List of counties in Michigan

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A map of Michigan showing its divisions into 83 counties. Each county is labeled with two letters. There is a smaller map of the United States in the bottom left corner with Michigan highlighted.
Location of Michigan in the United States

There are 83 counties in the U.S. state of Michigan. The boundaries of these counties have not changed substantially since 1897. However, throughout the 19th century, the state legislature frequently adjusted county boundaries. County creation was intended to fulfill the goal of establishing government over unorganized territory, but a more important goal was encouraging settlement by surveying the land and dividing it into salable sections.

The creation of counties generally occurred in two stages. First the boundaries of a county were declared and given a name. The county appeared on maps, even though this may have been the entire extent of a county's tangible existence for several years. During this period, the as-yet–unorganized county was attached to another already organized county for administrative purposes. The legislature frequently changed the administrative attachment of these unorganized counties. Residents of such an attached county could petition the legislature for organization, which was the granting of full legal recognition to the county.

There are many cities and villages that span county boundaries in Michigan, including its capital, Lansing. For a few years during the early 1970s, split cities briefly had authority to petition to change the county boundaries to accord with the city boundaries. The only city to take advantage of this brief opportunity was New Baltimore (previously split between Macomb County and St. Clair County; now completely in Macomb). This transfer of territory from St. Clair to Macomb was the only county boundary change in Michigan since the early 20th century.

The state constitution of 1850 permitted an incorporated city with a population of at least 20,000 to be organized into a separate county of its own.[1] The Constitution of 1908 retained this provision, but raised the population threshold to 100,000.[2] No city was ever organized into an independent county in this fashion and when a new Constitution took effect in 1963, the provision was removed.

Michigan's boundary with Illinois is formed by Lake Michigan, and three counties have water boundaries with Illinois: Berrien County, Van Buren County, and Allegan County. Michigan also has a boundary with Minnesota, which is formed by Lake Superior. The water boundary in this instance is formed by two counties: Ontonagon County and Keweenaw County.


Etymologies of Michigan counties by origins

The origin of some names is unclear and credible scholarly sources disagree on the meaning (or intended meaning). The wholesale renaming of Michigan counties in the early 19th century made several cultural and political points.

Nine counties have names invented by the ethnologist Henry Schoolcraft, usually adapted from parts of Native American words, but sometimes having parts from Greek, Arabic and Latin roots.[3] Schoolcraft's made-up words have disputed sources. While he was a devotee of Native American words and culture, some of his words may have originated with tribes from other areas of the country, such as New York or the Northeast, where many settlers to Michigan came from. Real Native words were eradicated, and he substituted made-up words, sometimes with a kernel of Indian language or sound in them.[4][5][6]

A second group of four counties were renamed for Irish locales (counties Antrim, Clare, Roscommon and Wexford), apparently because it was close to the heart for certain Michigan legislators or their constituents.

Ten counties, the so-called "cabinet counties", were named for persons who served in Andrew Jackson's presidential administration, which was tied to Michigan's anticipated ascendancy to statehood. Eight were named in 1829. Livingston County was named in 1833. Cass County was also named in 1829, but Governor Lewis Cass did not become a member of Jackson's Cabinet until 1831.[3][4][7]

List of counties[edit]

