List of coffee varieties

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
Map of coffee bean production: r for C. robusta, a for C.arabica, and m for both species
List and origin of arabica varieties PDF,TIF

Coffee varieties are the diverse cultivars derived through selective breeding or natural selection of coffee plants.

Coffee beans from different places may have distinctive characteristics such as flavor (flavor criteria include terms such as "citrus-like" or "earthy"), caffeine content, body or mouthfeel, and acidity. These reflect the local environment where the coffee plants are grown, their method of process, and the genetic subspecies. In this sense, coffee can be considered similar to wine, which also demonstrates clear regional variation. Coffee from a single geographical location is called single-origin.

Terminology[edit]

Variety, varietal and cultivar have been used to refer to the various forms of coffee grown around the world.

Cultivar, selections and forms of cultivated plants; it must be visually distinct from other cultivars, and it must be possible to propagate it reliably.

Variety a more common and more popular term for cultivar, especially in wine.

Varietal is a wine made from or belonging to a single specified variety of grape. The coffee industry has somewhat adopted this term, but instead of using it to refer to a coffee of a specific variety or cultivar (e.g., Bourbon coffee), it is used in the place of the term variety or cultivar.

Arabica varieties[edit]

Coffee from the species Coffea arabica are considered to have richer flavor than Coffea robusta. C. arabica has many different varieties, each with unique characteristics. Some well-known arabica coffees include:

