.4742.962.4
36KrKryptonthe Greek 'kryptos', meaning hidden18483.798(2)2 30.003733115.79119.930.24831×10−4
37RbRubidiumthe Latin 'rubidius', meaning deepest red1585.4678(3)21.532312.469610.3630.8290
38SrStrontiumStrontian, a small town in Scotland2587.62(1)2 42.64105016550.3010.95370
39YYttriumYtterby, Sweden3588.90585(2)4.469179936090.2981.2233
40ZrZirconiumthe Persian 'zargun', meaning gold coloured4591.224(2)26.506212846820.2781.33165
41NbNiobiumNiobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology5592.90638(2)8.57275050170.2651.620
42MoMolybdenumthe Greek 'molybdos' meaning lead6595.96(2)210.22289649120.2512.161.2
43TcTechnetiumthe Greek 'tekhnetos' meaning artificial75[98]111.5243045381.9~ 3×10−9
44RuRutheniumRussia (with the Latin name Ruthenia)85101.07(2)212.37260744230.2382.20.001
45RhRhodiumthe Greek 'rhodon', meaning rose coloured95102.90550(2)12.41223739680.2432.280.001
46PdPalladiumthe then recently discovered asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time105106.42(1)212.021828.0532360.2442.20.015
47AgSilverthe Anglo-Saxon name siolfur (argentum in Latin)[2]115107.8682(2)210.5011234.93[3]24350.2351.930.075
48CdCadmiumthe Latin name for the mineral calmine, 'cadmia'125112.411(8)28.69594.2210400.2321.690.159
49InIndiumthe Latin 'indicium', meaning violet or indigo135114.818(1)7.31429.7523450.2331.780.25
50SnTinthe Anglo-Saxon word tin (stannum in Latin, meaning hard)145118.710(7)27.287505.0828750.2281.962.3
51SbAntimonythe Greek 'anti – monos', meaning not alone (stibium in Latin)155121.760(1)26.685903.7818600.2072.050.2
52TeTelluriumEarth, the third planet in the solar system (with the Latin word tellus)165127.60(3)26.232722.6612610.2022.10.001
53IIodinethe Greek 'iodes' meaning violet175126.90447(3)4.93386.85457.40.2142.660.45
54XeXenonthe Greek 'xenos' meaning stranger185131.293(6)2 30.005887161.4165.030.1582.63×10−5
55CsCaesiumthe Latin 'caesius', meaning sky blue16132.9054519(2)1.873301.599440.2420.793
56BaBariumthe Greek 'barys', meaning heavy26137.327(7)3.594100021700.2040.89425
57LaLanthanumthe Greek 'lanthanein', meaning to lie hidden6138.90547(7)26.145119337370.1951.139
58CeCeriumCeres, the Roman God of agriculture6140.116(1)26.77106837160.1921.1266.5
59PrPraseodymiumthe Greek 'prasinos didymos' meaning green twin6140.90765(2)6.773120837930.1931.139.2
60NdNeodymiumthe Greek 'neos didymos' meaning new twin6144.242(3)27.007129733470.191.1441.5
61PmPromethiumPrometheus of Greek mythology who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to humans6[145]17.26131532731.132×10−19
62SmSamariumSamarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated6150.36(2)27.52134520670.1971.177.05
63EuEuropiumEurope6151.964(1)25.243109918020.1821.22
64GdGadoliniumJohan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist6157.25(3)27.895158535460.2361.26.2
65TbTerbiumYtterby, Sweden6158.92535(2)8.229162935030.1821.21.2
66DyDysprosiumthe Greek 'dysprositos', meaning hard to get6162.500(1)28.55168028400.171.225.2
67HoHolmiumStockholm, Sweden (with the Latin name Holmia)6164.93032(2)8.795173429930.1651.231.3
68ErErbiumYtterby, Sweden6167.259(3)29.066180231410.1681.243.5
69TmThuliumThule, the ancient name for Scandinavia6168.93421(2)9.321181822230.161.250.52
70YbYtterbiumYtterby, Sweden6173.054(5)26.965109714690.1551.13.2
71LuLutetiumParis, France (with the Roman name Lutetia)36174.9668(1)29.84192536750.1541.270.8
72HfHafniumCopenhagen, Denmark (with the Latin name Hafnia)46178.49(2)13.31250648760.1441.33
73TaTantalumKing Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology56180.94788(2)16.654329057310.141.52
74WTungstenthe Swedish 'tung sten' meaning heavy stone (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite)[2]66183.84(1)19.25369558280.1322.361.3
75ReRheniumRhine, a river that flows from Grisons in the eastern Swiss Alps to the North Sea coast in the Netherlands (with the Latin name Rhenia)76186.207(1)21.02345958690.1371.97×10−4
76OsOsmiumthe Greek 'osme', meaning smell86190.23(3)222.61330652850.132.20.002
77IrIridiumIris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow96192.217(3)22.56271947010.1312.20.001
78PtPlatinumthe Spanish 'platina', meaning little silver106195.084(9)21.462041.4[3]40980.1332.280.005
