Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act

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Drugs controlled by the United Kingdom (UK) Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 are listed in this article.

These drugs are known in the UK as controlled drugs, because this is the term by which the act itself refers to them. In more general terms, however, many of these drugs are also controlled by the Medicines Act 1968, there are many other drugs which are controlled by the Medicines Act but not by the Misuse of Drugs Act, and other substances which may be considered drugs (alcohol, for example) are controlled by other laws.

The Misuse of Drugs Act sets out three separate categories, Class A, Class B, and Class C. Class A drugs represent those deemed most dangerous, and so carry the harshest punishments. Class C represents those thought to have the least capacity for harm, and so the Act demands more lenient punishment. In reality the potential harm has little bearing on the class,[1] which has led to dissatisfaction with drug laws.[2]

Being found in possession of a drug on this list is dealt with less seriously than would be if it were deemed that there is intent to supply (even without payment) the drug to others. Possession with intent to supply carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment.

With regard to lawful possession and supply, a different set of categories apply which are set out in the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 (as amended). This sets out five schedules each with their own restrictions. Schedule 1 contains substances which allegedly have no medicinal value such as hallucinogens and their use is limited primarily to research, whereas schedules 2–5 contain the other regulated drugs. This means that although drugs may fall into the category of Class A/B/C, they may also fall into one of the schedules for legitimate medicinal use. For example, morphine is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, but when lawfully supplied falls under the category of a Schedule 2 controlled drug.

Substances may be removed and added to different parts of the schedule by statutory instrument, provided a report of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs has been commissioned and has reached a conclusion, although the Secretary of State is not bound by the council's findings. This list has in practice been modified a great number of times, sometimes removing substances, but more commonly adding some; for example, many benzodiazepines became Class C drugs in 1985, and many cathinones became Class B drugs in 2010.

Glossary of terminology used in this list

anabolic steroids – hormones that build muscle tissue
benzodiazepines – a class of sedative/ anxiolytic drugs
cannabinoids – drugs that bind to cannabinoid receptors
arylcyclohexamines – dissociatives which act on the NMDA receptors
opioids – Drugs that bind to opioid receptors
phenethylamines – psychedelics based on phenethylamine
sedatives – drugs that lower arousal
stimulants – drugs that heighten arousal
tryptamines – psychedelics based on tryptamine

Class A drugs[edit]

1. The following substances, namely:—[3]

(a)