FIPS Code[8]County Seat
Alcona County001Harrisville1840 (boundaries declared)
1869 (organised)
From unorganized territory. Was named Negwegon County until 1843.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft10,9421,791 sq mi
(4,639 km2)
State map highlighting Alcona County
Alger County003Munising1885From part of Schoolcraft County.Russell A. Alger, (1836-1907):
Governor of Michigan; Senator; and Secretary of War during the McKinley Administration
9,6015,049 sq mi
(13,077 km2)
State map highlighting Alger County
Allegan County005Allegan1831 (boundaries declared)
1835 (organised)
From part of Barry County and unorganized territory.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft111,4081,833 sq mi
(4,747 km2)
State map highlighting Allegan County
Alpena County007Alpena1840 (boundaries declared)
1857 (organized)
From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory. Was named Anamickee County until 1843.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft29,5981,695 sq mi
(4,390 km2)
State map highlighting Alpena County
Antrim County009Bellaire1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Meegisee County until 1843.County Antrim, Ireland23,598602 sq mi
(1,559 km2)
State map highlighting Antrim County
Arenac County011Standish1831From unorganized territory. Annexed to Bay County in 1857 and reinstated in 1883.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft15,899681 sq mi
(1,764 km2)
State map highlighting Arenac County
Baraga County013L'Anse1875From part of Houghton County.Frederic Baraga (1797-1868): Catholic missionary and first bishop of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie8,8601,069 sq mi
(2,769 km2)
State map highlighting Baraga County
Barry County015Hastings1829From unorganized territory.William T. Barry (1784-1835): Postmaster General in the Jackson Administration59,173577 sq mi
(1,494 km2)
State map highlighting Barry County
Bay County017Bay City1857From parts of Arenac County, Midland County and Saginaw County.Saginaw Bay107,771631 sq mi
(1,634 km2)
State map highlighting Bay County
Benzie County019Beulah1863From part of Leelenau County.French name of Betsie River: (rivière aux) Bec-scies, the "(river of) sawbill ducks"17,525860 sq mi
(2,227 km2)
State map highlighting Benzie County
Berrien County021St. Joseph1829From unorganized territory.John M. Berrien (1781-1856): Attorney General in the Jackson Administration156,8131,581 sq mi
(4,095 km2)
State map highlighting Berrien County
Branch County023Coldwater1829From unorganized territory.John Branch (1782-1863): Secretary of the Navy in the Jackson Administration45,248519 sq mi
(1,344 km2)
State map highlighting Branch County
Calhoun County025Marshall1829From unorganized territory.John C. Calhoun (1782-1850): Vice President of the United States in the Jackson Administration136,146718 sq mi
(1,860 km2)
State map highlighting Calhoun County
Cass County027Cassopolis1829From unorganized territory.Lewis Cass (1782-1866): Secretary of War in the Jackson Administration52,293508 sq mi
(1,316 km2)
State map highlighting Cass County
Charlevoix County029Charlevoix1869From parts of Antrim County, Emmet County and Otsego County.Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix (1682-1761): Jesuit traveller and historian of New France25,9491,391 sq mi
(3,603 km2)
State map highlighting Charlevoix County
Cheboygan County031Cheboygan1840From part of Mackinac County.Cheboygan River26,152885 sq mi
(2,292 km2)
State map highlighting Cheboygan County
Chippewa County033Sault Ste. Marie1827From part of Mackinac County.Ojibwa Native American tribe, also known as the Chippewa38,5202,698 sq mi
(6,988 km2)
State map highlighting Chippewa County
Clare County035Harrison1840From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory. Was named Kaykakee County until 1843.County Clare, Ireland30,926575 sq mi
(1,489 km2)
State map highlighting Clare County
Clinton County037St. Johns1831From unorganized territory.DeWitt Clinton (1769-1828): Governor of New York.75,382575 sq mi
(1,489 km2)
State map highlighting Clinton County
Crawford County039Grayling1840From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory. Was named Shawano County until 1843.William Crawford, (1732-82), American Revolutionary War colonel western surveyor14,074563 sq mi
(1,458 km2)
State map highlighting Crawford County
Delta County041Escanaba1843From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory.Greek letter delta, referring to the triangular shape of the original county, which included segments of Menominee, Dickinson, Iron and Marquette counties37,0691,992 sq mi
(5,159 km2)
State map highlighting Delta County
