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In a political sense,
conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. Typically, the final goal is to gain power through a revolutionary coup d'état or through assassination.
A conspiracy is to be contrasted with a
cabal. The two are similar but have quite different connotations; in contrast to a cabal, a conspiracy usually looks to overthrow a fixed power instead of usurping it from within. Notable political conspiracies [edit ]
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— Bye Plot, leads to the execution of Sir George Brooke 1605 - Gunpowder Plot to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament as prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands, during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state; often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot; origin of Guy Fawkes Day 1788 - Anjala conspiracy 1865 - Abraham Lincoln assassination plot, to include assassination of cabinet members 1898 - , open letter by Émile Zola, in response to French attempts to cover up the J'accuse Dreyfus Affair 1903 - , presented as authentic text by the Tsar's secret police efforts to foment anti-Semitism The Protocols of the Elders of Zion [1 ] 1932 to 1972 - Tuskegee syphilis experiment, to study natural progression of untreated syphilis in black men who thought they were receiving free health care 1936 to 1950 - Presumed General Motors streetcar conspiracy [2 ] 1938 - Presumed Hitler Youth Conspiracy, NKVD case in Moscow involving some 70 arrests and 40 executions of teenagers and adults, later found to be baseless [3 ] 1939 - Operation Himmler and its Gleiwitz incident, " False Flag" terrorism by Nazi Germany as pretext for invasion of Poland — Shelling of Mainila, " False Flag" terrorism by USSR as pretext for Winter War 1943 - Bomb on Hitler's aircraft, an attempt on Adolf Hitler 1941 - British wartime plan PR4 to invade and to occupy neutral Norway also code-named " Stratford" 1941 - Bombing of Pearl Harbour, Hawaii by the Japanese 1944 - July 20 Plot, attempt to assassinate Hitler with suitcase bomb, and then use Operation Valkyrie to grab power 1948- to 1976 - Operation Mockingbird, until then CIA director George H. W. Bush prohibited paid media recruiting 1942 - Wannsee Conference, related to Final Solution of 3rd Reich Nazis 1945 - Operation Paperclip, extraction of top Nazi scientists (incl. SS Nazi Party members) 1948 to early 1980s Operation Gladio CIA-NATO 'stay-behind' preparations 1953 to ? - MKULTRA mind control program 1953 - 1953 Iranian coup d'état Anglo-American conspiracy under the names of 'Operation TPAjax' ( CIA ) and 'Operation Boot' (MI6) 1954 - Lavon affair Operation Susannah, " False Flag" terrorism by Mossad 1960s - Project GAMMA allusion to attempts to assassinate Norodom Sihanouk, called Project CHERRY 1962 - Operation Northwoods - A rejected proposal for the CIA to commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities and elsewhere. 1968 - The Markovic affair, French Secret Service Gaullist plot destabilise future president Georges Pompidou 1969 to 1972 Secret war in Laos, and Operation Menu in Cambodia, concealed from Congressional oversight 1972 - Watergate scandal, burglary and cover-up scandals 1975 Australian constitutional crisis 1982 Brighton Bombings 1983 - October surprise 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack 1987 - Iran-Contra Affair — Various CIA involvements in overseas coups d'état — Yellowcake forgery See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ "Jews and Politics in the Twentieth Century: From the Bund to the Rise of the Nazis". Judaica in the Collections of the Hoover Institution Archives. Hoover Institution, Stanford University. 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13 . Retrieved 2006-04-28. ^ Hodapp, Christopher L. and VonKannon, Alice, Conspiracy Theories & Secret Societies For Dummies, Wiley, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-18408-0, p. 334 ^ Hans Schafranek, Natalia Musienko, "The Fictitious 'Hiter-Jugend' of the Moscow NKVD" in: Barry McLoughlin, Kevin McDermott (Eds.), Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union. Palgrave MacMillan (2003), p. 208ff. ISBN 1-4039-0119-8. Retrieved November 24, 2011 External links [edit ]