List of common Chinese surnames

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These are lists of the most common Chinese surnames in the Republic and People's Republic of China, as well as among the Chinese diaspora overseas, as provided by authoritative government or academic sources. Chinese names also form the basis for many common Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese surnames in both translation and transliteration into those languages.

The conception of China as consisting of "the old 100 families" (, Lǎobǎixìng) is an ancient and traditional one, the most famous tally being the Song-era Hundred Family Surnames. Even today, the number of surnames in China is a little over 4,000,[1] while the year 2000 US census found the number of American surnames held by at least 100 people to be more than 150,000[2] and more than 6.2 million surnames altogether.[3]

The Chinese expression "Some Zhang, some Li" (张三李四, Zhāng sān, Lǐ sì) is used to mean "anyone" or "everyone",[4] but the most common surnames are currently Wang in mainland China[5] and Chen or Chan in Taiwan.[6] A commonly cited factoid from the 1990 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records estimated that Zhang was the most common surname in the world,[7] but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim. However, Zhang Wei () is the most common full name in mainland China.[8]

Greater China Region[edit]

Note that – in practice – names are typically written with the tone markings omitted, especially in English-language contexts. Similarly, although the apostrophes in Wade-Giles romanizations mark entirely distinct sounds, they are often omitted as well.

China, Hong Kong and Macau[edit]

This list of the 100 most common Chinese surnames derives from comprehensive surveys from 2007 and 1982. The first is derived from a report on the household registrations released by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security on April 24, 2007.[5][9][10] The second is derived from the 1982 Chinese census whose zero hour was 00:00 on 1 July 1982. Although no list of surnames was published with the initial summaries, the State Post Bureau subsequently used the census data to release a series of commemorative stamps in honor of the then-most-common surnames in 2004.[11][12] Previous partial surveys proved less accurate, as many surnames are clustered regionally.

The summary of the 2007 survey revealed China had approximately 92,881,000 Wangs (7.25% of the general population), 92,074,000 Lis (7.19%), and 87,502,000 Zhangs (6.83%). These top three surnames alone accounted for more people than Indonesia, the fourth most populous country in the world.[13] Detailed numbers for the other surnames were not released, but it was noted that seven others – Liu, Chen, Yang, Huang, Zhao, Wu, and Zhou – were each shared by more than 20 million Chinese and twelve more – Xu, Sun, Ma, Zhu, Hu, Guo, He, Gao, Lin, Luo, Zheng, and Liang – were each shared by more than 10 million. All together, the top hundred surnames accounted for 84.77% of China's population.[5][14] By way of comparison, the 2000 census found the most common surname in the United States – Smith – had fewer than 2.4 million occurrences and made up only 0.84% of the general population. The top 100 surnames accounted for only 16.4% of the US population,[2] and reaching 89.8% of the US population required more than 150,000 surnames.[3]

RankCharacterRomanizationsNotes
MandarinCantoneseMinnanHakkaGanOtherFormer Pronunciation (according to Baxter)[15]Meaning
20071982Trad.Simp.PinyinWadeJyutpingHKOtherPOJOtherPOJOtherOld ChineseMiddle Chinese
12WángWang2Wong4WongVongÔngHengVòngWongUōngViet.Vương*ɢʷaŋHjwang"King"
Kor.Wang ()
Jap.Ō
21Li3Lei5Lee
Li
LeLeeLeeViet.*C.rəʔLiX"Plum"
N. Kor.Lee ()
S. Kor.Yi, Ri, Rhee ()
Jap.Ri
Phil.Dy, Sy
Lat. Am.Ley
33ZhāngChang1Zoeng1CheungCheong
Chong
TiuTeo
Teoh
Tio
ChôngChongTongViet.Trương*C.traŋTrjang"Bowyer"
Kor.Jang ()
Jap.Chō
Phil.Tiong
Indon.Sutiono, Tjong
44LiúLiu2Lau4LauLao
Lou
LâuLau
Low
Lao
LiùLiewLīuViet.Lưu*mə-ruLjuwHan Dynasty royalty
Kor.Yu/Ryu (/)
Jap.Ryū
55ChénCh'en2Can4ChanChun
Chean
Chin
TânTan
Tang
Ting
chhìnchinThínViet.Trần*lrinDrin"Exhibit"

State
of
Chen
Kor.Jin ()
Jap.Chin
66YángYang2Joeng4YeungYeong
Ieong
Young
Yeoh
Yeo
Yo
YòngYong
Yeong
IōngViet.Dương*laŋYang"Poplar"

State
of
Yang
Kor.Yang ()
Jap.
78HuángHuang2Wong4WongWang
Vong
OoiNg
Ung
VòngWongUōngViet.Hoàng/Huỳnh*N-kʷˤaŋHwang"Yellow"

