List of new religious movements

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A new religious movement (NRM) is a comprehensive term used to identify religious, ethical, and spiritual groups, communities and practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Scholars studying the sociology of religion have almost unanimously adopted this term as a neutral alternative to the word cult, which is often considered derogatory.[1] Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[2]

A NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[3] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands world-wide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[4] Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[5][6]

List[edit]

NameFounderYear foundedType
3HO[7]Harbhajan Singh Yogi[8]1969[8]Sikhism[8]
Adidam, previously Free Daist Avabhasan Communion, Free Daist Communion, Crazy Wisdom Fellowship, Johannine Daist Community, Laughing Man Institute, Dawn Horse Communion, Free Primitive Church of Divine Communion, Free Communion Church, Dawn Horse Fellowship[9][10]Adi Da[10]1972[10]Hindu-inspired[10]
Adonai-Shomo[11]Frederick T. Howland[12]1861[12]Adventist Communal[12]
Adonism[13]Franz Sättler[13]1925[13]Neopagan[13]
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[14]Terry Cole-Whittaker1985Religious Science
Aetherius Society[15][16][17]George King[15]1954[15]UFO-Christian[15]
African Church Incorporated[18]Jacob Kehinde Coker[19]1901[19]Anglican Communion
African Independent Churches, also known as African Initiated Churches[20]MultipleStarting in the 4th centuryChristianity; Indigenous
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[21]Walter Eugene King[22]1973[22]Voodoo[22]
Agasha Temple of Wisdom[23]Richard Zenor[24]1943[24]Spiritualism[24]
Agni Yoga Society[23][25]Nicholas Roerich[26]mid-1920s[26]Theosophical[26]
Ahmadiyya Movement[25][27][28]Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[29]1889[29]Islam[29]
Aladura[30][31]Josiah Ositelu[32]1930[32]Pentecostal[32]
Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[30][33][34]Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[35]1969[35]Fundamentalist; Communal[35]
Altruria[36]Edward Biron Payne[12]1894[12]Christian Socialist Communal[12]
Amana Church Society, also known as Church of True Inspiration[37][38]Eberhard Gruber; Johann Rock[12]1714[12]Communal [12]
American Buddhist Movement[39]1980[40]Western Buddhism[40]
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[41]Robert Ernest Dickhoff[42]1945[42]Tibetan Buddhism[42]
American World Patriarchs[43]Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[44]1972[44]Eastern Liturgy[44]
Amica Temple of Radiance[45]Ivah Berg Whitten[26]1932[26]Theosophical[26]
Ananda Marga[46][47][48][49]Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[50]1955[50]Hinduism[50]
Ancient British Church in North America[51]Jonathan V. Zotique[52]Homosexually Oriented[52]
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[46][53][54]H. Spencer Lewis[55]1915[55]Rosicrucianism[55]
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM[51]Darwin Gross[56]1983[56]Sant Mat[56]
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[57][58]Howard B. Rand[59]1928[59]British Israelism[59]
Ansaaru Allah Community[60]As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[61]late 1960s[61]Black Islam[61]
Anthroposophy[57][62][63]Rudolf Steiner[64]1912[64]Western Occultist[64]
Antiochian Catholic Church in America[65]Gordon Mar Peter[66]1980s[66]Independent Catholic, Monophysite[66]
Antoinism[67]Louis-Joseph Antoine[67]1910[67]Healing, Christian[67]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[68]Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[69]1906[69]European Free-Church[69]
Apostolic Christian Church of America[68]Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[69]1830[69]European Free-Church[69]
Apostolic Church[70]Daniel Powell Williams[71]1916[71]Pentecostal[71]
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[72]Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[73]1969[73]Apostolic Pentecostal[73]
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[74]William Thomas Phillips[75]1920[75]Apostolic Pentecostal[75]
Arcane School[76]Alice and Foster Bailey[77]1937[77]Alice Bailey Groups[77]
Arica School[78][79]Oscar Ichazo[80]1968[80]Sufism[80]
Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[81]Sri Sri Ravi Shankar[81]1981[81]Hinduism[81]
Arya Samaj[82][83]Mul Shankara[81]1875[81]Hinduism[81]
Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[84]Wesley Swift[85]late 1940s[85]British Israelism[85]
Ásatrú[86]Stephen McNallen[86]1970s[86]Neo-pagan[86]
Assemblies of God[87]merger[88]1914[88]Pentecostalism[88]
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[82]merger[89]1952[89]Apostolic Pentecostal[89]
Assemblies of Yahweh[90][91]C.O. Dodd[92]1937[92]Adventist; Sacred Name[92]
Assembly of Christian Soldiers[93]Jessie L. Thrift[94]1971[94]Unclassified, Ku Klux Klan-based[94]
Assembly of Yahweh[90][91]Lorenzo Dow Snow
E. B. Adam[95]
1949[95]Adventist[95]
