List of elements

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The following is a list of the 118 identified chemical elements.

List[edit]

ZSymElementOrigin of name[1][2]GroupPeriodAtomic weight
u ()
Density
g / cm3
Melt
K
Boil
K
Heat
J/g·K
Neg10Abundance
(mg/kg)
 
−999 !a !a !a−999−999−999−999−999−999−999−999−999
1HHydrogencomposed of the Greek elements hydro- and -gen meaning 'water-forming'111.0082 3 4 90.0000898814.0120.2814.3042.201400
2HeHeliumthe Greek helios, 'sun'1814.002602(2)2 40.00017850.9564.225.1930.008
3LiLithiumthe Greek lithos, 'stone'126.942 3 4 5 90.534453.6915603.5820.9820
4BeBerylliumberyl, a mineral229.012182(3)1.85156027421.8251.572.8
5BBoronborax, a mineral13210.812 3 4 92.34234942001.0262.0410
6CCarbonthe Latin carbo, 'charcoal'14212.0112 4 92.267380043000.7092.55200
7NNitrogenthe Greek nitron and '-gen' meaning 'niter-forming'15214.0072 4 90.001250663.1577.361.043.0419
8OOxygenfrom the Greek oxy-, both 'sharp' and 'acid', and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming'16215.9992 4 90.00142954.3690.200.9183.44461000
9FFluorinethe Latin fluere, 'to flow'17218.9984032(5)0.00169653.5385.030.8243.98585
10NeNeonthe Greek neos, meaning 'new'18220.1797(6)2 30.000899924.5627.071.030.005
11NaSodiumthe English word soda (natrium in Latin)[3]1322.98976928(2)0.971370.8711561.2280.9323600
12MgMagnesiumMagnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece2324.30591.73892313631.0231.3123300
13AlAluminiumfrom alumina, a compound (originally aluminum)13326.9815386(8)2.698933.47[4]27920.8971.6182300
14SiSiliconfrom the Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium)14328.0854 92.3296168735380.7051.9282000
15PPhosphorusthe Greek phoosphoros, 'carrying light'15330.973762(2)1.82317.305500.7692.191050
16SSulfurLatin sulphur, 'sulfur'16332.062 4 92.067388.36717.870.712.58350
17ClChlorinethe Greek chloros, 'greenish yellow'17335.452 3 4 90.003214171.6239.110.4793.16145
18ArArgonthe Greek argos, 'idle'18339.948(1)2 40.001783783.8087.300.523.5
19KPotassiumNew Latin potassa, 'potash' (kalium in Latin)[3]1439.0983(1)0.862336.5310320.7570.8220900
20CaCalciumthe Latin calx, 'lime'2440.078(4)21.54111517570.647141500
21ScScandiumScandia, the Latin name for Scandinavia3444.955912(6)2.989181431090.5681.3622
22TiTitaniumTitans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology4447.867(1)4.54194135600.5231.545650
23VVanadiumVanadis, an old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja5450.9415(1)6.11218336800.4891.63120
24CrChromiumthe Greek chroma, 'color'6451.9961(6)7.15218029440.4491.66102
25MnManganesecorrupted from magnesia negra, see Magnesium7454.938045(5)7.44151923340.4791.55950
26FeIronEnglish word (ferrum in Latin)8455.845(2)7.874181131340.4491.8356300
27CoCobaltthe German word Kobold, 'goblin'9458.933195(5)8.86176832000.4211.8825
28NiNickelfrom Swedish kopparnickel, containing the German word Nickel, 'goblin'10458.6934(4)8.912172831860.4441.9184
29CuCopperEnglish word (Latin cuprum)11463.546(3)48.961357.77[4]28350.3851.960
30ZnZincthe German Zink12465.38(2)7.134692.8811800.3881.6570
31GaGalliumGallia, the Latin name for France13469.723(1)5.907302.914624770.3711.8119
32GeGermaniumGermania, the Latin name for Germany14472.630(8)5.3231211.4031060.322.011.5
33AsArsenicEnglish word (Latin arsenicum)15474.92160(2)5.7761090 78870.3292.181.8
34SeSeleniumthe Greek selene, 'moon'16478.96(3)44.8094539580.3212.550.05
35BrBrominethe Greek bromos, 'stench'17479.90493.122265.8332.00.4742.962.4
36KrKryptonthe Greek kryptos, 'hidden'18483.798(2)2 30.003733115.79119.930.24831×10−4
37RbRubidiumthe Latin rubidus, 'deep red'1585.4678(3)21.532312.469610.3630.8290
38SrStrontiumStrontian, a small town in Scotland2587.62(1)2 42.64105016550.3010.95370
39YYttriumYtterby, Sweden3588.90585(2)4.469179936090.2981.2233