State
of
Huang
Kor.Hwang ()
Jap.
87ZhàoChao2Ziu6ChiuChio
Jiu
TiōTeo
Teoh
ChhauChauThèuViet.TriệuState
of
Zhao
Kor.Jo ()
Jap.Chō
910Wu2Ng4NgUng, EngGô·
Ngô·
GohǸgNgNgViet.Ngô*ŋʷˤaNguState
of
Wu
Kor.Oh ()
Jap.Kure, Go
Misc.Woo
109ZhōuChou1Zau1ChowJao
Chau
ChiuChew
Jew
ChiûChew
Chiew
TiuViet.Chu, Châu*tiwTsyuwState
of
Zhou
Kor.Ju ()
Jap.Shū
Misc.Joe
1111Hsü2Ceoi4TsuiChoi
Chui
Tsua
ChhîChee
Cher
Cheu
Swee
ChhìChiChhiéViet.Từ*sə.laZjo"gradual"

State
of
Xu
Kor.Seo ()
Jap.Jo
Indon.Dharmadjie
Christiadjie
1212SūnSun1Syun1SuenSunSunSng
Soon
SûnSunSunViet.Tôn*sˤunSwon"Grandson"
Kor.Son ()
Jap.Son
Phil.Suan
1319Ma3Maa5MaMah
Mar

Bey
Beh
Baey
MaViet.*mˤraʔMaeX"horse"

State
of
Mafu
Kor.Ma ()
Jap.Ba
1414ZhūChu1Zyu1ChuChueCheeChooChûChooTuViet.Châu*toTsyu"crimson"

State
of
Zhu
Kor.Ju ()
Jap.Shu
Can.Gee
Misc.Ju
1513Hu2Wu4WuWoo
Vu
Ô·Oh
Aw
FooŪViet.Hồ*gˤaHu"mustache"
"beard"
Kor.Ho ()
Jap.Ko
1618GuōKuo1Gwok3KwokKuokKoehKueh
Koay
Quay
Kwek
Quek
KwokKwok
Kok
KuokViet.Quách*kʷˤakKwak"City wall"
Kor.Gwak ()
Jap.Kaku
Phil.Ker, Kho, Kwok
17172
Ho2
Ho4HoHoeHo
Hor
HoViet.*gˤajHaState
of
Han
Kor.Ha ()
Jap.Ka
1815GāoKao1Gou1KoKou
Go
KohKo
Kor

Kau
KooKouViet.Cao*Cə.kˤawKaw"Tall"
Kor.Go ()
Jap.Kō,Taka
1916LínLin2Lam4LamLumLîmLimLìmLimLīmViet.Lâm*k.rəmLim"Forest"
Kor.Lim/Im/Rim
(/)
Jap.Hayashi, Rin
2020LuóLo2Lo4LoLaw
Loh, Lowe
Lor
Lo
Lor
Law
Law
Lo
Loh
Viet.La*rˤajLa"Gatherer"
Kor.Na/La/Ra
(/)
Jap.Ra
2123ZhèngCheng4Zeng6ChengCheang
Chiang

Tay
Teh
ChhangChangThàngViet.TrịnhState
of
Zheng
Kor.Jeong ()
Jap.Tei
Phil.Ching
2221LiángLiang2Loeng4LeungLeong
Lang
Leng
NiûNeoLiòngLeongLiōngViet.Lương*raŋLjang"beam" (architecture)

State
of
Liang
Kor.Yang/Ryang (/)
Jap.Ryō
2324XièHsieh4Ze6TseCheChiā
Siā
Chia
Cheah
Seah
TshiaCheahChhiàViet.Tạ*sə-lak-sZjaeH"Thankful"