Association for Research and Enlightenment[93][96]Edgar Cayce[97]1931[97]Occultist[97]
Association of Vineyard Churches[98]John Wimber[99]1982[99]White Trinitarian Pentecostals[99]
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[100][101][102][103]Shoko Asahara[104]1987[104]Japanese Buddhism[104]
Ausar Auset Society[105]R.A. Straughn[106]mid-1970s[106]Rosicrucianism[106]
Babism[107]Báb[107]1844[107]Islam[107]
Bahá'í Faith[108][109]Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri[110]1863[110]Middle Eastern, Baha'i[110]
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[111]Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[112]1971[112]Sufism[112]
Bethel Ministerial Association[113]Albert Franklin Varnell[89]1934[89]Apostolic Pentecostal[89]
Bible Presbyterian Church[114]Carl McIntire[115]1938[115]Reformed Presbyterian[115]
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[116][117]schism[89]1957[89]Apostolic Pentecostal[89]
The Blackburn Cult, also known as the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven[118]May Otis Blackburn[119]1922[119]Neopaganism and New Thought[119]
Brahma Kumaris[120][121][122]Dada Lekhraj[123]1936[123]Hinduism[123]
Branch Davidian[124][125]Victor T. Houteff[126]1930[126]Seventh Day Adventist[126]
Branhamism[127]William M. Branham[127]1951[127]Oneness Pentecostal[127]
Breatharians also known as Inedia[128]Wiley Brooks[129]1970s[129]Hinduism-influenced[129]
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[130]Jimmie T. Roberts[130]c. 1970[130]Unclassified Christian Churches[130]
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[131][132]
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[133]Eberhard Arnold[134]c. 1920[134]Communal[134]
Brunstad Christian Church[135]
Builders of the Adytum[136][137]Paul Foster Case[138]1922[138]Ritual magic[138]
Candomblé[139][140]19th century[141]Syncretistic; Neo-African; Divination[141]
Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[142][143]Ngô Văn Chiêu; Lê Văn Trung[141]1919[141]Syncretistic; Vietnamese Millenarian[141]
Cargo cults[144][145]Syncretistic; Nativist[146]
CAUSA International[147]Sun Myung Moon[148]1970[148]Unification Church[148]
Celestial Church of Christ[149]Samuel Oshoffa[150]1947[150]Nativist Christian Pentecostal[150]
The Centers Network[151]
Chabad-Lubavitch[145][152]Shneur Zalman of Liadi.late 18th centuryChasidic movement in Orthodox Judaism.
Charismatic Movement[153]1950s[154]
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[155]
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo[156]
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[157]Moses Orimolade Tunolase[158]c. 1925[158]African Pentecostal[158]
Christ Apostolic Church[159]T. O. Obadare[160]1941[160]Pentecostal[160]
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites[161][162]John Thomas[163]1844[164]Baptist family[164]
The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft[165]Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer[166]
1922[166]Anthroposophy[166]
Christian Identity[167][168]1982[169]British Israelism[169]
Christian Reformed Church in North America[170]Gijsbert Haan[171]1857[171]Reformed Presbyterian[171]
Christian Science[172][173]Mary Baker Eddy[174]1876[174]Christian Science-Metaphysical;[174] New Thought[175]
Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project[176]Jack Sparks; Fred Dyson; Pat Matrisciana[177]1969[177]Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian[177]
Church of All Worlds[178][179]Tim Zell; Lance Christie[180]1962[180]Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[180]
Church of Aphrodite[178]Gleb Botkin[181]1939[181]Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[181]
Church of Bible Understanding[182][183]Stewart Traill[184]1971[184]Adventist; Fundamentalist[184]
Church of Daniel's Band[185]1893[186]Non-Episcopal Methodism[186]
Church of God in Christ[187]Charles H. Mason[188]1908[188]Pentecostal[188]
Church of God in Christ, Mennonite[187][189]John Holdeman[189]c. 1870[189]German Mennonite[189]
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[187]Grady R. Kent[190]1957[190]White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[190]
Church of God Mountain Assembly[191]J.H. Parks, Steve N. Bryant, Tom Moses, William O. Douglas1906[190]White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[190]
Church of God of Prophecy[192]Ambrose Tomlinson[193]1903[193]White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[193]
Church of God with Signs Following[194]George Went Hensley[195]1920s[195]Holiness Pentecostal[195]
Church of Israel[196]Dan Gayman[197]1974[197]British Israelism[197]
The Church of Light[198][199]C.C. Zain[200][201]1932 [202][203]Hermetism[204][205]
Church of Satan[206]Anton LaVey[207]1966[207]Satanism[207]
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[208]John Robert Stevens[209]1954[209]Fundamentalist; Occultist[209]
Church of the Lord (Aladura)[210]Josiah Ositelu[32]1930[32]Pentecostal Family[32]
Church of World Messianity[211][212]Mokichi Okada[213]1934[213]Shintoism[213]
