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In a political sense,
conspiracy refers to a group of people united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. Typically, the final goal is to gain power through a revolutionary coup d'état or through assassination.
A conspiracy is to be contrasted with a
cabal. The two are similar but have quite different connotations; in contrast to a cabal, a conspiracy usually looks to overthrow a fixed power instead of usurping it from within. Notable political conspiracies [edit ]
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— Bye Plot, leads to the execution of Sir George Brooke [10 ] 1605 - Gunpowder Plot to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament as prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands, during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state; often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot; origin of Guy Fawkes Day [11 ] 1788 - Anjala conspiracy [12 ] 1865 - Abraham Lincoln assassination plot, to include assassination of cabinet members [13 ] 1898 - The Dreyfus Affair, a coordinated attempt to falsely accuse Alfred Dreyfus of treason [14 ] 1903 - , presented as authentic text by the Tsar's secret police efforts to foment anti-Semitism The Protocols of the Elders of Zion [15 ] 1932 to 1972 - Tuskegee syphilis experiment, to study natural progression of untreated syphilis in black men who thought they were receiving free health care [16 ] 1936 to 1950 - Presumed General Motors streetcar conspiracy [17 ] 1938 - Presumed Hitler Youth Conspiracy, NKVD case in Moscow involving some 70 arrests and 40 executions of teenagers and adults, later found to be baseless [18 ] 1939 - Operation Himmler and its Gleiwitz incident, " False Flag" terrorism by Nazi Germany as pretext for invasion of Poland — Shelling of Mainila, " False Flag" terrorism by USSR as pretext for Winter War [19 ] 1943 - Bomb on Hitler's aircraft, an attempt on Adolf Hitler [20 ] 1941 - British wartime plan PR4 to invade and to occupy neutral Norway also code-named " Stratford" 1941 - Bombing of Pearl Harbour, Hawaii by the Japanese [21 ] [22 ] 1944 - July 20 Plot, attempt to assassinate Hitler with suitcase bomb, and then use Operation Valkyrie to grab power [23 ] [24 ] 1948- to 1976 - Operation Mockingbird, until then CIA director George H. W. Bush prohibited paid media recruiting [25 ] [26 ] 1942 - Wannsee Conference, related to Final Solution of 3rd Reich Nazis [27 ] 1945 - Operation Paperclip, extraction of top Nazi scientists (incl. SS Nazi Party members) [28 ] [29 ] 1948 to early 1980s Operation Gladio CIA-NATO 'stay-behind' preparations [30 ] [31 ] 1953 to ? - MKULTRA mind control program [32 ] 1953 - 1953 Iranian coup d'état Anglo-American conspiracy under the names of 'Operation Ajax' ( CIA ) and 'Operation Boot' (MI6) [33 ] 1954 - Lavon affair Operation Susannah, " False Flag" terrorism by Mossad [34 ] 1960s - Project GAMMA allusion to attempts to assassinate Norodom Sihanouk, called Project CHERRY 1962 - Operation Northwoods - A rejected proposal for the CIA to commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities and elsewhere. [35 ] 1968 - The Markovic affair, French Secret Service Gaullist plot destabilise future president Georges Pompidou [36 ] 1969 to 1972 Secret war in Laos, and Operation Menu in Cambodia, concealed from Congressional oversight [37 ] 1972 - Watergate scandal, burglary and cover-up scandals [38 ] 1982 Brighton Bombings [39 ] 1982 - Fighting Solidarity [40 ] 1983 - October surprise [41 ] [42 ] 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack [43 ] 1987 - Iran-Contra Affair [44 ] [45 ] — Various CIA involvements in overseas coups d'état — Yellowcake forgery [51 ] See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ "The Catilinarian Conspiracy". . http://ancienthistory.about.com ^ "The assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC". . 2004. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com ^ "The Pisonian Conspiracy". . http://www.nazoreans.com ^ "The pazzi conspiracy". . http://www.palazzo-medici.it ^ "The year of Lucretia d'Este, Duchess of Ferrara". . http://www.mmdtkw.org ^ "Plots against Elizabeth I". . 