State
of
Xie
Kor.Sa ()
Jap.Sha
Can.Tsia
Phil.Saa, Sese, Sia
Misc.Shieh
2422SòngSung4Sung3SungSòngSongSungSong
Soong
SūngViet.TốngState
of
Song
Kor.Song ()
Jap.
Misc.Soong
2526TángT'ang2Tong4TongTngTng
Tang
ThòngTong
Thong
ThóngViet.Đường*N-rˤaŋDangTang dynasty
Kor.Dang ()
Jap.
2635Hsü3Heoi2Hui
Hooi
HoiKhó·Koh
Khoh
HeeViet.Hứa*qʰaʔXjoXState
of
Kor.Heo ()
Jap.Kyo
2725HánHan2Hon4HonHânHangHònHonHónViet.Hàn*gˤarHanState
of
Han
Kor.Han ()
Jap.Kan
Misc.Hang
2827FéngFeng2Fung4FungFongPângPangFùng
Phùng
FoongFūngViet.Phùng*Cə.bəŋBjuwngState
of
Feng
Kor.Pung ()
Jap.
2934DèngTeng2Dang6TangThengDungTengThenTen
Then
ThènViet.ĐặngState
of
Deng
Kor.Deung ()
Jap.
Phil.Deang
3032CáoTs'ao2Cou4TsoChawChôChowTshò
Tshàu
Cho
Chaw
ChhóuViet.Tào*N-tsˤuDzawState
of
Cao
Kor.Jo ()
Jap.
3139PéngP'eng2Pang4PangBanhPhê
Phî
Peh
Phe
PhàngPhangPhángViet.Bành*C.bˤraŋBaengDescendant of Peng Zu
Kor.Paeng ()
Jap.
KhmerPay
3238ZēngTseng1Zang1TsangChang
Dong
ChanChanTsênChenChenViet.Tăng*tsˤəŋTsongState of Zeng
Kor.Jeung ()
Jap.
Indon.Tjan
Misc.Tzeng
3330
()
XiāoHsiao1Siu1SiuSioSiauSeow
Siau
Siow
SiâuSiew
Siaw
SieuViet.Tiêu*sˤiwSewKingdom of Xiao
Kor.So ()
Jap.Shō
3458TiánT'ien2Tin4TinChanTiânChan
Chang
ThiènThien
Then
ThiénViet.Điền*lˤiŋDenfield, farmland
Kor.Jeon (전)
Jap.Den
3529DǒngTung3Dung2TungTongTángTongTúngTungTûngViet.Đổngdirect, supervise
Kor.Dong ()
Jap.
3633YuánYüan2Jyun4YuenWanOânWangYènYenIōnViet.Viên*ɢʷanHjwona long robe
Kor.Won ()
Jap.En
Phil.Yan
3752PānP'an1Pun1PoonPunPhoaPhuaPhânPan
Phan
PhonViet.Phanname of a river that flows into the Han
Kor.Ban ()
Jap.Han
38282Jyu1YueUÎ
Û
YeeYeeViet.Vu*ɢʷaHjuin, on, at; go to
Kor.U ()
Jap.U
3943JiǎngChiang3Zoeng2TseungCheungChiúCheoh
Chioh
TsiòngCheongChiôngViet.Tưởnga plant (hydropyrum latifolium)
Kor.Jang ()
Jap.Shō
4044CàiTs'ai4Coi3ChoiChoy
Tsoi
Toy
ChhoàChuaChhaiChai
Choi
ChhóiViet.Thái
Sái
*s.r̥ˤat-sTshajHState of Cai
Kor.Chae ()
Jap.Sai
Can.Chai
Misc.Tsay
41512Jyu4Yu
Yue
U
Yee
Î
Û
Ee
Eu
YeeViet.*laYoextra, surplus
Kor.Yeo ()
Jap.Yo
Indon.Ie, Iman
4253Tu4Dou6ToDo
Tou
Tō·TohThuTo
Toh
ThùViet.Đỗbirchleaf pear
Kor.Du ()
Jap.To
4349Yeh4Jip6YipIp
Yeap
IapYapYa̍pYapIepViet.Diệp*lapYepleaf, page
Kor.Seob/Yeop
(/)
Jap.
Misc.Yee, Ee
4431ChéngCh'eng2Cing4ChingChengThiâThiaChhàng
Chhìn
Chang
Chin
ThángViet.Trình*C.lreŋDrjengrule, order, regulation, formula, journey, procedure
Kor.Jeong ()
Jap.Tei
4541Su1Sou1So
SouSohSohSooSuViet.*s.ŋˤaSu
Kor.So ()
Jap.So
Misc.Soo
4647WèiWei4Ngai6Ngai GūiNgwee
Ngui
NguiNgui
Wee
NgùiViet.Nguỵ
Ngụy
*N-qʰujNgjw+j
Kor.Wi ()
Jap.Gi
47403Leoi5LuiLoi
Lee
Leu
Ler
Loo
LeeLiêViet.Lữ
*raʔLjoX
Kor.Yeo/Ryeo
(/)
Jap.Ryo
4846DīngTing1Ding1