Church Universal and Triumphant[214][215]Mark Prophet; Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[216]1958[216]Theosophical; Occultist[216]
Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[217]Sun Myung Moon[218][218]1955[218]Unification Church[218]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[219][220]Arnold Josiah Ford[221]1924[221]Black Judaism[221]
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[222]Donald Lee Barnett[223]1967[223]Latter Rain Pentecostal[223]
Concerned Christians[224]
Conservative Judaism[225][226]Sabato Morais, Marcus Jastrow, H. Pereira Mendes[227]1887[227]Mainline Judaism[227]
A Course in Miracles[228][229]Helen Schucman
William Thetford[230]
1975[230]New Thought[230]
Covenant of the Goddess[109][231]merger[232]1975[232]Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[232]
Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[233][234]Margot Adler[232]1987[232]Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[232]
The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[235][236]James D. Ellison[85]mid-1970s[85]British Israelism[85]
Creativity[237]Ben Klassen[237]early-1970'sPantheism and Agnostic Atheism and White Racialism.[237]
Crossroads Movement[238]1970s[239]
Cyberchurches[240]
Dalit Buddhist movement[241]Bhimrao Ramji Sakpal[241]1956[241]Buddhism[241]
Dances of Universal Peace[242]
Dianic Wicca[243]merger[244]1971[244]Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[244]
Eckankar[245]Paul Twitchell[246]1971[246]Sant Mat[246]
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)[121][247][248]Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[249]1920s[249]Sant Mat[249]
Esoteric Nazism[250]
EST (Erhard Seminars Training)[251]Werner Erhard[252]1971[253][254]Human Potential Movement,[255] Self religions[256]
Evangelical Methodist Church[257]J.H. Hamblen[258]1946[258]Non-Episcopal Methodist[258]
Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[259]Sun Myung Moon[259]1994[259]Unification Church[259]
Falun Gong[260]Li Hongzhi[261]1992[261]Taoist[261]
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[121][262][263]David Berg[262]1968[262]Fundamentalist,[262] Jesus movement offshoot,[263] with countercultural and Evangelical beliefs[264]
Fellowship of Isis[265]Olivia Robertson[266]1976[266]Spiritual organization[266]
Feraferia[267]Frederick Adams[267]1967[267]Neopagan, Goddess[267]
Findhorn Foundation[268]Eileen Caddy; Peter Caddy; Alexis Edwards; Roger Benson[269]1963[269]Christian-Anthroposophistical-Rosicrucian[269]
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[268]W.E. Fuller[270]1898[270]Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[270]
Followers of Christ[271]Marion Reece (or Riess)[271][272]late 19th century[271]Unclassified[271] Pentecostal [272]
Foundation for A Course In Miracles[273]Kenneth and Gloria Wapnick[274]1983[274]Christian Science-Metaphysical; New Thought[274]
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[275]Paschal Beverly Randolph[276]1858[276]Rosicrucianism[276]
Freedomites[277]
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[278]Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood)1967[278]Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity[279]
General Church of the New Jerusalem[280]schism[281]1890[281]Swedenborgianism[281]
Ghost Dance[282]
Global Peace Foundation[283]Hyun Jin Moon[284]2007[283]Unification Church[283]
Grail Movement[285]Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[286]1924[286]Spiritualist, Psychic and New Age; Channeling[286]
Hanuman Foundation[287]Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[288]1980[289]Hinduism[289]
Heaven's Gate[290]Marshall Herff Applewhite; Bonnie Lu Nettles[290]1973[290]New Age, UFO[290]
Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[291]Swami Rama[292]1971[292]Hinduism[292]
I AM Activity[168]Guy Ballard[293]I AM Groups; Ascended Masters[293]
Independent Fundamental Churches of America[294]R. Lee Kirkland[295]1922[295]Unaffiliated Fundamentalist[295]
Insight Meditation Society[296]Jack Kornfield, Sharon Salzberg, Joseph Goldstein[297]1976[297]Theravada Buddhism[297]
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[275]Aimee Semple McPherson[298]1923[298]White Trinitarian Pentecostal[298]
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[299]Eugene Douglas Savoy[299]1972[299]New Age Occultist[299]
International Society for Krishna Consciousness[300]Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta[301]mid-1960s[301]Hinduism[301]
Jediism[302]2000s[302]Star Wars-inspired New Age[302]
Jehovah's Witnesses[303]Charles Taze Russell[304]1870[304]Adventist; Bible Student Groups[304]
Jesus Army (also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship")[305]Noel Stanton (split from Baptist Union)[306]1977[306]Fundamentalist, Communal [306]
Jesus Movement[305][307]late 1960s[308]Fundamentalist[308]
Jews for Jesus[309]Moishe Rosen[310]1970[310]Fundamentalist Christianity[310]
John Frum[309]1936[310]Syncretistic; Millenarian[310]
Kabbalah Centre[311]Philip Berg[311]1970s[311]New Age[311]
Kemetic Orthodoxy[312]Tamara Siuda[312]1988[312]Kemetic[312]
Kerista[313]John Presmont[314]1956[314]Communal—After 1960[314]
