List of computer viruses

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The compilation of a unified list of computer viruses is made difficult because of naming. To aid the fight against computer viruses and other types of malicious software, many security advisory organizations and developers of anti-virus software compile and publish lists of viruses. When a new virus appears, the rush begins to identify and understand it as well as develop appropriate counter-measures to stop its propagation. Along the way, a name is attached to the virus. As the developers of anti-virus software compete partly based on how quickly they react to the new threat, they usually study and name the viruses. By the time the virus is identified, many names denote the same virus.

Another source of ambiguity in names is that sometimes a virus initially identified as a completely new virus is found to be a variation of an earlier known virus, in which cases, it is often renamed. For example, the second variation of the Sobig worm was initially called "Palyh" but later renamed "Sobig.b". Again, depending on how quickly this happens, the old name may persist.


In terms of scope, there are two major variants: the list of "in-the-wild" viruses, which list viruses in active circulation, and lists of all known viruses, which also contain viruses believed not to be in active circulation (also called "zoo viruses"). The sizes are vastly different, in-the-wild lists contain a hundred viruses but full lists contain tens of thousands.

List of viruses and related programs[edit]

VirusAlias(es)TypesIsolation DateIsolationOriginAuthorNotes
1260V2PxMS-DOSPolymorphic1998First virus to use polymorphic encryption
4K4096MS-DOS1990-01The first virus to use stealth
5loMS-DOS1992-10Infects .EXE files only
Windows 95/98
Windows 95/98
1993-04EuropeARCV groupInfects COM file. Disk directory listing will be set to the system date and time when infection occurred.
AcidAcid.670, Acid.670a, Avatar.Acid.670, Keeper.Acid.670MS-DOS
Windows 95/98
1992Corp-$MZUInfects COM file. Disk directory listing will not be altered.
AcmeDOS (Windows 95 MS-DOS)Upon executing infected EXE, this infects another EXE in current directory by making a hidden COM file with same base name.
ABCABC-2378, ABC.2378, ABC.2905MS-DOS1992-10ABC causes keystrokes on the compromised machine to be repeated.
AdaMS-DOS1991-10ArgentinaThe Ada virus mainly targets .COM files, specifically COMMAND.COM.
AgenaAgena.723MS-DOS1992-09SpainInfected programs will have a file length increase of 723 to 738 bytes
AGI-PlanMonth 4-6MS-DOSMülheim an der Ruhr, GermanyAGI-Plan is notable for reappearing in South Africa in what appeared to be an intentional re-release.
AhDavid-1173, TuesdayMS-DOS1991-05ItalySystems infected with Ah will experience frequent system hangs.
AIDSAIDSB, Hahaha, TauntMS-DOS1990Dr. Joseph Popp and pcperformerAIDS is the first virus known to exploit the MS-DOS "corresponding file" vulnerability.
AirCopAir cop-B, Red StateMS-DOS1990-01Infects the boot sector of floppy disks.
AlabamaAlabama.BMS-DOS1989-10Hebrew University, JerusalemFiles infected by Alabama increase in size by 1,560 bytes.
Alcon[1]RSY, Kendesm, Ken&Desmond:disqus, EitherMS-DOS1997-12Overwrites random information on disk causing damage over time.
Anna KournikovaEmail
2001-02-11Sneek, NetherlandsJan de WitA Dutch court stated that US$166,000 in damages was caused by the worm.
AntiCMOSDue to a bug in the virus code, the virus fails to erase CMOS information as intended.
ARCV-nMS-DOS1992-10/1992-11England, United KingdomARCV GroupARCV-n is a term for a large family of viruses written by the ARCV group.
BomberCommanderBomberMS-DOSBulgariaPolymorphic virus which infects systems by inserting fragments of its code randomly into executable files.
BrainPakistani flu1986-01Lahore, PakistanBasit and Amjad Farooq AlviConsidered to be the first computer virus for the PC
Byte BanditAmiga, Bootsector virus1988-01Swiss Cracking AssociationIt was one of the most feared Amiga viruses until the infamous Lamer Exterminator.
Christmas Tree
CIHChernobyl, SpacefillerWindows 95/98/Me1998-06TaiwanTaiwanChen ing-HauActivates on April 26, in which it destroys partition tables, and tries to overwrite the BIOS.