Teng4


TingDing
TengTengTénTenTiangViet.Đinh*tˤeŋTeng
Kor.Jeong ()
Jap.Tei
4959RènJen4Jam6YamIam
Yum
JîmJimNgimNgim
Yim
NìmViet.Nhiệm
Nhậm
*nəm-sNyimH
Kor.Im ()
Jap.Jin
5037ShěnShen3Sam2SumSam
Shum
SímSimShím
Sím
SimSímViet.Thẩm
Trầm
*l̥əmʔSyimX
Kor.Shim ()
Jap.Shin
5164YáoYao2Jiu4YiuYeow
Io
Iu
IâuYeoYàoYauIēuViet.Diêu
Kor.Yo ()
Jap.
5242Lu2Lou4LoLouLô·LohLooViet.
Kor.No/Ro
(/)
Jap.Ryo
5360JiāngChiang1Goeng1KeungGeung
Keong
Kiang
Kiu
KiangKiôngKeongKiongViet.Khương*C.qaŋKjang
Kor.Kang ()
Jap.Kyō
5474CuīTs'ui1Ceoi1ChuiChoiChuiChui
Chwee
TshûiChooiChhoiViet.Thôi*dzˤujDzwoj"High Mountain"
Kor.Choi ()
Jap.Sai
Misc.Tseui
5556ZhōngChung1Zung1ChungChongChiong
Cheng
ChengChûng
Tsung
Chong
Chung
TungViet.ChungState
of
Zhongli
Kor.Jong ()
Jap.Shō
5665TánT'an2Taam4TamTom
Ham
Hom
ThâmThamThàmThamThómViet.ĐàmState
of
Tan
Kor.Dam ()
Jap.Tan
5770Lu4Luk6LukLokLiokLoke
Lek
Liu̍kLukLiukViet.Lục*rukLjuwkLand, Six
Kor.Yuk/Ryuk
(/)
Jap.Riku
5857WāngWang1Wong1Wong Ong
Ang
WangVongWongUongViet.Uông*qʷˤaŋ'Wang
Kor.Wang ()
Jap.Ō
5961FànFan4Faan6Fan HoānHuan
Huang
FamFamFànViet.Phạm*bomʔBjomX
Kor.Beom ()
Jap.Han
6069JīnChin1Gam1KamGumKimKimKîmKimKimViet.Kim*kəmKim"Gold"
Kor.Kim ()
Jap.Kin
6163ShíShih2Sek6Sek
Shek
Seac
Seak
Chioh
Cheoh
Sha̍k
Sak
ShakSakViet.Thạch*dakDzyek"Stone"
Kor.Seok (석)
Jap.Seki,Ishi
6266LiàoLiao4Liu6LiuLew
Leow
Liew
Lio
LiāuLeow
Liau
Liow
LiauLiew
Liau
LièuViet.Liêu
Liệu
Kor.Ryo ()
Jap.Ryō
6345JiǎChia3Gaa2KaGa KiaKaViet.Giả*C.qˤ<r>aʔ-sKaeH"Merchant"
Kor.Ga ()

Go ()
Jap.Ka
6455XiàHsia2Haa6Ha Hah
Hay
HaHaViet.HạXia Dynasty
Kor.Ha ()
Jap.Ka
65 WéiWei2Wai4WaiVai WeeVúi
Wooi
Wee
Viet.Vi
Kor.Wi ()
Jap.I
6636
()
Fu4Fu6Fu
Foo
 PohFuFuViet.Phó*pa-sPjuH
Kor.Bu ()
Jap.Fu
6762FāngFang1Fong1Fong Png
Hong
PungFôngFongFongViet.Phương*C.paŋPjang
Kor.Bang ()
Jap.
Misc.
6873BáiPai2Baak6Pak BakPeh
Pek
PehPha̍kPak
Phak
PhakViet.Bạch*bˤrakBaek"White"
Kor.Baek ()
Jap.Haku
Misc.Bo
6967ZōuTsou1Zau1ChowJao
Chau
Cho·Chou
Choh
TsêuChew
Chiew
ChiuViet.Trâu
Kor.Chu ()
Jap.
7084MèngMeng4Maang6Mang BēngMengMenMangMàngViet.Mạnh*mˤraŋ-sMaengH
Kor.Maeng ()

Mang ()
Jap.
7168XióngHsiung2Hung4HungHong HimYùngYoongHiūngViet.Hùng"Bear"
Kor.Ung ()
Jap.
7278QínCh'in2Ceon4ChunTseun

Tseon Chon

ChînChingTshìnChinChhínViet.Tần*dzinDzinQin Dynasty
Kor.Jin ()
Jap.Shin
7377Qiū1Ch'iu1Jau1YauIao
Iau
Khu
Cu
KhooKhiû
Hiû
Hew
Khew
KhiuViet.Khâu
Kor.Koo ()
Jap.Kyū
Mal.Hew, Hiew
Chiew
Misc.Chiou
7479JiāngChiang1Gong1Kong KangKangKôngKongKongViet.Giang*kˤroŋKaewng
Kor.Gang ()
Jap.
Misc.Kiang
7591YǐnYin3Wan5Wan  Un
Eun
Eung
YúnYoonÍnViet.Doãn*m-qurʔYwinX
Kor.Yun ()
Jap.In
7648XuēHsüeh1Sit3Sit SeetSihSietSetSiotViet.Tiết
Kor.Seol ()
Jap.Setsu
7750
()
YánYen2Jim4YimImGiâmNgiamNgiàmNgiam
Yam
IēmViet.Diêm
Kor.Yeom ()
Jap.En
7887DuànTuan4Dyun6TuenTunTōa
Tōan
Tng
Theng
Tng
Teung
ThonTon
Thon
ThònViet.Đoàn
Kor.Dan ()
Jap.Dan
7988LéiLei2Leoi4LuiLoi LuiLùiLooi
Lui
LōiViet.Lôi*C.rˤujLwoj"Thunder"
Kor.Roe ()
Noe ()
Jap.Rai
HoisanLouie, Louis
8082HóuHou2Hau4HauHaoHâu
Jao
HohHèuHewHéuViet.Hầu
Kor.Hu
(, )
Jap.
8185LóngLung2Lung4Lung
Loong
LongLêngLengLiùngLoongLiūngViet.Long"Dragon"
Kor.Yong/Ryong
(/)

Rong ()

Nong ()