Dickinson County043Iron Mountain1891From parts of Iron County, Marquette County and Menominee County.Donald M. Dickinson (1846-1917): Postmaster General in the Cleveland Administration26,168777 sq mi
(2,012 km2)
State map highlighting Dickinson County
Eaton County045Charlotte1829From unorganized territory.John Eaton (1790-1856): Secretary of War in the Jackson Administration107,759579 sq mi
(1,500 km2)
State map highlighting Eaton County
Emmet County047Petoskey1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Tonegadana County until 1843.Robert Emmet (1778-1803): Irish nationalist and rebel leader32,694882 sq mi
(2,284 km2)
State map highlighting Emmet County
Genesee County049Flint1835From parts of Lapeer County, Saginaw County and Shiawassee County.Seneca word, "je-nis-hi-yeh," meaning "beautiful valley": named after western New York valley from which many settlers came425,790649 sq mi
(1,681 km2)
State map highlighting Genesee County
Gladwin County051Gladwin1831From unorganized territory.Major Henry Gladwin, British commander of the fort at Detroit during the siege by Chief Pontiac in 1763-64.25,692516 sq mi
(1,336 km2)
State map highlighting Gladwin County
Gogebic County053Bessemer1887From part of Ontonagon County.Probably from the Chippewa "bic" which most references interpret as "rock."16,4271,476 sq mi
(3,823 km2)
State map highlighting Gogebic County
Grand Traverse County055Traverse City1851From part of Omeena County.French grande traverse[note 1] ("long crossing"), given first to Grand Traverse Bay by French voyageurs.86,986601 sq mi
(1,557 km2)
State map highlighting Grand Traverse County
Gratiot County057Ithaca1831From unorganized territory.Captain Charles Gratiot (1788-1855), built Fort Gratiot at the present site of Port Huron42,476572 sq mi
(1,481 km2)
State map highlighting Gratiot County
Hillsdale County059Hillsdale1829From unorganized territory.From its terrain, made up of hills and dales.[10]46,688607 sq mi
(1,572 km2)
State map highlighting Hillsdale County
Houghton County061Houghton1845From parts of Marquette County and Ontonagon County.Dr. Douglass Houghton (1809-1845), first state geologist of Michigan, physician and surgeon, mayor of Detroit (1842-1843)36,6281,502 sq mi
(3,890 km2)
State map highlighting Houghton County
Huron County063Bad Axe1840From part of Sanilac County.Lake Huron, which the French named lac des Hurons after the Hurons.33,1182,136 sq mi
(5,532 km2)
State map highlighting Huron County
Ingham County065Mason1829 (boundaries declared)
1838 (organised)
From parts of Shiawassee County, Washtenaw County and unorganized territory.Samuel D. Ingham (1779-1860), U.S. Secretary of the Treasury in the Jackson Administration280,895561 sq mi
(1,453 km2)
State map highlighting Ingham County
Ionia County067Ionia1831From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory.Province in ancient Greece63,905580 sq mi
(1,502 km2)
State map highlighting Ionia County
Iosco County069Tawas City1840From unorganized territory. Was named Kanotin County until 1843.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft25,8871,891 sq mi
(4,898 km2)
State map highlighting Iosco County
Iron County071Crystal Falls1885From parts of Marquette County and Menominee County.For the iron deposits and mines found in the county11,8171,211 sq mi
(3,136 km2)
State map highlighting Iron County
Isabella County073Mt. Pleasant1831From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory.Queen Isabella I (1451-1504) of Spain, under whose patronage Columbus undertook his voyages.70,311578 sq mi
(1,497 km2)
State map highlighting Isabella County
Jackson County075Jackson1829 (boundaries declared)
1832 (organised)
From part of Washtenaw County and unorganized territory.Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), 7th President of the United States and President when Michigan was admitted to the Union160,248724 sq mi
(1,875 km2)
State map highlighting Jackson County
Kalamazoo County077Kalamazoo1829From unorganized territory.Named for the Kalamazoo River. See Etymology of Kalamazoo for a discussion of the river's name.250,331580 sq mi
(1,502 km2)
State map highlighting Kalamazoo County
Kalkaska County079Kalkaska1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Wabassee County until 1843.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft17,153571 sq mi
(1,479 km2)
State map highlighting Kalkaska County
Kent County081Grand Rapids1831From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory.New York jurist James Kent, who represented the Michigan Territory in its dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip.602,622872 sq mi
(2,258 km2)
State map highlighting Kent County