29 January 2010. http://www.elizabethfiles.com ^ "Queen Elisabeth I". . http://englishhistory.net ^ "The Babington Plot". . http://www.history-magazine.com ^ "Anthony Babington and the Babington Plot". . http://www.luminarium.org ^ "Conspiracy". . http://www.alienscientist.com ^ "The Gunpowder plot of 1605". . http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk ^ "Anjala Manor". . http://www.spottinghistory.com ^ "The Death of President Lincoln, 1865". . http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com ^ "Emile Zola writes to Alfred Dreyfus at the height of the Dreyfus affair". . http://www.shapell.org ^ "Jews and Politics in the Twentieth Century: From the Bund to the Rise of the Nazis". Judaica in the Collections of the Hoover Institution Archives. Hoover Institution, Stanford University. 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13 . Retrieved 2006-04-28. ^ "Final report of the Tuskegee Syphilis study legacy committee". . http://exhibits.hsl.virginia.edu ^ Hodapp, Christopher L. and VonKannon, Alice, Conspiracy Theories & Secret Societies For Dummies, Wiley, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-18408-0, p. 334 ^ Hans Schafranek, Natalia Musienko, "The Fictitious 'Hiter-Jugend' of the Moscow NKVD" in: Barry McLoughlin, Kevin McDermott (Eds.), Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. Palgrave MacMillan (2003), p. 208ff. ISBN 1-4039-0119-8. Retrieved November 24, 2011 ^ "Operation Himmler". . http://911review.com ^ "The Valkyrie Conspiracy". . http://valkyrie-plot.com ^ "1941: Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor". . http://news.bbc.co.uk ^ "Attack on Pearl Harbor". . http://history1900s.about.com ^ "The 20 July bomb plot - a summary". . 20 July 2010. http://www.historyinanhour.com ^ "The July bomb plot". . http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk ^ "Operation Mockingbird". . http://www.mindinvasions.com ^ "Operation Mockingbird exposed: congressional hearing proves the CIA controls mainstream media". . http://consciouslifenews.com ^ "Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution. "" . http://www.ushmm.org ^ "Operation Paperclip by Annie Jacobsen". . 28 February 2014. http://www.nytimes.com ^ "Operation Paperclip Casefile". . 8 August 1997. http://www.conspiracyarchive.com ^ "Operation Gladio". . http://www.thejohnfleming.com ^ "Operation Gladio". . 14 May 2013. https://campusdiaries.com ^ ". "On this day" 1953: U.S. begins project MK- Ultra mind control experiments" . 13 April 2011. http://morallowground.com ^ "Operation Ajax: CIA, Muhammad Mossadeq, and the Shah of Iran". . http://www.coldwar.org ^ "Israel Military Intelligence: The Lavon Affair". . https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org ^ "Operation NorthWoods". . http://whatreallyhappened.com ^ "Pompidou dans la tourmente". . 26 July 2007. http://www.lexpress.fr ^ "The history place". . http://www.historyplace.com ^ "What was the Watergate Scandal?". . http://uspolitics.about.com ^ "Hunger strikes and the Brighton bomb". . 18 March 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk ^ "The fighting solidarity organization". . http://www.sw.org.pl ^ "The "October Surprise" Theory". . 2003. http://www.danielpipes.org ^ "The October Surprise: The Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission, and the 1980 Presidential election". . 29 November 2005. http://www.donhopkins.com ^ "A strange but true tale of voter fraud and bioterrorism". . 10 June 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com ^ "The Iran Contra Affair 1986-1987". . http://www.washingtonpost.com ^ "Iran contra affair". . http://www.infoplease.com ^ "How PR sold the war in the persian gulf". . http://www.prwatch.org ^ "The strategy of tension: A tactic to divide, manipulate and control people". . 16 June 2013. http://www.intrepidreport.com ^ "Le crime en héritage". . 6 March 2014. http://www.leparisien.fr ^ "Downing Street Memos - What are they? What do they mean?". . http://usliberals.about.com ^ "The secret way to war". . 9 June 2005. http://www.nybooks.com ^ "Spinning out of control". . http://www.informationclearinghouse.info ^ "Spinning out of control". . 21 June 2003. http://www.wsws.org External links [edit ]