List of criminal enterprises, gangs and syndicates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a listing of organisations and groups involved in organized crime. Tongs and outlaw motorcycle gangs are not included as they are not necessarily, as such, criminal organisations. Terrorist, militant and paramilitary groups are mentioned if they are involved in this activity for funding, but since their stated aim is ideological and not commercial they should not be considered as mafia-type groups. See also Allegations of CIA drug trafficking and Service d'Intelligence National

In several drug-producing or transit countries, drug traffickers have taken advantage of local corruption and lack of law enforcement to establish cartels turning in millions if not billions of dollars each year. Sometimes if government enforcement is particularly poor, the cartels become quasi-paramilitary organizations.

Latin America[edit]

See also Manuel Noriega's narcokleptocracy

Asia[edit]

See also Manchukuo state drug trafficking

Organized crime in America[edit]

See also Drug cartel, The Order, Rampart scandal and Key West PD corruption

American Mafia[edit]

Italian immigrants to the United States in the early 20th century formed various small-time gangs which gradually evolved into sophisticated crime syndicates which dominated organized crime in America for several decades. Although government crackdowns and a less-tightly knit Italian-American community have largely reduced their power, they remain an active force in the underworld.

Active crime families[edit]

Defunct mafia families[edit]

Canadian mafia families[edit]

Jewish mafia[edit]

African-American organized crime[edit]

Irish Mob[edit]

European crime syndicates[edit]

Italian organized crime[edit]

Organized crime in Italy, especially the south, has existed for hundreds of years and has given rise to a number of notorious organizations with their own traditions and subculture which have managed to infiltrate almost every part of Italian society.[40] The Italian mafia is often thought of as being the archetype for organized crime worldwide.

Balkan organized crime[edit]

Balkan organized crime gained prominence in the chaos following the communist era, notably the transition to capitalism and the wars in former Yugoslavia.

British organised crime "firms"[edit]

see also Irish Republican paramilitaries and Ulster loyalist groups

Post-Soviet organized crime[edit]

Although organized crime existed in the Soviet era, the gangs really gained in power and international reach during the transition to capitalism. The term Russian Mafia, 'mafiya' or mob is a blanket (and somewhat inaccurate) term for the various organized crime groups that emerged in this period from the 15 former republics of the USSR and unlike their Italian counterparts does not mean members are necessarily of Russian ethnicity or uphold any ancient criminal traditions, although this is the case for some members.

Asian organized crime groups[edit]

See also Room 39 and Kenji Doihara's criminal network

Yakuza organizations[edit]

The yakuza of Japan are similar to the Italian mafias in they originated centuries ago and follow a rigid set of traditions, but have several aspects that make them unique, such as their full-body tattoos and their fairly open place in Japanese society. Many yakuza groups are umbrella organizations, smaller gangs reporting to a larger crime syndicate.

Active yakuza groups[edit]

Defunct yakuza groups[edit]

Triads and other Chinese criminal organizations[edit]

See also Tongs and Tiandihui Tong Wars

[Help with translations!]

The Triads is a popular name for a number of Chinese criminal secret societies, which have existed in various forms over the centuries (see for example Tiandihui). However not all Chinese gangs fall into line with these traditional groups, as many non-traditional criminal organizations have formed, both in China and the Chinese diaspora.

Triads

Southeast Asian criminal organizations[edit]

South Asian criminal organizations[edit]

Middle Eastern organized crime[edit]

See also Free Syrian Army,[71] Shabeeha,[72] al-Qaeda in Iraq, Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb, Al-Mulatahemeen Brigade and Abu Nidal Organization

Other crime syndicates[edit]

African criminal organisations[edit]

See also the militia of Osman Ali Atto, Taxi wars in South Africa and blood diamonds

Cybercrime networks[edit]

As society enters the Information Age, certain individuals take advantage of easy flow of information over the Internet to commit online fraud or similar activities. Often the hackers will form a network to better facilitate their activities. On occasion the hackers will be a part of a criminal gang involved in more 'blue collar crime', but this is unusual.