Bang ()
Jap.Ryū
8280ShǐShih3Si2SzeSiSee
Seet
Ser
Seu
Sze
Sṳ́Soo
Sze
Viet.Sử
Kor.Sa ()
Jap.Shi
83 TáoT'ao2Tou4Tou

To

TowTowThàu
Thò
Tao
Tow
ThóuViet.Đào
Kor.Do ()
Jap.
8493Li2Lai4Lai Loy
Lài
Lee
Lai
Viet.
Kor.Yeo/Ryeo
(/)
Jap.Rei
85974
Ho4
Ho6Ho HorHo
Fo
HoViet.Hạ
Kor.Ha ()
Jap.Ga
8681Ku4Gu3KuGoo
Gu

Khoo

Kò·KohKuKooViet.Cố
Kor.Go ()
Jap.Ko
8776MáoMao2Mou4MoMouMô·Mor
Mâu
Mo
Mao
MōuViet.Mao"Fur, Hair"
Kor.Mo (모)
Jap.
8871HǎoHao3Kok3Kok   Khok HokViet.Hác
Kor.Hak ()
Jap.Kaku
8999GōngKung1Gung1KungKwongKong4KióngKiûngKongKiungViet.Cung
Kor.Gong ()
Jap.Kyū
9083ShàoShao4Siu6ShiuShaw
Sio
Siō Shau
Sau
ShaoSèuViet.Thiệu
Kor.So ()
Jap.Shō
9186WànWan4Maan6ManMeng Bān VanWan
Man
MànViet.Vạn
Kor.Man ()
Jap.Ban
9289QiánCh'ien2Cin4ChinChee ChîTshiènChenChhiénViet.Tiền
Kor.Jeon ()
Jap.Sen
93 YánYen2Jim4YimImGiâm NgiàmYamNgiēmViet.Nghiêm
Kor.Eom ()
Jap.Gen
94 TánT'an2Taam4Tam   Thàm ThómViet. *N-r[a]mʔYemX
Kor.Dam ()
Jap. 
9595Wu3Mou5MoMou  Moo
Woo
Viet.
*maʔMjuX
Kor.Mu ()
Jap.Bu
9654DàiTai4Daai3TaiTaiTaiThàiViet.Đái
Đới
*Cə.tˤək-sTojH
Kor.Dae ()
Jap.Tai
Phil.Ty, Tee
97 Mo4Mok6  MokMài Mo̍kMokMokViet.Mạc*mˤakMak
Kor.Mo ()
Jap. 
9872KǒngK'ung3Hung2Hung  KhúngKoong
Khoong
KhúngViet.Khổng*kʰˤoŋʔKhuwngX
Kor.Kong ()
Jap.
99 
XiàngHsiang4Heung3 Heung   Hióng HiòngViet.Hưởng*qʰaŋ-s
*n̥aŋʔ-s
XjangH
Kor.Hyang ()
Jap.Mukai
10090TāngT'ang1Tong1  Tong  ThôngThong
Tong
ThongViet.Thang*l̥ˤaŋThang
Kor. 
Jap. 
 75KāngKang1Hong1 Hong KhngKhôngKhong
Kong
KhongViet.Khang*k-l̥ˤaŋKhang
Kor.Gang ()
Jap.
 92I4Yi6

Yik6 

   Yit IakViet.Dịch*lek-sYeH
Kor.Yee ()
Jap. 
 94ChángCh'ang2Soeng4 SheungSiôngSòngSongSōngViet.Thường*daŋDzyang
Kor.Sang ()
Jap.
Misc.Sōng, Thōng
 96QiáoCh'iao2Kiu4  Kiu KhiàuKiew
Khiew
KhiéuViet.Kiều*N-kawGjew
Kor.Kyo ()
Jap.Kyō
 98LàiLai4Laai6LayLaiLay LaiLàiLàiViet.Lại*rˤat-sLajH
Kor.Roe ()

Noe ()
Jap.Rai
 100WénWen2Man4 ManBûnVùnVoonMūnViet.Văn*mənMjun
Kor.Moon ()
Jap.Bun♙ 
Other surveys
  • 2006 multi-year survey and study conducted by Yuan Yida, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences's Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, using a sample size of 296 million spread across 1,110 counties and cities and recording around 4,100 surnames.[16]
  • 1990: Ji Yuwen Publishing House, based on a sample size of 174,900.
  • 1987 study conducted by Yuan Yida with a sample size of 570,000.
  • 1977 study published by Li Dongming, a Chinese historian, as "Surname" (《姓》) in Dongfang Magazine.