CommwarriorSymbian Bluetooth wormFamous for being the first worm to spread via MMS and Bluetooth.
CreeperTENEX operating system1971Bob ThomasAn experimental self-replicating program which gained access via the ARPANET and copied itself to the remote system.
Elk ClonerApple II1982Mt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania, United StatesMt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania, United StatesRich SkrentaThe first virus observed "in the wild"
FormMS-DOS1990SwitzerlandA very common boot virus, triggers on the 18th of any month.
GraybirdGraybird P
Windows 95, Windows 98
1996-08Famous for press coverage which blew its destructiveness out of proportion
ILOVEYOU2000-05-05Manila, PhilippinesReomel Ramores, Onel de GuzmanA computer worm that attacked tens of millions of Windows personal computers
INIT 1984Mac OS1992-03-13Malicious, triggered on Friday the 13th.
JerusalemDOS1987-10Jerusalem was initially very common and spawned a large number of variants.
Kama SutraBlackworm, Nyxem, and Blackmal2006-01-16Designed to destroy common files such as Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents.
KokoDOS1991-03The payload of this virus activates on July 29 and February 15 and may erase data on the users hard drive
Lamer ExterminatorAmiga, Boot sector virus1989-10GermanyRandom encryption, fills random sector with "LAMER"
MacMagDrew, Bradow, Aldus, Peace1987-12
MDEFGarfield, Top Cat1990-05
MelissaMailissa, Simpsons, Kwyjibo, KwejeeboMicrosoft Word macro virus1999-03-26New Jersey, United StatesDavid L. SmithPart macro virus and part worm. Melissa, a MS Word-based macro that replicates itself through e-mail.
MichelangeloMS-DOS1991-02-04AustraliaRan March 6 (Michelangelo's birthday)
NatasMultipartite, stealth, Polymorphic1994"Priest"
nVIRMODM, nCAM, nFLU, kOOL, Hpat, JudeMac OS1987nVIR has been known to 'hybridize' with different variants of nVIR on the same machine.
OneHalfSlovak Bomber, Freelove or Explosion-IIMS-DOS1994SlovakiaVyvojarIt is also known as one of the first viruses to implement a technique of "patchy infection"
OntarioSBCMS-DOS1990-07Ontario, CanadaDeath Angel
Pikachu virus2000-06-28AsiaThe Pikachu virus is believed to be the first computer virus geared at children.
Ping-pongBoot, Bouncing Ball, Bouncing Dot, Italian, Italian-A, VeraCruzBoot sector virusHarmless to most computers
RavMonE.exeRJump.A, Rajump, JisxWorm2006-06-20Once distributed in Apple iPods, but a Windows-only virus
SCAAmiga, Boot sector virus1987-11SwitzerlandSwiss Cracking AssociationPuts a message on screen. Harmless except it might destroy a legitimate non-standard boot block.
ScoresEric, Vult, NASA, San Jose FluMac OS1988 SpringDesigned to attack two specific applications which were never released.
Scott's ValleyMS-DOS1990-09Scotts Valley, California, United StatesInfected files will contain the seemingly meaningless hex string 5E8BDE909081C63200B912082E.
SevenDust666, MDEF, 9806, Graphics Accelerator, SevenDMac OS1998
Shankar's VirusW97M.Marker.oPolymorphic Virus1999-06-03Sam RogersInfects Word Documents
SimileEtap, MetaPHORWindowsPolymorphicThe Mental DrillerThe metamorphic code accounts for around 90% of the virus' code
SMEG engineMS-DOSPolymorphic1994United KingdomThe Black BaronTwo viruses were created using the engine: Pathogen and Queeg.
Stoned1987Wellington, New ZealandOne of the earliest and most prevalent boot sector viruses
SundayMS-DOSJerusalem.Sunday1989-11Seattle, Washington, United StatesBecause of an error in coding, the virus fails to execute its payload.
TDL-4BotnetJD virus
TechnoMS-DOSThe virus plays a tune that was created by the author of the virus
WhaleMS-DOSPolymorphic1990-07-01Hamburg, GermanyR HomerAt 9216 bytes, was for its time the largest virus ever discovered.
ZMistZMistfall, Zombie.MistfallZombie.MistfallZ0mbieIt was the first virus to use a technique known as "code integration".

Related lists[edit]

Unusual subtypes[edit]

Notable instances[edit]

Similar software[edit]

boot virus

Security topics[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Vincentas (11 July 2013). "Computer Viruses in". Spyware Loop. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 

External links[edit]