KopimismIsak Gerson2012Internet religion
Konkokyo[315]Bunjiro Kawate[316]1859[316]Shintoism[316]
Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[315]Amrit Desai[317]1966[317]Hinduism[317]
Lama Foundation[318]Steve Durkee[319]1967[319]Communal—After 1960[319]
Latter Rain Movement[320]schism led by George Hawtin and Percy Hunt[321]1946[321]Millenarian Pentecostal[321]
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[320]Paul S. L. Johnson[322]c. 1920[322]Adventist; Bible Student Groups[322]
Lectorium Rosicrucianum[323]1924[324]Rosicrucianism[324]
The Living Word Fellowship[325]John Robert Stevens[326]1951[326]Latter Rain Pentecostals[326]
Local Church movement[327]Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)[328]1920s[328]Independent Fundamentalist; Other Bible Students[328]
Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel[329]Paul Erdman[330]1969[330]Communal[330]
Lucis Trust[331]Alice A. Bailey[332]1923[332]Occultist; Theosophical[332]
Madkhalism[333][334]Rabee Al-Madkhali[335][336]early 1990s[337][338][339]Islam[340][341]
Mahikari[342]Kotama Okada[343]1959[343]Shintoism[343]
Maranatha Campus Ministries[344]Bob Weiner[345]1972[345]Pentecostalism[345]
Mazdaznan[346]Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[347]1902[347]Zoroastrianism[347]
Meher Baba followers[248]Merwan Sheriar Irani[347]1921[347]Hindu-inspired[347]
Messianic Judaism[348]
Million Man March[349]Louis Farrakhan[349]1995[349]Nation of Islam[349]
Mita Congregation[350]Juanita García Peraza[92]1940[92]Deliverance Pentecostal[92]
Monastic Order of Avallon[351]Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han[351]1972[351]Neo-pagan[351]
Moody Church[350]Dwight L. Moody[352]1864[352]Fundamentalist and Evangelical Churches[352]
Moorish Science Temple of America[353]Timothy Drew[354]1925[354]Black Islam[354]
Moral Re-Armament[355]Frank N. D. Buchman[356]1921[356]
Latter Day Saint movement[357]Joseph Smith, Jr.[358]1830[358]Latter Day Saint movement; Mormonism;
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[359]John-Roger Hinkins[56]1971[56]Sant Mat[56]
Namdhari[360]Balak Singh[361]mid-19th century[361]Sikhism[361]
Nation of Islam[362]Elijah Muhammad[363]mid-1930s[363]Black Muslims[363]
Nation of Yahweh[364][365]Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[366]1970s[366]Black Judaism[366]
National Spiritualist Association of Churches[367]Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond[368]1893[368]Spiritualism[368]
Native American Church[369]1906[370]Entheogen Groups[370]
New Apostolic Church[371]Heinrich Geyer[372]1863[372]Unclassified Christian Churches[372]
New Kadampa Tradition[373]Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[374]mid-1970s[374]Tibetan Buddhism[374]
The New Message from God[375][376][377]Marshall Vian Summers1992[378]
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[379]1969[380]Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[380]
New Thought[381]Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[382]mid-19th century[382]Metaphysical[382]
Oahspe Faithists[383]John Ballou Newbrough1882UFO-Christian
Odinism[384]Orestes Brownson[384]1848 [384]Neo-paganism[384]
Oomoto[385]Mrs. Nao Deguchi[386]1899[386]Millenarian Shintoism[386]
Open Bible Standard Churches[387]merger[388]1935[388]White Trinitarian Pentecostals[388]
Opus Dei[121][389][390][391][392][393][394]Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[389]1928[389]Roman Catholic[389]
Ordo Templi Orientis[395]Carl Kellner;[395][396] Theodor Reuss[396]1895;[395] 1906[396]Thelema[396]
Pentecostal Church of God[397]1919[398]Pentecostalism[398]
Pentecostalism[399]
Peoples Temple[400][401]Jim Jones[402]1955[402]Other Psychic, New Age Groups[402]
Philosophical Research Society[403]Manly Palmer Hall[404]1934[404]Occult Orders[404]
Pilgrims of Arès[405]Michel Potay[405]1974[405]
Plymouth Brethren[406][407]John Nelson Darby[408]1830[408]Millenarian[408]
Potter's House also known as Chritian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[288]Wayman Mitchell[288]1970[288]Pentecostalism[288]
Radha Soami Satsang Beas[409]Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[410]1861[410]Sant Mat[410]
Raëlism[409]Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[411]1973[411]Flying Saucer Groups[411]
Rainbow Family[412]Barry Adams[413]late-1960s[413]Communal—After 1960[413]
Rajneesh movement[414]Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[415]1966[415]Eastern Family[415]
Ramtha[416]J. Z. Knight[417]1977[418]New Age[416]
Rastafari[419][420]Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[421]1935[421]Black Judaism[421]
Reformed Druids of North America[422]1960s[423]Neo-Paganism[423]
Religious Science[424]Ernest Holmes[425]1948[425]New Thought[425]
Risshō Kōsei Kai[426]Nikkyo Niwano and Myoko Naganuma[427]1938 [427]Nichiren Buddhist[427]
Rosicrucian Fellowship[428]Carl Louis von Grasshof[429]1909[429]Rosicrucianism[429]
Sacred Name Movement[430]Clarence Orvil Dodd1930sAdventist; Church of God (Seventh-Day);
Sahaja Yoga[431]Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[432]1970[432]Hinduism[432]