Taiwan[edit]

Taiwanese surnames by frequency:
  陳 Chen (11.06%)
  林 Lin (8.28%)
  黃 Huang (6.01%)
  張 Chang (5.26%)
  李 Li (5.11%)
  王 Wang (4.12%)
  吳 Wu (4.04%)
  劉 Liu (3.17%)
  蔡 Tsai (2.91%)
  楊 Yang (2.66%)
  Other (47.4%)

According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior's Department of Population in February, 2005,[6] Taiwan has only 1,989 surnames. The top ten surnames in Taiwan accounted for 52.63% of the general population, and the top 100 accounted for 96.11%.[6]

RankCharacterRomanizations %
of total
pop.
2005Mainland
(2007)
MandarinCantoneseMinnanOther
Trad.Simp.PinyinWadeJyutpingHKOtherPOJOther
15ChénCh'en2Can4ChanChinChunTânTing11.06%
219LínLin2Lam4LamLumLîmLim, Liem8.28%
37HuángHuang2Wong4WongWang
Vong
NgEng, Ung
Wee, Oei
Ooi, Uy
Bong
6.01%
43ZhāngChang1Zoeng1CheungChong
Cheong
TiuTeo, Teoh
Tio, Thio
Tiew
Tiong5.26%
52Li3Lei5Lee
Li
Le
Lei
Lee
Lie
Dee
5.11%
61WángWang2Wong4WongVongÔngHeng4.12%
79Wu2Ng4NgUng
Eng
Gô·
Ngô·
Goh, GouwWoo4.04%
84LiúLiu2Lau4LauLao
Lou
LâuLow
Lao, Lauw
3.17%
940CàiTs'ai4Coi3ChoiChoy
Tsoi
Toy
ChhoàChua, Choa
Tjoa
Tsay
Chai
2.91%
106YángYang2Joeng4YeungYeong
Ieong
IûⁿEaw
Yeo, Yeoh
Yong
Joe, Yo
Young2.66%

Other common surnames in Taiwan are listed by rank below. This report is based on the 2005 study. The traditional character is listed before the slash while the simplified character is listed after the slash. The ranking in the PRC (based on the 2007 study) is listed in the parenthesis. The Wade-Giles romanization is also listed first in the brackets, and the Hanyu Pinyin romanization is listed second in the brackets.

11. 許 / 许 (26) [Hsü3,Xǔ]

12. 鄭 / 郑 (21) [Cheng4,Zhèng]

13. 謝 / 谢 (23) [Hsieh4,Xiè]

14. 郭 / 郭 (16) [Kuo1,Guō]

15. 洪 / 洪 (above 100) [Hung2,Hóng]

16. 邱 / 邱 (73) [Ch'iu1,Qiū]

17. 曾 / 曾 (32) [Tseng1,Zēng]

18. 廖 / 廖 (62) [Liao4,Liào]

19. 賴 / 赖 (above 100) [Lai4,Lài]

20. 徐 / 徐 (11) [Hsü2,Xú]

21. 周 / 周 (10) [Chou1,Zhōu]

22. 葉 / 叶 (43) [Yeh4,Yè]

23. 蘇 / 苏 (45) [Su1,Sū]

24. 莊 / 庄 (above 100) [Zhuang1, Zhuāng]

25. 江 / 江 (74) [Chiang1,Jiāng]

26. 呂 / 吕 (47) [Lü3,Lǚ]

27. 何 / 何 (17)[Hê2 or Ho2,Hé]

28. 羅 / 罗 (20)[Lo2,Luó]

29. 高 / 高 (18) [Kao1,Gāo]

30. 蕭 / 萧 (33) [Hsiao1,Xiāo]

Other surveys
  • 1994–2011: The American researcher Chih-Hao Tsai has compiled unauthoritative annual surveys of the most common surnames on Taiwan[17] based on published lists of all successful applicants taking Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Exam.[18] The test was mandatory for college entrance until 2002 and is still quite common, with more than a hundred thousand successful applicants a year and a pass rate for all test takers between 60 and 90%.[18]

Diaspora[edit]

Canada[edit]

Statistics Canada has not released a list of common surnames for any of its recent censuses, but much of the Canadian Chinese population is clustered in Metro Vancouver and Greater Victoria in British Columbia and the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the Ottawa-Gatineau Area in Ontario, as well as in some emerging major clusters, such as the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta, Montreal, and the Communauté métropolitaine de Québec (Quebec Community Metropolitan Area) in Quebec.

Ontario[edit]

A 2010 study by Baiju Shah & al data-mined the Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients in the province of Ontario for a particularly Chinese-Canadian name list. Ignoring potentially non-Chinese spellings such as Lee (49,898 total)[19]:Table 1, they found that the most common Chinese names in Ontario were:[19]

RankNameTotal NumberCharacter(s)Romanization
Trad.Simp.
1Wong34,567Wáng, Wong
Huáng, Hwang, Wang, Whang, Wong
Wāng, Wong
2Chan32,692Chan, Chén
3Li27,608Le, Lee, Lei, Lǐ
Lai, Le, Lee, Lei, Lí
4Chen25,618Chan, Chén
5Wang22,548Wáng, Wong
Wāng, Wong
6Liu18,784Lau, Liew, Liú, Low
Lau, Lew, Liào, Lieu, Liew, Liu
7Zhang18,003Chang, Cheung, Teo, Zhāng, Zheung
8Lam15,910Lam, Lín
Lán
9Leung13,696Leung, Liáng
10Ho12,830Hé, Ho
Hè, Ho

Indonesia[edit]

Nearly as large is the Chinese Indonesian community. The 2010 Indonesian census reported more than 8.8 million self-identified Chinese, making up 3.7% of the general population.[20] Just as in Thailand, though, previous legislation (in this case, 127/U/Kep/12/1966) had banned ethnic Chinese surnames throughout the country. This law was abolished after the removal of Suharto, but Chinese names remain a mix of Indonesian, pinyin, and Dutch-influenced Hokkien.