Drug and smuggling rings[edit]

Smuggling is a behavior that has occurred ever since there were laws or a moral code that forbade access to a specific person or object. At the core of any smuggling organization is the economic relationship between supply and demand. From the organization's point of view, the issues are what the consumer wants, and how much the consumer is willing to pay the smuggler or smuggling organization to obtain it.

Prison gangs[edit]

Prisons are a natural meeting place for criminals, and for the purposes of protection from other inmates and business prisoners join gangs. These gangs often develop a large influence outside the prison walls through their networks. Most prison gangs do more than offer simple protection for their members. Most often, prison gangs are responsible for any drug, tobacco or alcohol handling inside correctional facilities. Furthermore, many prison gangs involve themselves in prostitution, assaults, kidnappings and murders. Prison gangs often seek to intimidate the other inmates, pressuring them to relinquish their food and other resources. In addition, prison gangs often exercise a large degree of influence over organized crime in the "free world", larger than their isolation in prison might lead one to expect.

American[edit]

Street gangs[edit]

Youth gangs have often served as a recruiting ground for more organized crime syndicates, where juvenile delinquents grow up to be full-fledged mobsters, as well as providing muscle and other low-key work. Increasingly, especially in the United States and other western countries, street gangs are becoming much more organized in their own right with a hierarchical structure and are fulfilling the role previously taken by traditional organized crime.

American[edit]

African-American[edit]

Asian American[edit]

Hispanic[edit]

Historical[edit]

         A new street gang that goes by the name of hardcore hispanic mob or hhm for short . The hhm resides in san jose and are known smoking marijuana in public . They are a new street gang that started around six months ago in late april 

Other[edit]