Name as specified
in the Act
Brand or
street name
Drug typeWhen
added
Notes and comments
Acetorphineopioid1971primarily used to sedate elephants, giraffes and rhinos
Alfentanilopioid1984
Allylprodineopioid1971
Alphacetylmethadolopioid1971synthetic
Alphameprodineopioid1971
Alphamethadolopioid1971
Alphaprodineopioid1971
Anileridineopioid1971
Benzethidineopioid1971
Benzylmorphineopioid1971
Betacetylmethadolopioid1971
Betameprodineopioid1971
Betamethadolopioid1971
Betaprodineopioid1971
Bezitramideopioid1971
BufotenineToad skin toxintryptamine1971found in the skins of psychoactive toads, especially Bufo alvarius
CarfentanilWildnilopioid1986Strongest known opioid; 10,000 times more potent than morphine, 100 times more potent than fentanyl. Used as a tranquiliser for large game (elephants etc.)
Clonitazeneopioid1971
Coca leafErythroxylum1971the plant from which cocaine is derived
Cocainecoke, crackstimulant1971one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world
Desomorphineopioid1971
Dextromoramideopioid1971
Diacetylmorphineheroin, smack, dope, black taropioid1971The world's most widely abused illicit opioid
Diampromideopioid1971
Diethylthiambuteneopioid1971
DifenoxinRoskiesopioid1975
Dihydrocodeinone O-carboxymethyloximeopioid1971
Dihydroetorphineopioid (see notes)2003Semi-synthetic opioid; derivative of etorphine[4]
DihydromorphineParamorphanopioid1971
Dimenoxadolopioid1971
Dimepheptanolopioid1971an analogue of methadone
Dimethylthiambuteneopioid1971
Dioxaphetyl butyrateopioid1971
Diphenoxylateopioid1971
Dipipanoneopioid1971
Drotebanolopioid1973
Ecgonineprecursor1971"and any derivative of ecgonine which is convertible to ecgonine or to cocaine"
Ethylmethylthiambuteneopioid1971
Eticyclidinearylcyclohexylamine1984
Etonitazeneopioid1971
Etorphineopioid19711,000–3,000 times more potent than morphine, veterinary use only for large game
Etoxeridineopioid1971
Etryptaminetryptamine1998[5]
FentanylActiq, Duragesic, Sublimazeopioid1971Approximately 100 times the strength of morphine
Furethidineopioid1971
HydrocodoneVicodin, Norco, Lortabopioid1971
Hydromorphinolopioid1971
HydromorphoneDilaudid, Palladone, Hymorphan, drug store heroinopioid1971
Hydroxypethidineopioid1971
Isomethadoneopioid1971Simple positional isomer of Methadone
Ketobemidoneopioid1971
Levomethorphanopioid1971
Levomoramideopioid1971the totally inactive isomer of dextromoramide
Levophenacylmorphanopioid1971
LevorphanolLevo-Dromoranopioid1971
Lofentanilopioid1986
Lysergamideergoline1971a precursor to LSD
Lysergic acid diethylamideLSD, acidergoline1971"Lysergide and other N-alkyl derivatives of lysergamide"
Mescalinemescalinephenethylamine1971found naturally in the peyote cactus
Metazocineopioid1971
MethadoneMethadose, Dolophineopioid1971Used in opioid replacement therapy to treat addiction
Methadyl acetateopioid1971used in treating opioid addiction, structurally related to methadone
MethamphetamineDesoxyn, crystal methstimulant2006moved from class B to class A in 2006[6]
Methyldesorphineopioid1971
Methyldihydromorphineopioid1971
Metoponopioid1971
Morpheridineopioid1971
Morphineopioid1971derivative of the opium poppy and powerful painkiller
Morphine methobromideopioid1971"morphine N-oxide and other pentavalent nitrogen morphine derivatives"
Myrophineopioid1971
Nicomorphineopioid1971
Noracymethadolopioid1971
Norlevorphanolopioid1971
Normethadoneopioid1971
Normorphineopioid1971
NorpipanoneHexalgonmethadol1971
OpiumLaudanum, Pantoponopioid mixture1971milky secretion of the opium poppy – banned "whether raw, prepared or medicinal"
OxycodoneOxyContin, Percocetopioid1971Widely used strong pain killer
OxymorphoneNumorphan, Opanaopioid1971
Pethidinemeperidine, Demerolopioid1971
Phenadoxoneopioid1971
Phenampromideopioid1971
Phenazocineopioid1971Discontinued in 2001
Phencyclidineangel dust, PCParylcyclohexylamine1979
Phenomorphanopioid1971
Phenoperidineopioid1971
Piminodineopioid1971
Piritramideopioid1971
Poppy-strawPapaver somniferum1971"Poppy-straw and concentrate of poppy-straw."
Proheptazineopioid1971
Properidineopioid1971
Psilocintryptamine1971Psychoactive ingredient found in most psychedelic mushrooms
Psilocybe mushroomsmagic mushroomsfungi2005"Fungus (of any kind) which contains psilocin or an ester of psilocin."[7]
Racemethorphanopioid mixture1971Racemic mixture of Dextromethorphan (DXM) and Levomethorphan
Racemoramideopioid mixture1971
Racemorphanopioid mixture1971
Remifentanil2003[4] Strong painkiller; cannot be used without plasma infusion equipment
RolicyclidinePCPyarylcyclohexylamine1984Very similar to phencyclidine (PCP)
Sufentanilopioid1983
TenocyclidineTCParylcyclohexylamine1984Very similar to phencyclidine (PCP), but considerably more potent
TapentadolNucyntaopioid2009Dual action as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Thebaconopioid1971
Thebaineopioid1971
Tilidateopioid1983
Trimeperidineopioid1971
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamineDOBphenethylamine1975a drug of the DOx family.
4-Cyano-2-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenylbutaneopioid (see note)1971Methadone intermediate
4-Cyano-1-methyl-4-phenyl-piperidineopioid (see note)1971Intermediate chemical in generation of the opioid, Pethidine
N,N-DiethyltryptamineDET, T-9tryptamine1971
N,N-DimethyltryptamineDMT, spice, changatryptamine1971Intense psychedelic drug
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamineDOMphenethylamine1971a drug of the DOx family.
N-Hydroxy-tenamphetamineMDOHstimulant1990
1-Methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acidPethidinic acidprecursor1971
2-Methyl-3-morpholino-1,1-diphenylpropanecarboxylic acidopioid (see notes)1971Converted in the body into the opioid Moramide
4-Methyl-aminorexicestimulant1990
4-Phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl esterNorpethidineopioid (see notes)1971Commonly used in the production of Pethidine, although it has little opioid activity in its own right
N.B. Sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) were added in 1977, sub-paragraphs (d) and (e) were added in 1986. Sub-paragraph (ba) was subsequently added in 2001.[8]

(b) any compound (not being a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from tryptamine or from a ring-hydroxy tryptamine by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the side chain with one or more alkyl substituents but no other substituent;

(ba) the following phenethylamine derivatives, namely:—[9][10]

(c) any compound (not being methoxyphenamine or a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from phenethylamine an N-alkylphenethylamine, a methylphenethylamine, an N-alkyl-α-methylphenethylamine, an ethylphenethylamine, or an N-alkyl-α-ethylphenethylamine by substitution in the ring to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the ring by one or more other univalent substituents.

