List of culinary fruits

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Some culinary fruits

This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines. The word "fruit" is used in several different ways.[1] The definition of fruit for these lists is a culinary fruit, i.e. "Any sweet, edible part of a plant that resembles fruit, even if it does not develop from a floral ovary; also used in a technically imprecise sense for some sweet or sweetish vegetables, some of which may resemble a true fruit or are used in cookery as if they were a fruit, for example rhubarb."[2]

Note that many edible plant parts that are true fruits botanically speaking, are not considered culinary fruits. They are classified as vegetables in the culinary sense, (for example: the tomato, cucumber, zucchini, and so on), and hence they do not appear in this list. Similarly, some botanical fruits are classified as nuts (e.g. Brazil nut and various almonds), or staples (e.g. breadfruit), and likewise do not appear here. There also exist many fruits which are edible and palatable but for various reasons have not become popular.

Alphabetical list by common name[edit]

A[edit]

B[edit]

C[edit]

D[edit]

E[edit]

F[edit]

G[edit]

H[edit]

I[edit]

J[edit]

K[edit]

L[edit]

M[edit]

N[edit]

O[edit]

P[edit]

Q[edit]

R[edit]

S[edit]

T[edit]

U[edit]

V[edit]

W[edit]

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

Culinary fruits by climate[edit]

Temperate fruits[edit]

Fruits of temperate climates are almost always borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times.

The pome fruits[edit]

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus[edit]

Other temperate fruits[edit]

Berries[edit]

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular of these that are not true berries:

Rubus[edit]
True berries[edit]

The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

Other berries[edit]

Mediterranean and subtropical fruits[edit]

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean:

Mediterranean natives[edit]

Citrus[edit]

In the important genus Citrus (Rutaceae), some members are tropical, tolerating no frost. All common species of commerce are somewhat hardy:

See also: List of Citrus fruits

Other subtropical fruits[edit]

Tropical fruits[edit]

Tropical fruits grow on plants of all habitats. The only characteristic that they share is an intolerance of frost.

A[edit]

B[edit]

C[edit]

Caimito fruit cut in half. It is native to the lowlands of Central America and the West Indies

D[edit]

E[edit]

G[edit]

H[edit]

I[edit]

J[edit]

K[edit]

L[edit]

M[edit]

N[edit]

O[edit]

P[edit]

R[edit]

S[edit]

T[edit]

U[edit]

V[edit]

W[edit]

X[edit]

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

Culinary fruits by geographical origin[edit]

Fruits of African origin[edit]

LocationAfrica.png

Fruits native to Africa or of African origin:

Fruits of Asian origin[edit]

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Fruits native to Asia or of Asian origin:

Fruits of Latin American origin[edit]

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Fruits native to Latin America or of Latin American origin. Plants are of South American origin, except as noted.

Fruits of North American origin[edit]

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Canada and the United States are home to a surprising number of edible plants, especially berries; however, only three are commercially grown/known on a global scale (grapes, cranberries, and blueberries.) Many of the fruits below are still eaten locally as they have been for centuries and others are generating renewed interest by eco-friendly gardeners (less need for bug control) and chefs of the region alike.

Fruits of Oceanian origin[edit]

LocationOceania.png

Fruits native to Oceania or of Oceanian origin:

Culinary fruits by type of flora[edit]

Rosaceae family[edit]

The family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:

Berries[edit]

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular of these that are not true berries:

The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

Other berries not in Rosaceae or Ericaceae:

Cacti and other succulents[edit]

Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:

Gymnosperms with fruit-like structures[edit]

Only Angiosperms have fruit, a structure that surrounds the seed. Gymnosperms have naked seeds, but some of them have reproductive structures that resemble fruit.[12]

Podocarps[edit]

Podocarps are conifers in the family Podocarpaceae, The seed cones are highly modified and, in some, the seed is surrounded by fleshy scale tissue, resembling a drupe. These berry-like cone scales are eaten by birds which then disperse the seeds in their droppings and the cones can be eaten in many species. Podocarps are either half-hardy or frost tender, depending on species. Many genera are similar in that they have edible "fruits" and often don't have a common name.

Other gymnosperms[edit]

Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae family[edit]

Most gourds and many melons are regarded as culinary vegetables. The following are generally regarded as fruits:

Accessory fruits[edit]

The accessory fruits, seed organs which are not botanically berries at all:

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ See Vegetable#Terminology
  2. ^ See the Wiktionary definition of fruit
  3. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 223
  4. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 229
  5. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas p. 216
  6. ^ a b c The berries of some honeysuckle species (called honeyberries) are edible, others are poisonous
  7. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 217
  8. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 213
  9. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 218
  10. ^ Office of International Affairs (1989). Lost Crops of the Incas. National Academies Press. p. 116. 
  11. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas", p. 218
  12. ^ Gifford, E.M.; Foster, A.S. (1989). Morphology and evolution of vascular plants. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. 

External links[edit]