Historical[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl Shanty, Frank & Mishra, Patit (2007) Organized crime : from trafficking to terrorism, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-337-8
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Glenny, Misha (2009) McMafia, Vintage Books, ISBN 1-4000-9512-3
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu Newton, Michael (2007) Gangsters Encyclopedia, Anova Books, ISBN 1-84340-402-8
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "DEA History Book, Part 1" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "New York/New Jersey High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Drug Market Analysis 2008 - Drug Trafficking Organizations". Justice.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Chepesiuk, Ron (1999) The war on drugs: an international encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0-87436-985-1
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Schneider, Stephen (2009) Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0-470-83500-1
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Salinger, Lawrence (2005) Encyclopedia of white-collar & corporate crime: A - I, Volume 1 SAGE, ISBN 0-7619-3004-3
  9. ^ a b c d "Paramilitaries' Heirs - Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m STRATFOR Mexico: The Struggle for Balance[dead link]
  11. ^ a b David Francis, Chronicle Foreign Service (2008-03-31). "SFGate Mexican drug cartels move into human smuggling". Articles.sfgate.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  12. ^ a b c Lange, Jason. "Reuters - From spas to banks, Mexico economy rides on drugs". Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  13. ^ "Supreme Court orders arrests of three". Diario Libre. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  14. ^ a b Booth, Martin (2000) The dragon syndicates: the global phenomenon of the Triads Basic Books, ISBN 0-7867-0869-7
  15. ^ Thursday, Feb. 08, 2007 (2007-02-08). "Warlord or Druglord?". Time. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Sifakis, Carl. The Mafia Encyclopedia. New York: Da Capo Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-8160-5694-1
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rockaway, Robert A (2000) But he was good to his mother: the lives and crimes of Jewish gangsters, Gefen Publishing House Ltd, ISBN 965-229-249-4
  18. ^ McGarvey, Brendan. "Pole-Vaulting". Philadelphia City Paper. Citypaper.net. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  19. ^ "Greenpoint Crew Indictment". Justice.gov. 2006-03-08. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Kavieff, Paul (2008) Detroit's Infamous Purple Gang Arcadia Publishing, ISBN 0-7385-5238-0
  21. ^ a b Angle, Paul M (2991) Bloody Williamson: A Chapter in American Lawlessness, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-06233-7
  22. ^ a b Allan MacDonell (2003-10-02). "In Too Deep". LA Times. Laweekly.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  23. ^ a b "National Drug Intelligence Center - Wisconsin Drug Threat Assessment (2001)". Justice.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  24. ^ McGarvey, Brendan. "Buon Natale!". Philadelphia City Paper. Citypaper.net. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  25. ^ "Man Tied to Mafia Guilty on 10 Counts". NY Times. 1992-06-20. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Capeci, Jerry (2002) The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia, Alpha Books, ISBN 0-02-864225-2
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "New Jersey Commission of Investigation Report - Changing face of organized crime" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Chepesiuk, Ron (2007) Gangsters of Harlem: the gritty underworld of New York City's most famous neighborhood, Barricade Books, ISBN 1-56980-318-8
  29. ^ a b c "Meet the Genovese Crime Family's New Boss". NY Sun. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  30. ^ "Queens Father and Son Accused In Illegal Gambling Operation". NY Times. 2002-12-10. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g American Gangster, BET[dead link]
  32. ^ "DEA - News Release: DEA Deals Motor City Mafia a Knock-out Blow". Justice.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Gangland, Discovery Channel
  34. ^ a b c d "New Jersey Commission of Investigation Report - Afro-lineal organized crime" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h English, T.J. Paddy Whacked: The Untold Story of the Irish American Gangster. New York: HarperCollins, 2005, ISBN 0-06-059002-5
  36. ^ a b c d Dagens Nyheter - Ligorna har kopplat greppet om Sverige (Swedish)
  37. ^ a b c Gayraud, Jean-François (2009) Showbiz, people et corruption, Odile Jacob, ISBN 2-7381-2232-9
  38. ^ Charles Bacelon, Max Clos, etc. Histoire du banditisme et des grandes affaires criminelles, Genève : éditions Famot, 1974. OCLC 77615747
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Morton, James Gangland Volume 2: The Underworld in Britain and Ireland, 1995, ISBN 978-0-7515-1406-3
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Roberto Saviano (2006) Gomorrah: Italy's Other Mafia, Mondadori, ISBN 88-04-55450-9.
  41. ^ a b c d Siegel, Dina (2003) Global organized crime: trends and developments, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1818-5