Malaysia[edit]

During the 2010 Malaysian Census, approximately 6,960,000 Malaysians – almost a quarter of the population – self-identified as "Chinese".[21] They are among the few Malaysians who have a continuous surname, as most Malaysians go by patronymics instead.

Singapore[edit]

Singaporean surnames by frequency:
  Tan
(9.5%)
  Lim
(6.6%)
  Lee
(4.5%)
  Ng
(4.2%)
  Ong
(2.7%)
  Wong
(2.6%)
  Goh
(2.2%)
  Chua
(2.2%)
  Chan
(1.9%)
  Koh
(1.9%)
  Teo
(1.9%)
  Ang
(1.7%)
  Yeo
(1.5%)
  Tay
(1.4%)
  Ho
(1.4%)
  Low
(1.3%)
  Toh
(1.0%)
  Sim
(0.9%)
  Chong
(0.9%)
  Chia/Seah
(0.9%)
  Other
(48.8%)

Ethnic Chinese make up almost three-fourths (2009) of Singapore's resident population of nearly four million (2011).

According to Statistics Singapore, as of the year 2000, the most common Chinese Singaporean names were:[22]

RankNameOriginTotal Number
(2000)
 %
(Chinese population)
Character(s)Pinyin
Trad.Simp.
1TanHokkien
Teochew
Hainanese
237,8009.5Chén
2LimHokkien
Teochew
Hainanese
Hakka
166,0006.6Lín
3LeeHokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
Hainanese
Hakka
112,6004.5
4NgHokkien
Teochew
106,2004.2Huáng
Hakka
Cantonese
5OngHokkien66,7002.7Wáng
Wāng
6WongCantonese
Hainanese
Hakka
65,0002.6Wáng
Wāng
Huáng
7GohHokkien
Teochew
56,2002.2
8ChuaHokkien
Teochew
54,6002.2Cài
9ChanHokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
48,4001.9Chén
Zēng
10KohHokkien
Teochew
48,1001.9
11TeoHokkien
Teochew
46,8001.9Zhāng
12AngHokkien
Teochew
43,6001.7Hóng
13YeoHokkien
Teochew
36,6001.5Yáng
14TayTeochew35,8001.4Zhèng
15HoHokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
Hakka
35,0001.4
16LowTeochew
Hokkien
31,6001.3Liú
17TohTeochew
Hokkien
25,3001.0
Zhuó
18SimTeochew
Hokkien
23,8000.9Shěn
19ChongHakka23,1000.9Zhuāng
Zhāng
20Chia
Seah
Teochew
Hokkien
22,6000.9Xiè

Thailand[edit]

The largest Chinese diaspora community in the world are the Chinese Thais (or Sino-Thais), who make up 12–14%[23][24] of the total Thai population. However, very few of the Chinese Thais have Chinese surnames, after the 1913 Surname Act that required the adoption of Thai surnames in order to enjoy Thai citizenship. Moreover, the same law requires that those possessing the same surname be related, meaning that immigrant Chinese may not adopt the surname of their clansmen unless they can show actual kinship.

United States[edit]

The 2010 US Census found 3,794,673 self-identified Chinese Americans and 230,382 self-identified Taiwanese Americans,[25] up from 2,734,841 Chinese Americans and 144,795 Taiwanese Americans in 2000.[26]

Although the Chinese make up the largest segment of America's Asian and Pacific Islander population,[27] the most common Chinese-derived surname during the 2000 census was not itself Chinese but the Vietnamese Nguyễn (Chinese: , Ruǎn).[2]

During the 2000 census, the 10 most common Chinese American names were:[28]