(d) any compound (not being a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from fentanyl by modification in any of the following ways, that is to say,

(i) by replacement of the phenyl portion of the phenethyl group by any heteromonocycle whether or not further substituted in the heterocycle;
(ii) by substitution in the phenethyl group with alkyl, alkenyl, alkoxy, hydroxy, halogeno, haloalkyl, amino or nitro groups;
(iii) by substitution in the piperidine ring with alkyl or alkenyl groups;
(iv) by substitution in the aniline ring with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy, halogeno or haloalkyl groups;
(v) by substitution at the 4-position of the piperidine ring with any alkoxycarbonyl or alkoxyalkyl or acyloxy group;
(vi) by replacement of the N-propionyl group by another acyl group;

(e) any compound (not being a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from pethidine by modification in any of the following ways, that is to say,

(i) by replacement of the 1-methyl group by an acyl, alkyl whether or not unsaturated, benzyl or phenethyl group, whether or not further substituted;
(ii) by substitution in the piperidine ring with alkyl or alkenyl groups or with a propano bridge, whether or not further substituted;
(iii) by substitution in the 4-phenyl ring wiith alkyl, alkoxy, aryloxy, halogeno or haloalkyl groups;
(iv) by replacement of the 4-ethoxycarbonyl by any other alkoxycarbonyl or any alkoxyalkyl or acyloxy group;
(v) by formation of an N-oxide or of a quaternary base.

2. Any stereoisomeric form of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 above not being dextromethorphan or dextrorphan.

3. Any ester or ether of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 or 2 above [not being a substance for the time being specified in Part II of this Schedule].

4. Any salt of a substance for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 above.

5. Any preparation or other product containing a substance or product for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 4 above.

6. Any preparation designed for administration by injection which includes a substance or product for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 of Part II of this Schedule.

Class B drugs[edit]

1. The following substances, namely:—[3]

(a)

Name as specified
in the Act
Brand or
street name
Drug type
When
added
Notes and comments
Acetyldihydrocodeineopioid1971
Amphetaminespeedstimulant1971
Codeineopioid1971legal without prescription in quantities of up to 12.8 mg when in tablet form as Nurofen Plus®
Cannabinol and derivativescannabinoid2009downgraded from class A to class C in 2004[11] and upgraded to class B in 2009[12]
Cannabisweed, marijuana, green, hash, skunk, puff among otherscannabinoid, sedative, hallucinogen2009All cannabis varieties, including those grown as hemp, are controlled under the act, not just drug varieties
Downgraded from class B to class C in 2004[11] and upgraded to class B in 2009[12]
DihydrocodeineSynalgos DCopioid1971legal in amounts up to 7.46 mg when in tablet form and compounded with an adjunct non-opioid such as paracetamol.
Ethylmorphineopioid1971
GlutethimideDoridensedative1985
Lefetaminestimulant1985
Mecloqualonesedative1984
a-Methylphenethylhydroxylamine2001[8]
Methaqualoneludes, mandrake, Mandrax, Quaaludesedative1984
Methcathinonestimulant1998[5]
Methoxetaminedissociative2013[13]
4–MethylmethcathinoneMCAT, Mephedronestimulant2010[14]
Methylphenidateritalinstimulant1971
Methylphenobarbitonesedative1984
NaphyroneNRG-1stimulant2010
Nicocodeineopioid1971
Nicodicodineopioid1973
Norcodeineopioid1971
PentazocineTalwinopioid1985
PhenmetrazinePreludinstimulant1971
Pholcodineopioid1971
Propiramopioid1973
Zipeprolopioid1998[5]

(ab)Any compound structurally derived from 2–aminopropan–1–one by substitution at the 1-position with any monocyclic, or fused‑polycyclic ring system (not being a phenyl ring or alkylenedioxyphenyl ring system), whether or not the compound is further modified in any of the following ways, that is to say,

(i)by substitution in the ring system to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the ring system by one or more other univalent substituents;
(ii)by substitution at the 3–position with an alkyl substituent;
(iii)by substitution at the 2‑amino nitrogen atom with alkyl or dialkyl groups, or by inclusion of the 2‑amino nitrogen atom in a cyclic structure

(b) any 5,5 disubstituted barbituric acid

(c) [2,3–Dihydro–5–methyl–3–(4–morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1, 2, 3–de]–1,4–benzoxazin–6–yl]–1–naphthalenylmethanone.