  42. ^ a b c d Ansley, Greg (April 24, 2010). "Aussie gang boss' death points to inside job". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved October 15, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Camorra boss seized in farm raid". BBC News. 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  44. ^ Nick Squires in Rome 10:00PM BST 05 Jul 2010 (2010-07-05). "Mafia gangster tomb reopened to solve 30-year-old mystery". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  45. ^ Cristiano Armati, Italia criminale. Personaggi, fatti e avvenimenti di un'Italia violenta, Newton Compton Editori, 2006 ISBN 978-88-541-1083-0
  46. ^ FBI - Cases - Not your average syndicate[dead link]
  47. ^ Aftenposten - Princ Dobroshi satt fri (Norwegian)
  48. ^ "BBC News - 'Pink Panther' Tokyo heist suspect extradited to Japan". Bbc.co.uk. 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f The Independent- Gun gangs of the capital
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h Thomas, Donald (2006) Villains' paradise: a history of Britain's underworld, Pegasus Books, ISBN 1-933648-17-1
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Varese, Frederico (2005) The Russian mafia: private protection in a new market economy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-927949-7
  52. ^ a b c Schwirtz, Michael (2008-07-30). "The New York Times - In a River Raid, a glimpse of Russia's criminal elite". Russia: Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  53. ^ Gazeta.ru - Лорд Ленин исчез (Russian)
  54. ^ a b c d "Soviet Emigre Mob Outgrows Brooklyn, and Fear Spreads". NY Times. 1989-06-04. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  55. ^ a b c d CBS News/Associated Press - Armenian Organized Crime Grows More Complex[dead link]
  56. ^ "NY Times - Lithuanians Close A Nuclear Reactor After 3 Threats". New York Times. 1994-11-15. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  57. ^ In Moscow's Shadows - Ded Dead: the assassination of Russian crime boss Aslan Usoyan (‘Ded Khasan’)
  58. ^ "FBI — Fifty-Three Defendants Charged in New Jersey in Coordinated Identity Theft and Fraud Takedown". Newark.fbi.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Kaplan, David E. & Dubro, Alec (2003) Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21562-1
  60. ^ 5 Minutes 10 Minutes. "Mayor's assassination sparks new yakuza fears". The Australian. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  61. ^ a b c d "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2008-01-09. Archived from the original on 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  62. ^ a b c http://ited.yingwa.edu.hk/~ywc-031142/right9.html
  63. ^ "Court May Have Slain Black Dragon". Streetgangs.com. 2005-06-21. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  64. ^ "Friends of Ours: Chinese Mafia". Bitterqueen.typepad.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  65. ^ [1][dead link]
  66. ^ [2][dead link]
  67. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2007-01-24. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  68. ^ a b c d "`Mosquito brother' celebrates 90th birthday in style". Taipei Times. 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  69. ^ Ooi, Keat Gin (2004) Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1 ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-770-5
  70. ^ "Cops shoot dead four Mamak Gang members". The Star. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  71. ^ Sherlock, Ruth (2012-09-08). "Syrian rebels use kidnappings to raise funds". Vancouversun.com. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  72. ^ "BBC News - Syria unrest: Who are the shabiha?". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  73. ^ a b c "Keeping tabs on the Turkish connection". BBC News. 2002-11-14. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  74. ^ Rotlicht-Pate muss neun Jahre hinter Gitter (German)
  75. ^ "In Pictures: The World's 10 Most Wanted". Forbes. 2008-04-25. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  76. ^ "'Malign and corrosive' gangsters". BBC News. 2002-05-17. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  77. ^ "London Evening Standard - Yardies at war on our doorsteps". Thisislondon.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  78. ^ Writer, Larry (2009) Razor: Tilly Devine, Kate Leigh and the Razor Gangs Pan Macmillan Australia Pty, ISBN 1-4050-3951-5
  79. ^ a b Small, Clive & Gilling, Tom (2010) Smack Express: How Organized Crime Got Hooked on Drugs, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-74237-208-2
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Kinnear, Karen L (2009) Gangs: a reference handbook, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-59884-125-4
  81. ^ a b "The Observer - Four million Britons have fallen victim to identity fraud. Are you next?". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  82. ^ "FBI — International Cooperation Disrupts Multi-Country Cyber Theft Ring". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  83. ^ a b c d Gundert, Levi. "The State of Cybercrimes". Freedom From Fear Magazine. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  84. ^ "Spamhaus Profile". Spamhaus.org. 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  85. ^ "FBI — International Effort Defeats Major Hacking Ring". Atlanta.fbi.gov. 2009-11-10. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  86. ^ a b "Tru-tv Crime Library - "The Company" Drug Smuggling Ring". Trutv.com. 1978-11-21. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  87. ^ Ferchland, William (2002-08-23). "Drug smuggler's money goes to agencies". Tahoe Daily Tribune. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  88. ^ Extra Cheese: Busting a pizza connection, Time Magazine, April 23, 1984