RankNameEthnicity
[29]
Total Number
(2000 census; API only)
Character(s)Pinyin
Among
API
Across
All Names
Trad.Simp.
224LeeChinese229,200
Korean
6262ChenChinese100,700Chén
7279WongChinese
(Cantonese)
88,000Wáng
Huáng
Wāng
9399YangChinese
(Mandarin)
69,000Yáng
10440WangChinese63,800Wáng
Wāng
11426ChangChinese62,900Zhāng
Cháng
12461ChanChinese
(Cantonese)
59,800Chén
14521LiChinese55,700
17626LinChinese47,000Lín
18652LiuChinese45,500Liú
Liào
Other surveys
  • 2002: study by Matthew Falkenstein, data-mining the 2000 US Census for a particularly Asian & Pacific Islander name list,[30] omitting those like Lee that are common among other ethnicities
  • 2000: study by Diane Lauderdale, et al., data-mining Social Security card applications by persons born abroad before 1941 for a particularly Chinese-American name list[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Xinhua Net. "我国汉族公民最长姓名达15字 公安部:起名不规范会有不便 [My Country's Han Citizens' Longest Name Reaches 15 Characters]". 12 Dec 2007. Accessed 16 Mar 2012. (Chinese)
  2. ^ a b c United States Census Bureau. "Genealogy Data: Frequently Occurring Surnames from Census 2000". 27 Sept 2011. Accessed 29 Mar 2012.
  3. ^ a b Word, David L. & al. "Demographic Aspects of Surnames from Census 2000". 26 Jun 2001. Accessed 3 Feb 2012.
  4. ^ Prest, Kevin. "X三Y四: Similar Chinese Idioms (Chengyu)". 4 Mar 2011. Accessed 5 Apr 2012.
  5. ^ a b c "公安部统计:'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人 [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]." 24 Apr 2007. Accessed 27 Mar 2012.(Chinese)
  6. ^ a b c Op. cit. 中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典. "中国台湾姓氏排行 [Taiwan (China) Surname Ranking]". 8 Jun 2010. Accessed 1 Apr 2012. (Chinese)
  7. ^ McFarlan, Donald. 1990 Guinness Book of World Records. Sterling Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN 189205101X.
  8. ^ Beijing News. "一个“张伟”找到29万人 [One Name 'Zhang Wei' Covers 290,000 People]". 26 Jul 2007. Accessed 16 Mar 2012. (Chinese)
  9. ^ Xinhua News. 24 Apr 2007. "中国姓氏排行 [Chinese Surname Ranking]". op. cit. "天下第一大姓——王 [Tianxia's #1 'Big Family'—Wang]." 14 Nov 2007. Accessed 26 Mar 2012.
  10. ^ Baidu Baike. "新百家姓 [The New Hundred Family Surnames]". (Chinese)
  11. ^ People's Daily Online. "China issues first set of stamps of Chinese family names". 19 Nov 2004. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  12. ^ 挑灯看剑 踏雪寻梅. "新'百家姓'图腾,快来看看您的尊姓啥模样 [The New Hundred Family Surnames's Totems: Quick, Come Look at Your Honorable Surname's Picture]". 12 Dec 2011. Accessed 28 Mar 2012. (Chinese)
  13. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik. "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995 , 2000 and 2010". 2009. Accessed 29 Mar 2012.
  14. ^ Lafraniere, Sharon (21 April 2009). "Name Not on Our List? Change It, China Says". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction PDF (1.93 MB). 2011. Accessed 17 March 2013.
  16. ^ The results of this survey were previously published at the National Citizen Identity Information Center's website at http://www.nciic.com.cn/yewufanwei-rksu-mfcp2.htm. However, the link is now dead.
  17. ^ Tsai, Chih-Hao. "Common Chinese Names". 8 Aug 2011. Accessed 30 Mar 2012.
  18. ^ a b Tsai, Chih-Hao. "A List of Chinese Names". 8 Aug 2011. Accessed 30 Mar 2012.
  19. ^ a b Shah, B. R.; Chiu, M.; Amin, S.; Ramani, M.; Sadry, S.; Tu, J. V. (2010). "Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: A validation study". BMC Medical Research Methodology 10: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-42. PMC 2877682. PMID 20470433.  edit
  20. ^ Statistics Indonesia. 2010 Census. Op. cit. in "Racism remains for Chinese – Indonesians". The Jakarta Post. 2012-01-22. Retrieved 2012-02-18. 
  21. ^ Population and Housing Census, Malaysia 2010 (2010 Census). Malaysia: Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 2010. Retrieved 4 Apr 2011. 
  22. ^ Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
  23. ^ US State Department. "Background Note: Thailand". 3 Jan 2012. Accessed 4 Apr 2012.
  24. ^ US Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. "Thailand". 20 Mar 2012. Accessed 4 Apr 2012.
  25. ^ United States Census Bureau. "QT-P8. Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010 2010. Census Summary File 1". 2010. Accessed 3 Apr 2012.
  26. ^ United States Census Bureau. "The Asian Population: 2000". Feb 2002. Accessed 3 Apr 2012.
  27. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census 2000: Chinese Largest Asian Group in the United States". 4 Mar 2002. Accessed 29 Mar 2012.
  28. ^ Other popular Asian & Pacific Islander names are the Vietnamese names Nguyen (#1), Tran (#5), Le (#8), and Pham (#13); the Korean names Kim (#3) and Park (#15); and the Indian names Patel (#4) and Singh (#16).
  29. ^ a b Lauderdale, Diane S.; et al. (2000). "Asian American ethnic identification by surname" (PDF). Population Research & Policy Review 19: 283–300. .
  30. ^ Falkenstein, Matthew R. "The Asian & Pacific Islander surname list: as developed from Census 2000". Joint Statistical Meetings 2002. (New York), 2002.

External links[edit]