VarietyArabicaRegion(s)CommentsRef
ArushaArabicaMount Meru in Tanzania, and Papua New Guineaeither a Typica variety or a French Mission.[1]
Bergendal, SidikalangArabicaIndonesiaBoth are Typica varieties which survived the Leaf Rust Outbreak of the 1880s; most of the other Typica in Indonesia was destroyed.
Blue MountainArabicaBlue Mountains region of Jamaica. Also grown in Kenya, Hawaii, Papua New Guinea (where it is known as PNG Gold) and Cameroon (where it is known as Boyo).A unique mutation of Typica.
BourbonArabicaRéunion, Rwanda, Latin America.Around 1708 the French planted coffee on the island of Bourbon (now called Réunion) in the middle of the Indian Ocean, all probably from the same parent stock – the plant the Dutch gave them. Unsurprisingly, it mutated slightly and was planted throughout Brazil in the late 1800s and eventually spread through Latin America. Bourbon produces 20–30% more fruit than Typica varieties. El Salvador is known as the Bourbon Country.
CatuaiArabicaLatin AmericaThis is a hybrid of Mundo Novo and Caturra bred in Brazil in the late 40s.[2]
CaturraArabicaLatin and Central AmericaThis is a mutation of the Bourbon variety, found near the town of Caturra, Brazil in the 1930s. It produces a higher yield than Bourbon, and this is generally due to the plant being shorter, higher yielding, and with less distance between the branches. A relatively recently selected botanical variety of the Coffea arabica species that generally matures more quickly, produces more coffee, and is more disease resistant than older, traditional arabica varieties.[3] In fact this mutation is not unique; it led to the formation of the Pacas variety in El Salvador (from Bourbon) and the Villa Sarchi in Costa Rica (from Bourbon). Genetically it is very similar to Bourbon although it usually produces a poorer cup quality but this is mainly due to the variety yielding more.[2]
CharrierianaArabica?CameroonThis is a newly found variety from Cameroon. It has gained some press recently due to its caffeine-free nature. Not yet grown commercially, but it probably will be.[4]
ColombianArabicaColombiaCoffee was first introduced to the country of Colombia in the early 1800s. Today Maragogype, Caturra, Typica and Bourbon cultivars are grown. When Colombian coffee is freshly roasted it has a bright acidity, is heavy in body and is intensely aromatic. Colombia accounts for about 12% of the coffee market (by value) in the world, third in volume after Vietnam and Brazil.
Ethiopian HararArabicaEthiopiaFrom the region of Harar, Ethiopia. Known for its complex, fruity flavor that resembles a dry red wine. All three Ethiopian varieties are trademarked names with the rights owned by Ethiopia.
Ethiopian SidamoArabicaEthiopiaFrom the Sidamo (now Oromia) region of Ethiopia as well. All three Ethiopian varieties are trademarked names with the rights owned by Ethiopia.
Ethiopian YirgacheffeArabicaEthiopiaFrom the Yirgachefe district in the Gedeo Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia. All three Ethiopian varieties are trademarked names with the rights owned by Ethiopia.[5]
French MissionArabicaAfricaFrench Mission is actually Bourbon that was planted in East Africa by French Missionaries around 1897.[6]
Gesha / Geisha T.2722ArabicaEthiopia, Tanzania, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, PeruGesha or Geisha variety, grown in the highlands of Boquete in Chiriquí Province, Panama, highly sought after at auction, achieving high prices. Originally from the village of Gesha, Ethiopia. It was planted in the 1950s as a rust resistant crop and rediscovered in the early 2000s. The most expensive varietal at coffee auctions, fetching $170USD in 2010.[7]
Guadeloupe BonifieurArabicaGuadeloupe[8]
Hawaiian KonaArabicaHawaiiGrown on the slopes of Hualalai in the Kona District on the Big Island of Hawaii. Coffee was first introduced to the Islands by Chief Boki, the Governor of Oahu, in 1825.
JavaArabica, Robusta and interspecific hybridsIndonesiaFrom the island of Java, in Indonesia. This coffee was once so widely traded that "java" became a slang term for coffee. Java encompasses a regional style, not a cultivar of coffee.
K7ArabicaAfricaA Kenyan selection of French Mission Bourbon selected at Legelet Estate in Muhoroni, Kenya. Selected based on cupping trials.
MaragogypeArabicaLatin AmericaMaragogype ('y') is considered to be a natural mutation from Typica. It was first discovered near Maragogipe ('i'), in Brazil's state Bahia. Maragogype is well known for producing big beans.
MayagüezArabicaAfricaA Bourbon cultivar grown in Rwanda.
MochaArabicaYemenYemeni coffee traded through the once major port of Mocha. Not to be confused with the preparation style (coffee with cocoa).
Mundo NovoArabicaLatin AmericaMundo Novo is a hybrid between Bourbon and Typica, crossed in the 1940s.
Orange, Yellow BourbonArabicaLatin AmericaRed Bourbon and Orange Bourbon are types of Bourbon that have been selected from spontaneous mutation.
PacamaraArabicaLatin AmericaPacamara is a hybrid between the Bourbon mutation Pacas and Maragogype. It was bred in El Salvador in 1958 probably to achieve a Typica variety that produces larger beans.
PacasArabicaLatin AmericaA natural mutation of the Bourbon variety found in El Salvador in 1949.
Pache ColisArabicaLatin AmericaPache Colis is a hybrid between Pache Comum and Caturra. This variety produces distinctly larger fruit and roughly textured foliage.
Pache ComumArabicaLatin AmericaIs a mutation of Typica first found in Santa Rosa, Guatemala.
Ruiri 11ArabicaKenyaRuiru 11 was released in 1985 by the Kenyan Coffee Research Station. While the variety is generally disease resistant, it produces a lower cup quality than K7[disambiguation needed], SL28 and 34.[9]
S795ArabicaIndia, IndonesiaProbably the most commonly planted Arabica in India and Southeast Asia,[10] known for its balanced cup and subtle flavour notes of mocca. Released during the 1940s, it is a cross between the Kents and S.288 varieties.[10]
SantosArabicaBrazilBrazil Santos is usually used as a grading term for Brazilian coffee rather than a variety of Arabica. The name refers to the port in Brazil where coffee passed through, and was regarded as higher quality than "Brazilian coffee". Brazilian Santos is usually of the Bourbon variety.
SarchimorInterspecific hybridCosta Rica, IndiaA hybrid between the Costa Rican Villa Sarchi and the Timor variety. Because of its Timor parent, Sarchimor is quite resistant to leaf rust disease and stem borer. As well as Costa Rica, it is grown in India.
SL28ArabicaKenyaA selection, by Scott Labs in Kenya from the Tanganyika Drought Resistant variety from northern Tanzania in 1931. Excellent flavour, commonly blackcurrant acidity.[6]
SL34ArabicaKenyaSelected by Scott Labs from the French Mission variety grown in Kenya. Selected for its superior cup quality (although inferior to SL28), but not resistant to CBD, CLR or BBC.
Sulawesi Toraja KalossiArabicaIndonesiaActually the S795 varietal, grown at high altitudes on the island of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), Indonesia. Kalossi is the small town in central Sulawesi which serves as the collection point for the coffee and Toraja is the mountainous area in which the coffee is grown. Sulawesi exhibits a rich, full body, well-balanced acidity and is multi-dimensional in character. Sulawesi itself is not a cultivar of coffee.
Sumatra Mandheling and Sumatra LintongArabicaIndonesiaMandheling is named after the similarly spelled Mandailing people located in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The name is the result of a misunderstanding by the first foreign purchaser of the variety, and no coffee is actually produced in the "Mandailing region". Lintong on the other hand, is named after the Lintong district, also located in North Sumatra. This is not a specific cultivar, but rather a region with a specific processing style.
Timor, ArabustaInterspecific hybridIndonesiaTimor is not actually a variety of coffea arabica, but a hybrid of two species of coffee; coffea arabica and coffea canephora (also called Robusta). It was found on the island of Timor around the 1940s and it was cultivated because of its resistance to leaf rust (which most arabica coffee is susceptible to). It is called Hybrido de Timor in the Americas and Tim Tim or Bor Bor in Indonesia. Another hybrid between the two species is called Arabusta but generally only found in Africa.
TypicaArabicaWorldwideTypica originated from Yemeni stock, taken first to Malabar, India, and later to Indonesia by the Dutch. It later made its way to the West Indies to the French colony at Martinique. Typica has genetically evolved to produce new characteristics, often considered new varietals: Criollo (South America), Arabigo (Americas), Kona (Hawaii), Pluma Hidalgo (Mexico), Garundang (Sumatra), Jamaica Blue Mountain (Jamaica), San Bernado & San Ramon (Brazil), Kents & Chickumalgu (India)
UgandaArabica/RobustaAlthough it mostly produces Robusta coffee, there is a quality Arabica bean grown there known as Bugishu around the Sipi Falls area.[citation needed]