Keweenaw County083Eagle River1861From part of Houghton County.Ojibwe word gakiiwe-wewaning meaning "portage"2,1565,966 sq mi
(15,452 km2)
State map highlighting Keweenaw County
Lake County085Baldwin1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Aischum County until 1843.Has several small lakes and lies near Lake Michigan11,539575 sq mi
(1,489 km2)
State map highlighting Lake County
Lapeer County087Lapeer1822From parts of Oakland County and St. Clair County.An Americanization of the French la pierre, meaning "the flint"88,319663 sq mi
(1,717 km2)
State map highlighting Lapeer County
Leelanau County089Suttons Bay Township1840From part of Mackinac County.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft21,7082,532 sq mi
(6,558 km2)
State map highlighting Leelanau County
Lenawee County091Adrian1822From part of Monroe County.A Henry Schoolcraft neologism signifying a Native American word for man, either from the Delaware leno or lenno or the Shawnee lenawai99,892761 sq mi
(1,971 km2)
State map highlighting Lenawee County
Livingston County093Howell1833 (boundaries declared)
1836 (organised)
From parts of Shiawassee County and Washtenaw County.Edward Livingston (1764-1836): second Secretary of State in the Andrew Jackson administration180,967585 sq mi
(1,515 km2)
State map highlighting Livingston County
Luce County095Newberry1887From parts of Chippewa County and Mackinac County.Named for Michigan Governor Cyrus G. Luce6,6311,912 sq mi
(4,952 km2)
State map highlighting Luce County
Mackinac County097St. Ignace1818From part of Wayne County. Was named Michilimackinac County until 1837.Originally Michilimackinac, believed to be a French interpretation of the Native American name for the place11,1132,101 sq mi
(5,442 km2)
State map highlighting Mackinac County
Macomb County099Mt. Clemens1818From part of Wayne County.Named for U.S. General Alexander Macomb, a notable officer of the War of 1812840,978570 sq mi
(1,476 km2)
State map highlighting Macomb County
Manistee County101Manistee1840From part of Mackinac County.Named for the Manistee River, which in turn is from the Ojibwe name, ministigweyaa meaning "(river) at whose mouth there are islands"24,7331,281 sq mi
(3,318 km2)
State map highlighting Manistee County
Marquette County103Marquette1843From parts of Chippewa County and Mackinac County.Named for French Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette67,0773,425 sq mi
(8,871 km2)
State map highlighting Marquette County
Mason County105Ludington1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Notipekago County until 1843.Named for Michigan Governor Stevens T. Mason28,7051,242 sq mi
(3,217 km2)
State map highlighting Mason County
Mecosta County107Big Rapids1840From parts of Mackinac County and Oceana County.Named for Mecosta, a Native American leader42,798571 sq mi
(1,479 km2)
State map highlighting Mecosta County
Menominee County109Menominee1861From part of Delta County. Was named Bleeker County until 1863.Named for the Menominee Native American people24,0291,338 sq mi
(3,465 km2)
State map highlighting Menominee County
Midland County111Midland1831From part of Saginaw County and unorganized territory.Located near the geographical center of the Lower Peninsula83,629528 sq mi
(1,368 km2)
State map highlighting Midland County
Missaukee County113Lake City1840From part of Mackinac County.Named for Missaukee, an Ottawa leader who signed land-grant treaties in 1831 and 183314,849574 sq mi
(1,487 km2)
State map highlighting Missaukee County
Monroe County115Monroe1817From part of Wayne County.Named for James Monroe, the fifth U.S. President152,021680 sq mi
(1,761 km2)
State map highlighting Monroe County
Montcalm County117Stanton1831From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory.Named for the Marquis de Montcalm, a French military commander in Quebec63,342721 sq mi
(1,867 km2)
State map highlighting Montcalm County
Montmorency County119Atlanta1840From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory. Was named Cheonoquet County until 1843.House of Montmorency, influential in the history of French Canada9,765562 sq mi
(1,456 km2)
State map highlighting Montmorency County
Muskegon County121Muskegon1859From parts of Oceana County and Ottawa County.Muskegon River running through county, from the Ojibwa/Chippewa word mashkig meaning "swamp" or "marsh."172,1881,459 sq mi
(3,779 km2)
State map highlighting Muskegon County
Newaygo County123White Cloud1840From parts of Mackinac County and Oceana County.Named for a Chippewa leader who signed the Saginaw Treaty of 1819[11]48,460861 sq mi
(2,230 km2)
State map highlighting Newaygo County
Oakland County125Pontiac1819 (boundaries declared)
1820 (organized)