Saiva Siddhanta Church[430]Subramuniy[432]1957[432]Hinduism[432]
The Salvation Army[433]William Booth[434]1865[434]Nineteenth Century Holiness[434]
Sant Nirankari Mission[435]Baba Buta Singh Ji1929Sikhism
Scientology[121][436][437][438]L. Ron Hubbard[439]1955[439]Other Psychic, New Age Groups[439]
Self-Realization Fellowship[440]Paramahansa Yogananda[441]1935[441]Hinduism[441]
Semitic Neopaganism[442]Raphael Patai[442]1960s[442]Neo-paganism, Feminism[442]
Seventh-day Adventist Church[443]Ellen G. White[444]1860[444]Seventh Day Adventists[444]
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[445]schism[446]1925[446]Seventh Day Adventists[446]
Shakers[447]Ann Lee[448]1750s[448]Communal—Before 1960[448]
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[449]Victor T. Houteff[450]1935[450]Seventh Day Adventists[450]
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[451]John J. Higgins, Jr.[452]1969[452]Communal—After 1960[452]
Shinnyo-en[453]Shinjo Ito and Tomoji Ito[454]1936[454]Japanese Buddhism[454]
Shinreikyo[451]Kanichi Otsuka[343]post–World War II[343]Shintoism[343]
Shri Ram Chandra Mission[455]Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[455]1945[455]Hinduism[455]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[456]Kuppuswami Iyer[457]1935[457]Hinduism[457]
Soka Gakkai International[458][459]Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[460]1930[460]Nichiren Buddhism[460]
Subud[461]Muhammed Subuh[462]1933[462]Sufism[462]
Sufi Ruhaniat International[461]Samuel L. Lewis[463]1968[463]Sufism[463]
Sukyo Mahikari[214]Sekiguchi Sakae[464]1978[464]Mahikari Syncretistic[464]
Summum[214]Claude Rex Nowell[465]1975[465]Unclassified Christian Churches[465]
Tenrikyo[466]Miki Nakayama[467]1838[467]Shintoism[467]
Tolstoyan primitivism[468]Leo Tolstoy[468]1901[468]Christian anarchism, Pacifism[468]
Toronto Blessing[469]Randy Clark[470]1994[470]Pentecostalism[470]
Transcendental Meditation[471]Brahmananda Saraswati (Guru Dev), Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[472]1958[472]Hinduism[472]
True Buddha School[473]Lu Sheng-yen[473]Late 1980sTibetan Buddhism/Taoism[473]
Twelve Tribes[474]Gene and Marsha Spriggs[475]1972[475]Communal—After 1960[475]
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[476]William Irvine[477]1897[478]Independent fundamentalist family[479]
Umbanda[480]Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[481]1920[481]Spiritism[481]
Unification Church[482]Sun Myung Moon[483]1954[483]Unification Church[483]
Unitarian Universalism [484]consolidation[485]1961[485]Unitarian Universalism[485]
United Holy Church of America[486]Isaac Cheshier[487]1900[487]Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[487]
United House of Prayer for All People[488]Marcelino Manoel de Graca[489]1925[489]African American Pentecostal[489]
United Israel World Union[490]David Horowitz[491]1944[491]Other Jewish Groups[491]
United Lodge of Theosophists[492]Robert Crosbie[493]1909[493]Theosophy[493]
United Pentecostal Church International[494]merger[495]1945[495]Apostolic Pentecostals[495]
Unity Church[496]Charles Fillmore[497]1903[497]New Thought[497]
Universal Great Brotherhood[498]Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[499]late 1940s[499]Other Theosophical Groups[499]
Universal Life Church[500]Kirby Hensley[501]1962[501]Liberal Family[501]
Universal White Brotherhood[502]Peter Deunov[503]1900[503]Other Theosophical Groups[503]
Urantia Foundation[504]William S. Sadler[504]1934[504]UFO,[504] Spiritualist, Psychic, New Age[505] and Christian occultist[506]
Vajradhatu[507]Chögyam Trungpa[508]1973[508]Tibetan Buddhism[508]
Vale do Amanhecer[509]Tia Neiva[509]1959[509]Spiritualism[509]
Vedanta Society[510]Swami Vivekananda[511]1894[511]Hinduism[511]
Volunteers of America[98]Ballington Booth and Maud Booth[512]1896[512]Nineteenth Century Holiness[512]
The Way International[513]Victor Paul Wierwille[514]1942[514]Independent fundamentalist family[514]
White Eagle Lodge[515]Lady Elizabeth Carey[516]1943[516]Other Theosophical Groups[516]
Wicca[517]Gerald Gardner[518]c. 1949[518]Occultist[518]
Women's Federation for World Peace[519]Hak Ja Han[519]1992[519]Unification Church[519]
The Word Foundation[520]Harold W. Percival[521]c. 1904[521]Theosophy[521]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Brink 2008, p. 320.
  2. ^ See:
  3. ^ Coney 1998.
  4. ^ Barker 1999.
  5. ^ *Beckford 1987, pp. vii–xv.
  6. ^ Introvigne 2001.
  7. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 131.
  8. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 162.
  9. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 25-28.
  10. ^ a b c d Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 146.
  11. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 28.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Melton 2003, p. 707.
  13. ^ a b c d Hakl 2010.
  14. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 28–29.
  15. ^ a b c d Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 3.
  16. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 25-26.
  17. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 29–31.