79AuGoldthe Anglo-Saxon word gold (aurum in Latin, meaning glow of sunrise)[2]116196.966569(4)19.2821337.33[3]31290.1292.540.004
80HgMercuryMercury, the first planet in the Solar System (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr- water and argyros silver)126200.592(3)13.5336234.43629.880.1420.085
81TlThalliumthe Greek 'thallos', meaning a green twig136204.38911.8557717460.1291.620.85
82PbLeadthe Anglo-Saxon lead (plumbum in Latin)[2]146207.2(1)2 411.342600.6120220.1291.8714
83BiBismuththe German 'Bisemutum' a corruption of 'Weisse Masse' meaning white mass156208.98040(1)19.807544.718370.1222.020.009
84PoPoloniumPoland, the native country of Marie Curie, who first isolated the element166[209]19.3252712352.02×10−10
85AtAstatinethe Greek 'astatos', meaning unstable176[210]175756102.23×10−20
86RnRadonFrom radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay186[222]10.00973202211.30.0942.24×10−13
87FrFranciumFrance, where it was first discovered17[223]11.873009500.7~ 1×10−18
88RaRadiumthe Latin 'radius', meaning ray27[226]15.597320100.0940.99×10−9
89AcActiniumthe Greek 'actinos', meaning a ray7[227]110.07132334710.121.15.5×10−10
90ThThoriumThor, the Scandinavian god of thunder7232.03806(2)1 211.72211550610.1131.39.6
91PaProtactiniumthe Greek 'protos', meaning first, as a prefix to the element actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium7231.03588(2)115.37184143001.51.4×10−6
92UUraniumUranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System7238.02891(3)118.951405.344040.1161.382.7
93NpNeptuniumNeptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System7[237]120.4591742731.36≤ 3×10−12
94PuPlutoniumPluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System7[244]119.84912.535011.28≤ 3×10−11
95AmAmericiumAmericas, the continent where the element was first synthesized7[243]113.69144928801.13~ 3×10−33
96CmCuriumPierre Curie, a physicist, and Marie Curie, a physicist and chemist7[247]113.51161333831.28~ 2×10−32
97BkBerkeliumBerkeley, California, USA, where the element was first synthesized7[247]114.79125929001.3~ 0
98CfCaliforniumState of California, USA, where the element was first synthesized7[251]115.11173(1743)111.3~ 0
99EsEinsteiniumAlbert Einstein, physicist7[252]18.841133(1269)111.30 8
100FmFermiumEnrico Fermi, physicist7[257]1(1125)111.30 8
101MdMendeleviumDmitri Mendeleyev, chemist and inventor7[258]1(1100)111.30 8
102NoNobeliumAlfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer7[259]1(1100)111.30 8
103LrLawrenciumErnest O. Lawrence, physicist37[266]1(1900)111.30 8
104RfRutherfordiumErnest Rutherford, chemist and physicist47[267]1(23.2)11(2400)11(5800)110 8
105DbDubniumDubna, Russia57[268]1(29.3)110 8
106SgSeaborgiumGlenn T. Seaborg, scientist67[269]1(35.0)110 8
107BhBohriumNiels Bohr, physicist77[270]1(37.1)110 8
108HsHassiumHesse, Germany, where the element was first synthesized87[269]1(40.7)110 8
109MtMeitneriumLise Meitner, physicist97[278]1(37.4)110 8
110DsDarmstadtiumDarmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesized107[281]1(34.8)110 8
111RgRoentgeniumWilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist117[281]1(28.7)110 8
112CnCoperniciumNicolaus Copernicus, astronomer127[285]1(23.7)11357 120 8
113UutUnuntriumIUPAC systematic element name137[286]1(16)11(700)11(1400)110 8
114FlFleroviumGeorgy Flyorov, physicist147[289]1(14)11(340)11(420)110 8
115UupUnunpentiumIUPAC systematic element name157[289]1(13.5)11(700)11(1400)110 8
116LvLivermoriumLawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, California) which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis167[293]1(12.9)11(708.5)11(1085)110 8
117UusUnunseptiumIUPAC systematic element name177[294]1(7.2)11(673)11(823)110 8
118UuoUnunoctiumIUPAC systematic element name187[294]1(5.0)11 13(258)11(263)110 8
9e99~z~z9e999e999e999e999e999e999e999e999e99
Categories in the metal–nonmetal trend
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–metalloid–nonmetal trend:
MetalMetalloidNonmetalUnknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metalAlkaline earth metalLan­thanideActinideTransition metalPost-​transition metalPolyatomic nonmetalDiatomic nonmetalNoble gas

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]