40ZrZirconiumGerman Zirkoon, 'jargoon'4591.224(2)26.506212846820.2781.33165
41NbNiobiumNiobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology5592.90638(2)8.57275050170.2651.620
42MoMolybdenumthe Greek molybdos meaning 'lead'6595.96(2)210.22289649120.2512.161.2
43TcTechnetiumthe Greek tekhnètos meaning 'artificial'75[98]111.5243045381.9~ 3×10−9
44RuRutheniumRuthenia, the New Latin name for Russia85101.07(2)212.37260744230.2382.20.001
45RhRhodiumthe Greek rhodos, meaning 'rose coloured'95102.90550(2)12.41223739680.2432.280.001
46PdPalladiumthe then recently discovered asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time105106.42(1)212.021828.0532360.2442.20.015
47AgSilverEnglish word (argentum in Latin)[3]115107.8682(2)210.5011234.93[4]24350.2351.930.075
48CdCadmiumthe New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos125112.411(8)28.69594.2210400.2321.690.159
49InIndiumindigo135114.818(1)7.31429.7523450.2331.780.25
50SnTinEnglish word (stannum in Latin)145118.710(7)27.287505.0828750.2281.962.3
51SbAntimonycomposed from the Greek anti, 'against', and monos, 'alone' (stibium in Latin)155121.760(1)26.685903.7818600.2072.050.2
52TeTelluriumLatin tellus, 'earth'165127.60(3)26.232722.6612610.2022.10.001
53IIodineFrench iode (after the Greek ioeides, 'violet')175126.90447(3)4.93386.85457.40.2142.660.45
54XeXenonthe Greek xenos, 'strange'185131.293(6)2 30.005887161.4165.030.1582.63×10−5
55CsCaesiumthe Latin caesius, 'sky blue'16132.9054519(2)1.873301.599440.2420.793
56BaBariumthe Greek barys, 'heavy'26137.327(7)3.594100021700.2040.89425
57LaLanthanumthe Greek lanthanein, 'to lie hidden'6138.90547(7)26.145119337370.1951.139
58CeCeriumthe then recently discovered asteroid Ceres, considered a planet at the time6140.116(1)26.77106837160.1921.1266.5
59PrPraseodymiumthe Greek praseios didymos meaning 'green twin'6140.90765(2)6.773120837930.1931.139.2
60NdNeodymiumthe Greek neos didymos meaning 'new twin'6144.242(3)27.007129733470.191.1441.5
61PmPromethiumPrometheus of Greek mythology who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to humans6[145]17.26131532731.132×10−19
62SmSamariumSamarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated6150.36(2)27.52134520670.1971.177.05
63EuEuropiumEurope6151.964(1)25.243109918020.1821.22
64GdGadoliniumJohan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist6157.25(3)27.895158535460.2361.26.2
65TbTerbiumYtterby, Sweden6158.92535(2)8.229162935030.1821.21.2
66DyDysprosiumthe Greek dysprositos, 'hard to get'6162.500(1)28.55168028400.171.225.2
67HoHolmiumHolmia, the New Latin name for Stockholm6164.93032(2)8.795173429930.1651.231.3
68ErErbiumYtterby, Sweden6167.259(3)29.066180231410.1681.243.5
69TmThuliumThule, the ancient name for Scandinavia6168.93421(2)9.321181822230.161.250.52
70YbYtterbiumYtterby, Sweden6173.054(5)26.965109714690.1551.13.2
71LuLutetiumLutetia, the Latin name for Paris36174.9668(1)29.84192536750.1541.270.8
72HfHafniumHafnia, the New Latin name for Copenhagen46178.49(2)13.31250648760.1441.33
73TaTantalumKing Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology56180.94788(2)16.654329057310.141.52
74WTungstenthe Swedish tung sten, 'heavy stone' (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite)[3]66183.84(1)19.25369558280.1322.361.3
75ReRheniumRhenus, the Latin name for the river Rhine76186.207(1)21.02345958690.1371.97×10−4
76OsOsmiumthe Greek osmè, meaning 'smell'86190.23(3)222.61330652850.132.20.002
77IrIridiumIris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow96192.217(3)22.56271947010.1312.20.001
78PtPlatinumthe Spanish platina, meaning 'little silver'106195.084(9)21.462041.4[4]40980.1332.280.005
79AuGoldEnglish word (aurum in Latin)116196.966569(4)19.2821337.33[4]31290.1292.540.004
80HgMercurythe New Latin name mercurius, named after the Roman god (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr-, 'water', and argyros, 'silver')126200.592(3)13.5336234.43629.880.1420.085