  18. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 26.
  19. ^ a b Omoyajowo 1995, pp. xv, 113.
  20. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 26–27.
  21. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 31.
  22. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 934.
  23. ^ a b Lewis 1998, p. 32.
  24. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 764.
  25. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 6.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 876.
  27. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 27–28.
  28. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 32–33.
  29. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 985.
  30. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 7.
  31. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 28–29.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 517.
  33. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 29.
  34. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 33–34.
  35. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 13.
  36. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 34–35.
  37. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 9.
  38. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 35.
  39. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 35–36.
  40. ^ a b Melton 2003, p. 1116.
  41. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 36.
  42. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1102.
  43. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 37-38.
  44. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 309.
  45. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 38.
  46. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 11.
  47. ^ Chryssides 1999, p. 370
  48. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 30–31.
  49. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 41.
  50. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1001.
  51. ^ a b Lewis 1998, p. 43.
  52. ^ a b Melton 2003, p. 1142.
  53. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 31.
  54. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 42–43.
  55. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 841.
  56. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 1054.
  57. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 13.
  58. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 43-44.
  59. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 651.
  60. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 44.
  61. ^ a b c Melton 2003, pp. 986–987.
  62. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 33–34.
  63. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 44–47.
  64. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 20.
  65. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 47.
  66. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 241.
  67. ^ a b c d Beit-Hallahmi 1993.
  68. ^ a b Lewis 1998, pp. 47–48.
  69. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 548.
  70. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 15.
  71. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 23.
  72. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 48.
  73. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 464.
  74. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 16.
  75. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 465.
  76. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 38.
  77. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 857.
  78. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 17.
  79. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 38–39.
  80. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 971.
  81. ^ a b c d e f g Melton 2003, p. 1004.
  82. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 18.
  83. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 40–41.
  84. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 91.
  85. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 654.
  86. ^ a b c d Strmiska and Sigurvinsson 2005, pp. 127–180.
  87. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 41–42.
  88. ^ a b c Clark 1949, p. 106.
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i Melton 2003, p. 466.
  90. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 19.
  91. ^ a b Chryssides 2001, p. 42.
  92. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 462.
  93. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 21.
  94. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1131.
  95. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 30.
  96. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 42–43.
  97. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 31.
  98. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 316.
  99. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 446.
  100. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 23.
  101. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 44–45.
  102. ^ Partridge, 2004, p. 261.
  103. ^ Saliba, 2003, p. 171.