3–Dimethylheptyl–11–hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol.

[9–Hydroxy–6–methyl–3–[5–phenylpentan–2–yl] oxy–5, 6, 6a, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10a–octahydrophenanthridin–1–yl] acetate.

9-(Hydroxymethyl)–6, 6–dimethyl–3–(2–methyloctan–2–yl)–6a, 7, 10, 10a–tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen–1–ol.

Nabilone.

Any compound structurally derived from 3–(1–naphthoyl)indole or 1H–indol–3–yl–(1–naphthyl)methane by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 3–(1–naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 1–(1–naphthylmethyl)indene by substitution at the 3–position of the indene ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 3–phenylacetylindole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring with alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 2–(3–hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol by substitution at the 5–position of the phenolic ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the cyclohexyl ring to any extent.";

2. Any stereoisomeric form of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 of this Part of this Schedule.

3. Any salt of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 or 2 of this Part of this Schedule.

4. Any preparation or other product containing a substance or product for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 of this Part of this Schedule, not being a preparation falling within paragraph 6 of Part I of this Schedule.

Class C drugs[edit]

1. Class C drugs, the least harmful drugs , include the following substances:—[3]

(a)

Name as specified
in the Act
Brand or
street name
Drug typeWhen
added
Notes and comments
AlprazolamXanaxbenzodiazepine1996
Aminorexstimulant1998[5]
BenzphetamineDidrexstimulant1971metabolised into amphetamine and methamphetamine
Bromazepambenzodiazepine1996
Brotizolambenzodiazepine1998[5]
BuprenorphineSubutex, Buprenexopioid1989Used for opioid replacement therapy to treat addiction
Camazepambenzodiazepine1985
Cathinestimulant1986Khat (Catha edulis), the plant from which Cathine originates is now also illegal in The United Kingdom[15][16]
Cathinonestimulant1986Khat (Catha edulis), the plant from which Cathinone originates is now also illegal in The United Kingdom[15][16]
ChlordiazepoxideLibriumbenzodiazepine1985
ChlorphentermineApsedonstimulant1971
ClobazamFrisiumbenzodiazepine1985
Clorazepic acidbenzodiazepine1985
ClonazepamKlonopinbenzodiazepine1985
Clotiazepambenzodiazepine1985
Cloxazolambenzodiazepine1985
Delorazepambenzodiazepine1985
DextropropoxypheneDarvonopioid1983
DiazepamValiumbenzodiazepine1985
Diethylpropionstimulant1984
EstazolamProSombenzodiazepine1985
EthchlorvynolPlacidylsedative1985
Ethinamatesedative1985
Ethyl loflazepatebenzodiazepine1985
Fencamfaminestimulant1971Removed from the schedule in 1973, added to the schedule again in 1986
Fenethyllinestimulant1986
Fenproporexstimulant1986
Fludiazepambenzodiazepine1985
FlunitrazepamRohypnolbenzodiazepine1985
FlurazepamDalmanebenzodiazepine1985
gamma-ButyrolactoneGBLsedative2009Metabolised to GHB in the body. Classified in December 2009[17]
Halazepambenzodiazepine1985
Haloxazolambenzodiazepine1985
4-Hydroxy-n-butyric acidGHBsedative2003[4]
Ketamineketsedative2006[18]
Ketazolambenzodiazepine1985
Loprazolambenzodiazepine1985
LorazepamAtivanbenzodiazepine1985
Lormetazepambenzodiazepine1985
Mazindolstimulant1985
Medazepambenzodiazepine1985
Mefenorexstimulant1986amphetamine derivative, metabolises to amphetamine
Mephenterminestimulant1971
MeprobamateMiltownsedative1985
Mesocarbstimulant1998[5] used to counteract the effects of benzodiazepines
Methyprylonesedative1985
MidazolamVersedbenzodiazepine1990
Nimetazepambenzodiazepine1985
Nitrazepambenzodiazepine1985
Nordazepambenzodiazepine1985
Oxazepambenzodiazepine1985
Oxazolambenzodiazepine1985
Pemolinestimulant1989
PhendimetrazineBontrilstimulant1971
PhentermineFastin, Ionaminstimulant1985
Pinazepambenzodiazepine1985
Pipradrolstimulant1971
Propylhexedrinestimulant1971legalised in 1995[19]
Prazepambenzodiazepine1985
Pyrovaleronestimulant1986
TemazepamRestoril, jelliesbenzodiazepine1985becomes class A when prepared for injection
Tetrazepambenzodiazepine1985
TriazolamHalcionbenzodiazepine1985
N-Ethylamphetaminestimulant1986
ZolpidemAmbiennonbenzodiazepine2003[4]
N.B. Sub-paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) all refer to anabolic steroids that were banned in 1996[20] (unless referenced otherwise):