Robusta varieties[edit]

While not separate varieties of bean, unusual and very expensive robustas are the Indonesian Kopi Luwak and the Philippine "Kape Alamid[11]". The beans are collected from the droppings of the Common Palm Civet, whose digestive processes give it a distinctive flavor.

Unroasted coffee beans of the Robusta variety (Coffea canephora)

In Northern Sumatra you have the Mussang which diets on the local Arabica coffees.

Vietnam is the world's largest Robusta producer, with Robusta accounting for 97% of Viet Nam's coffee output.[12]

Other varieties[edit]

Although not as popular as Arabica or Robusta, other varieties of coffee also exist. these include Kape Barako or Kape Baraco, (English: Barako coffee), a Liberica. variety grown in the Philippines, particularly in the provinces of Batangas and Cavite.

Production[edit]

Top Ten green coffee Producers — 11 June 2008
CountryProduction (Tonnes)Footnote
 Brazil17 000 000
 Vietnam15 580 000*
 Colombia9 400 000F
 Indonesia2 770 554*
 Ethiopia1 705 446*
 Mexico962 000F
 India954 000F
 Peru677 000
 Guatemala568 000F
 Honduras370 000F
 World7 742 675A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division


References[edit]

  1. ^ Genetic diversity in Tanzanian Arabica coffee using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers - MASUMBUKO - 2003 - Hereditas - Wiley Online Library
  2. ^ a b Arabica Coffee Bean Varietals
  3. ^ Coffeeglossary.net
  4. ^ Top 10 - 2009 | International Institute for Species Exploration
  5. ^ "Starbucks in Ethiopia coffee vow". BBC. June 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-21. "Starbucks has agreed a wide-ranging accord with Ethiopia to support and promote its coffee, ending a long-running dispute over the issue." 
  6. ^ a b Research Liason & Advisory
  7. ^ "World Record Price for Panama Geisha Coffee". Newsroom Panama. Retrieved February 27, 2012. 
  8. ^ Green and Roasted Coffee Characteristics
  9. ^ Ruiru 11 was released in 1985 by the Kenyan Coffee Research Station. While the variety is generally disease resistant, it produces a lower cup quality than K7, SL28 and 34.
  10. ^ a b Neilson, Jeff; Pritchard, Bill (2009). Value chain struggles: institutions and governance in the plantation districts of South India. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 124. ISBN 1-4051-7393-9. 
  11. ^ Redirecting
  12. ^ http://vietnamnews.vn/Economy/Business/200464/US-shows-interest-in-VN-coffee.html