  104. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1073.
  105. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 24.
  106. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 842.
  107. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Iranica 1989, "Babism".
  108. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 25–26.
  109. ^ a b Chryssides 2001, pp. 48–49.
  110. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 992.
  111. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 50–51.
  112. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 972.
  113. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 32.
  114. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 33.
  115. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 370.
  116. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 34.
  117. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 77.
  118. ^ Fort 2014, p. 35.
  119. ^ a b c Fort 2014, p. 1.
  120. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 37.
  121. ^ a b c d e Bhugra 1997, p. 126.
  122. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 56–57.
  123. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1006.
  124. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 38.
  125. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 59.
  126. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 617.
  127. ^ a b c d Nichols 2006, pp. 37–40.
  128. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 60–61.
  129. ^ a b c Bergman (2006), p. 30.
  130. ^ a b c d Melton 2003, pp. 1131–1132.
  131. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 39–40.
  132. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 61–62.
  133. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 63–64.
  134. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 709.
  135. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 269–270.
  136. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 41–42.
  137. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 67–68.
  138. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 891.
  139. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 43–44.
  140. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 68–69.
  141. ^ a b c d e Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 61.
  142. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 44.
  143. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 69–70.
  144. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 45.
  145. ^ a b Chryssides 2001, p. 70.
  146. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 62.
  147. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 72.
  148. ^ a b c Melton 2003, pp. 837–838.
  149. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 73.
  150. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 64.
  151. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 73–74.
  152. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 206, 368.
  153. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 78.
  154. ^ Nichols 2006, p. 70.
  155. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 78–79.
  156. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 80–81.
  157. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 79.
  158. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 65.
  159. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 82–83.
  160. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 479.
  161. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 50.
  162. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 81–82.
  163. ^ Nichols 2006, p. 48.
  164. ^ a b Melton 2003, p. 107.
  165. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 83.
  166. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 70.
  167. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 84.
  168. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 138.
  169. ^ a b Melton 2003, p. 652.
  170. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 86.
  171. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 365.
  172. ^ Beit- Hallahmi 1993, p. 54.
  173. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 86–87.
  174. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 741.
  175. ^ See:
    • Saliba, John A. Understanding New Religious Movements. Rowman Altamira, 2003, p. 26: "The Christian Science-Metaphysical Family. This family, known also as "New Thought" in academic literature, stresses the need to understand the functioning of the human mind in order to achieve the healing of all human ailments."
    • Lewis, James R. Legitimating New Religions. Rutgers University Press, 2003, p. 94: "Groups in the metaphysical (Christian Science–New Thought) tradition ... usually claim to have discovered spiritual laws which, if properly understood and applied, transform and improve the lives of ordinary individuals, much as technology has transformed society."
  176. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 87–88.
  177. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 76.
  178. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 58.
  179. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 88–89.
  180. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 909.
  181. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 911.
  182. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 59.
  183. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 89–90.
  184. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 79.
  185. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 61.
  186. ^ a b Melton 2003, p. 395.
  187. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 62.
  188. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 85.
  189. ^ a b c d Melton 2003, p. 530.
  190. ^ a b c d e Melton 2003, p. 437.
  191. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 63, 65.
  192. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 62–63.
  193. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 438.
  194. ^ Chryssides 2006, pp. 300–301.
  195. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 489.
  196. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 65.
  197. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 653.
  198. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 210-211.
  199. ^ Greer 2003, p. 105-106.
  200. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 210-211.
  201. ^ Greer 2003, p. 105-106.
  202. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 210-211.
  203. ^ Greer 2003, p. 105-106.
  204. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 210-211.
  205. ^ Greer 2003, p. 105-106.
  206. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 91–92.
  207. ^ a b c Clarke 2006, pp. 508–509.
  208. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 92–93.
  209. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 386.
  210. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 93.
  211. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 94, 371.
  212. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 94.
  213. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1120.
  214. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 281.
  215. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 94–95.
  216. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 97.
  217. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 71.
  218. ^ a b c d "In 1955, Reverend Moon established the Collegiate Association for the Research of the Principle (CARP). CARP is now active on many campuses in the United States and has expanded to over eighty nations. This association of students promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view." [1]
  219. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 74.
  220. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 180.
  221. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 951.
  222. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 75.
  223. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 496.
  224. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 96.
  225. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 76.
  226. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 97.
  227. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 943.
  228. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 1.
  229. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 98.
  230. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 104.
  231. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 98.
  232. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 915.
  233. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 99.
  234. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 99.
  235. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 78.
  236. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 99–100.
  237. ^ a b c Robinson 2005.
  238. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 100.
  239. ^ Chryssides 2006, p. 100.
  240. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 103.