(b)

(c) any compound (not being Trilostane or a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (b) above) structurally derived from 17-hydroxyandrostan-3-one or from 17-hydroxyestran-3-one by modification in any of the following ways, that is to say, (i) by further substitution at position 17 by a methyl or ethyl group; (ii) by substitution to any extent at one or more of positions 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11 or 16, but at no other position; (iii) by unsaturation in the carbocyclic ring system to any extent, provided that there are no more than two ethylenic bonds in any one carbocyclic ring; (iv) by fusion of ring A with a heterocyclic system;

(d) any substance which is an ester or ether (or, where more than one hydroxyl function is available, both an ester and an ether) of a substance specified in sub-paragraph (b) or described in sub-paragraph (c) above;

(e)

(f) 1–benzylpiperazine or any compound (not being 1–(3–chlorophenyl)piperazine or 1–(3–chlorophenyl)–4–(3–chloropropyl)piperazine) structurally derived from 1–benzylpiperazine or 1–phenylpiperazine by modification in any of the following ways

(i) by substitution at the second nitrogen atom of the piperazine ring with alkyl, benzyl, haloalkyl or phenyl groups;

(ii) by substitution in the aromatic ring to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy, halide or haloalkyl groups;

2. Any stereoisomeric form of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 of this Part of this Schedule [not being phenylpropanolamine.]

3. Any salt of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 or 2 of this Part of this Schedule.

4. Any preparation or other product containing a substance for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 of this Part of this Schedule.

Derivatives and analogues[edit]

The act contains several references to "derivatives" of compounds but the extent of this term is not fully clarified. Where unspecified it is thought to indicate derivatives which can be made from the specified compound in a single synthetic step, although such a definition would indicate that alkyllysergamide analogues would be uncontrolled. Where the derivatives are specified to be "structural derivatives" there is precedent that the statute applies whenever the structure could be converted to the specified derivatives in any number of synthetic steps.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nutt, Prof David J; Leslie A King PhD; Lawrence D Phillips PhD (6 November 2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis". The Lancet 376 (9752): 1558–1565. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6. PMID 21036393. Retrieved 8 February 2012. "Alcohol, heroin and crack were found to be most harmful, while LSD, Buprenorphine and psilocybin mushrooms were found to be least harmful." 
  2. ^ Nutt, David (1 April 2010). "Trashing evidence-based drugs policy". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2012. "We will give the public the kind of high-quality evidence on drug harms our current crop of politicians apparently do not feel they need before making far reaching decisions around drugs classification." 
  3. ^ a b c "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c. 38): SCHEDULE 2: Controlled Drugs". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 2003". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 1998". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  6. ^ "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2006". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  7. ^ "Drugs Act 2005 (c. 17)". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  8. ^ a b "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 2001". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  9. ^ King, L. A. (2009). Forensic Chemistry of Substance Misuse: A Guide to Drug Control. Cambridge: RSC Publishing. 
  10. ^ "UK Misuse of Drugs act 2001 Amendment summary". Isomer Design. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification)(No. 2) Order 2003". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2008". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  13. ^ MXE ceased to be covered by the temporary prohibition on 26 February 2013, when it became classified as a Class B drug
  14. ^ Mephedrone ban comes into force in UK
  15. ^ a b Klein, Axel (2007). "Khat and the creation of tradition in the Somali diaspora". In Fountain, Jane; Korf, Dirk J. Drugs in Society: European Perspectives. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing. pp. 51–61. ISBN 978-1-84619-093-3. 
  16. ^ a b Warfa, Nasir; Klein, Axel; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Leavey, Gerard; Craig, Tom; Stansfeld, Stephen Alfred (2007). "Khat use and mental illness: A critical review". Social Science & Medicine 65 (2): 309–318. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.04.038. PMID 17544193. 
  17. ^ The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2009 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2009/draft/ukdsi_9780111486610_en_1
  18. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2005". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  19. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 1995". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  20. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 1996". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  21. ^ Forensic Chemistry of Substance Misuse : A Guide to Drug Control Edition by Leslie A. King (2009)

External links[edit]