  89. ^ The Sicilian Connection, Time Magazine, October 15, 1984
  90. ^ "From Women's League to Chains". NY Times. 1989-12-20. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  91. ^ a b Lansberry, Frederick (2001) Government and politics in Kent, 1640-1914, Boydell & Brewer, ISBN 0-85115-586-3
  92. ^ "BBC News - Rhys Ifans as ex-drug baron Howard Marks on screen". Bbc.co.uk. 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  93. ^ Mozgovaya, Natasha (2008-04-02). "U.S. Professor: I told FBI about kidney trafficking 7 years ago - Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  94. ^ "Top U.S. Customs/FBI Fugitive Caught in Venezuala [sic]". CBP.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  95. ^ a b c Kemp, Ross (2008) Gangs, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-103225-2
  96. ^ a b c d e f National Gang Threat Assessment 2009 - Appendix C - Prison gangs[dead link]
  97. ^ a b Dan Glaister in Los Angeles. "Death penalty urged for Aryan Brotherhood gang". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  98. ^ "Department of Justice Press Release - Founding Member of White Supremacist Prison Gang European Kindred (EK) Sentenced to 90 Months in Federal Prison". Portland.fbi.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  99. ^ Robert Walker (2011-12-30). "New Mexico Syndicate Prison Gang". Gangsorus.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  100. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Will County Sheriff's Office - Gang Supression Unit". Willcosheriff.org. 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  101. ^ "French 'Barbarian' killer jailed". BBC News. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  102. ^ a b Tom Phillips in Rio de Janeiro. "The Observer - Twelve dead and helicopter downed as Rio de Janeiro drug gangs go to war". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  103. ^ a b c d e f g h "LAPD Online - Gang Injunctions". Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  104. ^ 5 Minutes 10 Minutes. [http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/a-town -like-wadeye/story-e6frg8h6-1111114787006 "A town like Wadeye"]. The Australian. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  105. ^ "Sydney Morning Herald - Assyrian gang leader linked to murder". Smh.com.au. 2006-04-11. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  106. ^ "The West Australian - Sword Boys link to gym shooting". Au.news.yahoo.com. 2009-09-26. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  107. ^ a b c Vancouver Sun - Killer to testify at Surrey Six trial[dead link]
  108. ^ Anna Mehler Paperny. "Toronto gangs smaller, looser – but packing more heat". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  109. ^ a b c Betsy Powell Courts Bureau (2010-05-05). "Street gangs still thriving despite big busts". thestar.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  110. ^ a b c "Raid exposes international crime group". thestar.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  111. ^ "Suspects charged after raid appear in T.O. court | Toronto". Toronto.ctvnews.ca. 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  112. ^ "Toronto police arrest 9 in gang-related raids - Toronto - CBC News". Cbc.ca. 2007-01-25. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  113. ^ a b "Gangs turn to the Web to boast, threaten and recruit". thestar.com. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  114. ^ "Toronto police arrest 65 alleged gang members - Canada - CBC News". Cbc.ca. 2004-05-13. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  115. ^ "Project Pathfinder nets more arrests :: Toronto Police Service :: To Serve and Protect". Torontopolice.on.ca. 2004-03-03. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  116. ^ "Highly publicized 2005 gang sweep nets few convictions - Toronto - CBC News". Cbc.ca. 2008-04-07. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  117. ^ "Ardwick flickers, then burns out :: Toronto Police Service :: To Serve and Protect". Torontopolice.on.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  118. ^ Betsy Powell Courts Bureau. "Jamestown Crip gang member jailed for killing innocent man". thestar.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  119. ^ a b "Street gangs on the rise". TheSpec. 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  120. ^ "Police nab leader, drugs in bid to break gang". TheSpec. 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  121. ^ "Escalating violence". TheSpec. 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  122. ^ Paul Morse The Hamilton Spectator. "Criminal enterprise". thestar.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  123. ^ Danielle Wong (2011-10-24). "Pre-dawn gunfire at east end home linked to street". TheSpec. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  124. ^ "Police 'missed' prisoner's handgun". TheSpec. 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  125. ^ "Repeat violator gets prison". TheSpec. 2008-03-14. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  126. ^ "Montreal street gang prowled Niagara". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  127. ^ a b "Montreal's streets turn mean; Local street gangs 'graduate' to drug trafficking, pimping". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  128. ^ a b c Gazette, The (2007-06-20). "Cops bust drug trafficking ring in Montreal prison". Canada.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  129. ^ Sidhartha Banerjee (2010-03-22). "A dangerous man with even more dangerous connections". TheSpec. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  130. ^ "CBC News - Police report traces violent trajectory of Winnipeg gang". Cbc.ca. 2010-01-21. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  131. ^ "CTV - Police arrest 51 alleged gang members in Ontario". Ctv.ca. 2001-10-19. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  132. ^ Simon Hattenstone. "The Guardian - Looking for troubles". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  133. ^ a b c Published on Saturday 31 October 2009 18:47 (2009-10-31). "Hitting violent street gangs where it hurts". Scotland on Sunday. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  134. ^ a b The Copenhagen Post - Prisons under pressure to evenly distribute gangs[dead link]
  135. ^ Eksner, Julia H (2007) Ghetto ideologies, youth identities and stylized Turkish German: Turkish youths in Berlin-Kreuzberg LIT Verlag Münster, ISBN 3-8258-8841-X
  136. ^ a b c By JAMES WILLWERTH Sunday, June 24, 2001 (2001-06-24). "TIME Magazine - From Killing Fields to Mean Streets". Time.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  137. ^ Page 2 of 2 (2007-02-19). "ABC News - Mean Streets: Gangs Going Digital". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  138. ^ POSTED: 12:29 pm CST November 18, 2008 (2008-11-18). "Purported Gang Leader Guilty Of Manslaughter". KMBC. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  139. ^ "FBI — Seattle Gang Dismantled". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  140. ^ Mathis, Greg & Walker, Brian S (2002) Inner city miracle Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-345-44642-9
  141. ^ "SAN FRANCISCO / Youths Plead Guilty In Extortion Attempt". Sfgate.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  142. ^ "Man in Blast Linked to Fireworks Gang / He was involved in illegal sales in '80s and '90s, S.F. cops say". Sfgate.com. 1998-05-20. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  143. ^ a b c d e "A MEMOIR" By Bill Lee". "Chinese Playground. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  144. ^ "五花八門大雜燴_黑幫". Cybertranslator.idv.tw. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  145. ^ "Bemboo Tigers". Brockmorris.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  146. ^ a b "The Presence". Brockmorris.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  147. ^ a b "New York City Chinatown > Newspaper Articles". Nychinatown.org. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  148. ^ [3][dead link]
  149. ^ "Deputies Set Free Suspect in Killing In Video Arcade". Sfgate.com. 1999-06-17. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  150. ^ Handbook of organized crime in the United States - Robert J. Kelly, Ko-lin Chin, Rufus Schatzberg - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  151. ^ "This Boy's Life - NAM". News.ncmonline.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  152. ^ "Fireworks". Brockmorris.com. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  153. ^ http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/ChineseOrgCrime.pdf
  154. ^ "SAN FRANCISCO / Man Who Was Mistakenly Freed Is Rearrested". Sfgate.com. 1999-08-04. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  155. ^ "Fifth Chinese restaurant attacked". smh.com.au. 2002-06-20. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  156. ^ Melissa Lane (2005-04-27). "Gang Today, Hair Tomorrow - Page 1 - News - San Francisco". SF Weekly. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  157. ^ "Tong Leader In Chinatown Is Convicted - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1995-01-18. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  158. ^ Leo, John (1985-07-08). "Law: Parasites on Their Own People". TIME. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  159. ^ "LA Times - L.A., Glendale unite to fight gang". Articles.latimes.com. 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  160. ^ http://www.atf.gov/most-wanted/wanted-posters/martinez--miguel.pdf
  161. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Asbury, Herbert The Gangs of New York. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1927, ISBN 1-56025-275-8
  162. ^ Ahmed, Mohamed. "Somali sea gangs lure investors at pirate lair". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  163. ^ "ESPN - Falcons' Vick indicted by grand jury in dogfighting probe". Sports.espn.go.com. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  164. ^ Smith, Jeff (2009). Alias Soapy Smith: The Life and Death of a Scoundrel, Klondike Research. ISBN 0-9819743-0-9
  165. ^ "Philadelphia's Poison Ring". Tru TV. 1938-10-27. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  166. ^ Vincent, Isabel (2007) Bodies and Souls: The Tragic Plight of Three Jewish Women Forced Into Prostitution in the Americas Random House of Canada, ISBN 0-679-31163-7