  241. ^ a b c d Ambedkar and the Hindu Culture
  242. ^ Van Bruinessen 2007, p. 258.
  243. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 84.
  244. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 916.
  245. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 91.
  246. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1056.
  247. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 85–86.
  248. ^ a b Beckford 2003, p. 156.
  249. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1055.
  250. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, p. 17.
  251. ^ See:
    • Barker 1996, pp. 126-127. "To illustrate rather than to define: among the better-known NRMs are the Brahma Kumaris, the Church of Scientology, the Divine Light Mission (now known as Elan Vital), est (erhard Seminar Training, now known as the Landmark Forum), the Family (originally known as the Children of God), ISKCON (the Hare Krishna), Rajneeshism (now know as Osho International), Sahaja Yoga, the Soka Gakkai, Trandscendental Mediations, the Unification Church (known as the Moonies) and the Way International."
    • Beckford 1987, p. 44. "TM, Erhard Seminars Training (est), and the Rajneesh Foundation are currently the most visible NRMs offering a release service to clients in Western Europe, but a large number of smaller groups are also in operation."
    • Campbell 1999, p. 35. "...the human potential and psychotherapy movements, as well as the more 'life-affirming' New Religious Movements and religions of the self. This was the complex world of the Californian 'psychobabble', of Scientology and est (Erhard Seminars Training, later called Forums Network), of Encounter Groups, meditation techniques and self-help manuals designed to assist individuals 'realise their potential'."
    • Lewis 2004, p. 187. "These two opposing strategies of new religious movements for delivering compensators I will term 'compensation delivery systems' (CDS). The gradual CDS can best be described as religion as a multi-level marketing (MLM) tactic - a term I take from the business world [...] Exemplars of new religious movements with a gradual CDS are Scientology and Erhard Seminar Training in its various manifestations."
    • Saliba 2003, p. 88. "Many of the new religions attract individuals by the promise of peace of mind, spiritual well-being, gratifying experiences, and material success. In so doing they stress their concern for the individual and highlight one's personal worth and self-development. This is especially so in human growth movements such as Scientology, The Forum (previously known as Erhard Seminar Training [EST]), and qualsi-religious encounter groups."
  252. ^ Aupers 2005, p. 193. "The founder of EST, a former member of the Scientology church called Werner Erhard, based the program on a combination of Zen meditation, gestalt therapy, psychosynthesis and management, but the main goal was self-spirituality."
  253. ^ Heelas 1991, p. 167. "And the founder of est (the highly influential seminar training established by Erhard in 1971)..."
  254. ^ Nichols 2006, p. 108.
  255. ^ See"
    • Nelson 1987, p. 177. "Finally his study of EST (Erhard Systems Training) provides an insight into the work of the human potential movement which aims at self realisation."
    • Puttick 2004, p. 406. "est was one of the most successful manifestations of the human potential movement (HPM)..."
    • Nichols 2006, pp. 107–108. "The Forum is an organization characterized as New Age and specifically as human potential."
  256. ^ See:
    • Wallis 1991, p. 171–172. "Although the self-religions, especially those of an est-like variety, are expanding, they are not expanding as fast as they are in the United States."
    • Cresswell 1999, p. 35. "...the human potential and psychotherapy movements, as well as the more 'life-affirming' New Religious Movements and religions of the self. This was the complex world of the Californian 'psychobabble', of Scientology and est (Erhard Seminars Training, later called Forums Network), of Encounter Groups, meditation techniques and self-help manuals designed to assist individuals 'realise their potential'."
    • Ramstedt 2007, p. 6. "How can one find a definition of 'New Age' that will serve to bring so many different features together? One major difficulty in defining 'New Age' is that different writers draw different boundaries. Paul Heelas, for example, includes a significant number of what he calls the 'self religions': groups like Landmark Forum (also known simply as The Forum, formerly est or Erhard Seminar Training) and Programmes Limited (formerly Exegesis). Some writers trace the New Age back to William Blake (1757–1827); others see it as originating in the 'hippie' counter-culture in the USA in the 1960s, while the scholar of the New Age, Wouter Hanegraaff, places it later still, regarding it as beginning in the second half of the 1970s."
  257. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 97.
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  267. ^ a b c d Ellwood 1971.
  268. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 104.
  269. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 138.
  270. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 482.
  271. ^ a b c d Melton 2003, p. 1137.
  272. ^ a b Peters 2008, pp. 186–187.
  273. ^ Lausanne Occasional Papers 1980.
  274. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 751.
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  278. ^ a b Irons 2008, p. 206.
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  282. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 119.
  283. ^ a b c Philippine Daily Inquirer 2008.
  284. ^ Global Leadership Council
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  330. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 216.
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External links[edit]