81TlThalliumthe Greek thallos, 'green twig'136204.38911.8557717460.1291.620.85
82PbLeadEnglish word (plumbum in Latin)[3]146207.2(1)2 411.342600.6120220.1291.8714
83BiBismuthGerman word, now obsolete156208.98040(1)19.807544.718370.1222.020.009
84PoPoloniumPolonia, the New Latin name for Poland166[209]19.3252712352.02×10−10
85AtAstatinethe Greek astatos, 'unstable'176[210]175756102.23×10−20
86RnRadonFrom radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay186[222]10.00973202211.30.0942.24×10−13
87FrFranciumFrancia, the New Latin name for France17[223]11.873009500.7~ 1×10−18
88RaRadiumthe Latin radius, 'ray'27[226]15.597320100.0940.99×10−9
89AcActiniumthe Greek aktis, 'ray'7[227]110.07132334710.121.15.5×10−10
90ThThoriumThor, the Scandinavian god of thunder7232.03806(2)1 211.72211550610.1131.39.6
91PaProtactiniumthe Greek protos, 'first', and actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium7231.03588(2)115.37184143001.51.4×10−6
92UUraniumUranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System7238.02891(3)118.951405.344040.1161.382.7
93NpNeptuniumNeptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System7[237]120.4591742731.36≤ 3×10−12
94PuPlutoniumPluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System7[244]119.84912.535011.28≤ 3×10−11
95AmAmericiumAmerica, as the element was first synthesized in the USA7[243]113.69144928801.13~ 3×10−33
96CmCuriumPierre Curie, a physicist, and Marie Curie, a physicist and chemist7[247]113.51161333831.28~ 2×10−32
97BkBerkeliumBerkeley, California, where the element was first synthesized7[247]114.79125929001.3~ 0
98CfCaliforniumCalifornia, where the element was first synthesized7[251]115.11173(1743)111.3~ 0
99EsEinsteiniumAlbert Einstein, physicist7[252]18.841133(1269)111.30 8
100FmFermiumEnrico Fermi, physicist7[257]1(1125)111.30 8
101MdMendeleviumDmitri Mendeleyev, chemist and inventor7[258]1(1100)111.30 8
102NoNobeliumAlfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer7[259]1(1100)111.30 8
103LrLawrenciumErnest O. Lawrence, physicist37[266]1(1900)111.30 8
104RfRutherfordiumErnest Rutherford, chemist and physicist47[267]1(23.2)11(2400)11(5800)110 8
105DbDubniumDubna, Russia57[268]1(29.3)110 8
106SgSeaborgiumGlenn T. Seaborg, scientist67[269]1(35.0)110 8
107BhBohriumNiels Bohr, physicist77[270]1(37.1)110 8
108HsHassiumHesse, Germany, where the element was first synthesized87[269]1(40.7)110 8
109MtMeitneriumLise Meitner, physicist97[278]1(37.4)110 8
110DsDarmstadtiumDarmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesized107[281]1(34.8)110 8
111RgRoentgeniumWilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist117[281]1(28.7)110 8
112CnCoperniciumNicolaus Copernicus, astronomer127[285]1(23.7)11357 120 8
113UutUnuntriumIUPAC systematic element name137[286]1(16)11(700)11(1400)110 8
114FlFleroviumGeorgy Flyorov, physicist147[289]1(14)11(340)11(420)110 8
115UupUnunpentiumIUPAC systematic element name157[289]1(13.5)11(700)11(1400)110 8
116LvLivermoriumLawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, California) which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis167[293]1(12.9)11(708.5)11(1085)110 8
117UusUnunseptiumIUPAC systematic element name177[294]1(7.2)11(673)11(823)110 8
118UuoUnunoctiumIUPAC systematic element name187[294]1(5.0)11 13(258)11(263)110 8
9e99~z~z9e999e999e999e999e999e999e999e999e99
Categories in the metal–nonmetal trend
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–metalloid–nonmetal trend:
MetalMetalloidNonmetalUnknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metalAlkaline earth metalLan­thanideActinideTransition metalPost-​transition metalPolyatomic nonmetalDiatomic nonmetalNoble gas

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]