From part of Macomb County.The numerous "oak openings" in the area: "majestic orchard[s] of oaks and hickories varied by small prairies, grassy lawns and clear lakes"[12]1,202,362908 sq mi
(2,352 km2)
State map highlighting Oakland County
Oceana County127Hart1831From part of Mackinac County.Borders Lake Michigan, the freshwater "ocean."26,5701,307 sq mi
(3,385 km2)
State map highlighting Oceana County
Ogemaw County129West Branch1840From unorganized territory. Annexed to Iosco County in 1867 and reinstated in 1873.The Ojibwe word ogimaa, meaning "chief" or "leader"21,699575 sq mi
(1,489 km2)
State map highlighting Ogemaw County
Ontonagon County131Ontonagon1843From parts of Chippewa County and Mackinac County.Named for the Ontonagon River. The Ojibwa word onagon means "dish" or "bowl."6,7803,741 sq mi
(9,689 km2)
State map highlighting Ontonagon County
Osceola County133Reed City1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Unwattin County until 1843.Osceola (1804-1838), Seminole chief23,528573 sq mi
(1,484 km2)
State map highlighting Osceola County
Oscoda County135Mio1840From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft8,640572 sq mi
(1,481 km2)
State map highlighting Oscoda County
Otsego County137Gaylord1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Okkudo County until 1843.Named for Otsego County, New York24,164526 sq mi
(1,362 km2)
State map highlighting Otsego County
Ottawa County139Grand Haven1831From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory.Named for the Native American Ottawa people.263,8011,632 sq mi
(4,227 km2)
State map highlighting Ottawa County
Presque Isle County141Rogers City1840From part of Mackinac County.A derivation of the French phrase for "peninsula", literally "almost an island."13,3762,573 sq mi
(6,664 km2)
State map highlighting Presque Isle County
Roscommon County143Roscommon1840From part of Mackinac County and unorganized territory. Was named Mikenauk County until 1843.County Roscommon, Ireland24,449580 sq mi
(1,502 km2)
State map highlighting Roscommon County
Saginaw County145Saginaw1822From part of Oakland County.A Native American term, perhaps a reference to the Sauks, who lived at the mouth of the river[13]200,169816 sq mi
(2,113 km2)
State map highlighting Saginaw County
St. Clair County147Port Huron1820From part of Macomb County.Either named for Arthur St. Clair, first governor of the Northwest Territory, or for Saint Clair on whose feast day Lake St. Clair was discovered163,040837 sq mi
(2,168 km2)
State map highlighting St. Clair County
St. Joseph County149Centreville1829From unorganized territory.The St. Joseph River, which gains much of its volume within the county.[14]61,295521 sq mi
(1,349 km2)
State map highlighting St. Joseph County
Sanilac County151Sandusky1822From part of St. Clair County.Sanilac, a Wyandotte chief43,1141,590 sq mi
(4,118 km2)
State map highlighting Sanilac County
Schoolcraft County153Manistique1843From parts of Chippewa County and Mackinac County.Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, (1793-1864):
American geographer and Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Michigan
8,4851,884 sq mi
(4,880 km2)
State map highlighting Schoolcraft County
Shiawassee County155Corunna1822From parts of Oakland County and St. Clair County.Named for the Shiawassee River, and means 'river that twists about.[15]70,648541 sq mi
(1,401 km2)
State map highlighting Shiawassee County
Tuscola County157Caro1840From part of Sanilac County.Pseudo-Native American name created by Henry Schoolcraft55,729914 sq mi
(2,367 km2)
State map highlighting Tuscola County
Van Buren County159Paw Paw1829From unorganized territory.Martin Van Buren (1782-1862): Secretary of State in the Jackson Administration, later Vice President and eighth President of the United States76,2581,090 sq mi
(2,823 km2)
State map highlighting Van Buren County
Washtenaw County161Ann Arbor1822 (boundaries declared)
1826 (organised)
From parts of Oakland County and Wayne CountyFrom the Native American name for the Grand River, O-wash-ta-nong ("faraway water"),[16] whose headwaters were within the county's bounds.344,791723 sq mi
(1,873 km2)
State map highlighting Washtenaw County
Wayne County163Detroit1815All lands within Michigan Territory that had been ceded by Native Americans through the 1807 Treaty of Detroit."Mad" Anthony Wayne, (1745-1796):
United States Army general and statesman
1,820,584672 sq mi
(1,740 km2)
State map highlighting Wayne County
Wexford County165Cadillac1840From part of Mackinac County. Was named Kautawaubet County until 1843.County Wexford, Ireland32,735576 sq mi
(1,492 km2)
State map highlighting Wexford County

Defunct counties[edit]

  1. Brown County formed in 1818 from unorganized territory when Michigan Territory was expanded to include area west of Lake Michigan upon formation of the state of Illinois. Transferred to Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and continues as Brown County, Wisconsin.
  2. Keskkauko County formed in 1840 from part of Mackinac County. Renamed Charlevoix County in 1843. Annexed to Emmet County in 1853. Reformed as Charlevoix County from Emmet County in 1869.
  3. Crawford County formed in 1818 from unorganized territory when Michigan Territory was expanded to include area west of Lake Michigan upon formation of the state of Illinois. Transferred to Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and continues as Crawford County, Wisconsin.
  4. Des Moines County formed in 1834 from unorganized territory. Transferred to Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and continues as Des Moines County, Iowa.
  5. Dubuque County formed in 1834 from unorganized territory. Transferred to Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and continues as Dubuque County, Iowa.
  6. Iowa County formed in 1830 from part of Crawford County. Transferred to Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and continues as Iowa County, Wisconsin.
  7. Isle Royale County formed in 1875 from part of Keweenaw County. Returned to it in 1897.
  8. Manitou County formed in 1855 from parts of Emmet County and Leelenau County. County government was disorganized in 1861 and attached for administrative purposes to Mackinac County. In 1865, it was attached to Leelanau and reattached to Mackinac in 1869. County was abolished in 1895 and absorbed by Charlevoix County and Leelanau County.
  9. Milwaukee County formed in 1834 from part of Brown County. Transferred to Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and continues as Milwaukee County, Wisconsin.
  10. Omeena County formed in 1840 from part of Mackinac County. Annexed to Grand Traverse County in 1853.
  11. Wyandot County formed in 1840 from part of Mackinac County. Annexed to Cheboygan County in 1853.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Constitution of the State of Michigan, 1850, Article 10, Section 2
  2. ^ Constitution of the State of Michigan, 1908, Article 8, Section 2
  3. ^ a b Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University, Bibliography by county and region, including origin of county names
  4. ^ a b Romig, Walter; Massie, Larry B (Designer) (1986). Michigan Place Names: The History of the Founding and the Naming of More Than Five Thousand Past and Present Michigan Communities. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-1838-6. 
  5. ^ Vogel, Virgil J. (1986). Indian Names in Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. pp. 244, 8 B&W photographs & 3 maps. ISBN 978-0-472-06365-9. 
  6. ^ Powers, Perry F.; Cutler, H.G., assisting (1912). A History of Northern Michigan and its People.  at Google books
  7. ^ "Michigan Counties" from the Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries, which contains additional references at the end of the article
  8. ^ "EPA County FIPS Code Listing". EPA. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  9. ^ Centre national de ressources textuelles
  10. ^ Dan Bisher (1999). "A Brief History of 'Hillsdale County'". Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  11. ^ Clarke Historical Library bibliographic entry for Newaygo County
  12. ^ As described by Dr. Bela Hubbard, surveyor of Michigan
  13. ^ Clarke Historical Library bibliographic entry for Saginaw County
  14. ^ John Marvin. "Background History on St. Joseph County". Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  15. ^ Clarke Historical Library bibliographic entry for Shiawassee County
  16. ^ Publications of the Historical Society of Grand Rapids. 1906. p. 36. 
  1. ^ In modern standard French, la grande traversée; as the sense of ‘crossing’ is obsolete for traverse.[9]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]