List of capitals in the United States

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Washington, D.C., has been the capital of the United States since 1800. Eight other cities have served as the meeting place for the U.S. Congress and are therefore considered to have once been the capital of the United States. In addition, each of the fifty U.S. states and the five principal territories of the United States maintains its own capital.

State capitals[edit]

In 33 of the 50 U.S. states, the state capital is not the state's most populous city. Only two of the state capitals — Trenton, New Jersey, and Carson City, Nevada — border another state, while Juneau, Alaska, shares a border with the Canadian province of British Columbia.[a] The dates listed in the following table indicate the year in which the city started to continuously serve as the state's sole capital. Most states have changed their capital city at least once—see Historical state capitals for details.

State Capitals of the United States[citation needed]
StateAbr.Date of statehoodCapitalCapital sinceLand area (mi²)Rank in cities of its state by populationMunicipal population (2010 census)Metropolitan population (2010 census)Notes
AlabamaAL1819Montgomery1846155.42205,764374,536Birmingham is the state's largest city
AlaskaAK1959Juneau19062716.7331,275Juneau is the largest capital by land area. Anchorage is the state's largest city.
ArizonaAZ1912Phoenix1889474.911,445,6324,192,887Phoenix is the most populous U.S. state capital and only capital with more than 1 million citizens
ArkansasAR1836Little Rock1821116.21193,524877,091
CaliforniaCA1850Sacramento185497.26466,4882,527,123The Supreme Court of California is headquartered in San Francisco. Los Angeles is the state's largest city.
ColoradoCO1876Denver1867153.41600,1582,552,195Denver was called Denver City until 1882.
ConnecticutCT1788Hartford187517.33124,5121,212,381Bridgeport is the state's largest city, but Hartford is the largest metro area.
DelawareDE1787Dover177722.4236,047162,310Longest-serving capital in terms of statehood. Wilmington is the state's largest city.
FloridaFL1845Tallahassee182495.77181,412367,413Jacksonville is the largest city, and Miami has the largest metro area.
GeorgiaGA1788Atlanta1868131.71420,0035,268,860Atlanta is the state capital with the most populous metro area in the U.S.
HawaiiHI1959Honolulu184585.71337,256953,207
IdahoID1890Boise186563.81205,671616,561
IllinoisIL1818Springfield183754.06116,250208,182Chicago is the state's largest city.
IndianaIN1816Indianapolis1825361.51829,7181,756,221Indianapolis is the second largest city in the Midwest.
IowaIA1846Des Moines185775.81203,433580,255
KansasKS1861Topeka185656.04127,473230,824Wichita is the state's largest city.
KentuckyKY1792Frankfort179214.71425,52770,758Louisville is the state's largest city.
LouisianaLA1812Baton Rouge188076.82229,553802,484New Orleans is the state's largest city and home to the Louisiana Supreme Court. Louisiana is home to the tallest state capitol building.
MaineME1820Augusta183255.4819,136117,114Augusta was officially made the capital 1827, but the legislature did not sit there until 1832. Portland is the state's largest city.
MarylandMD1788Annapolis16946.73738,394Annapolis is the third-longest serving capital in the United States after Santa Fe and Boston. Its capitol building is the oldest still in use. It is also the smallest capital by land area. Baltimore is the state's largest city.
MassachusettsMA1788Boston163048.41617,5944,522,858Boston is the longest continuously serving capital in the United States. The Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area encompasses the state capitals of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island.
MichiganMI1837Lansing184735.05114,297464,036Lansing is the only state capital that is not also the county seat of the county in which it is situated.[citation needed] Detroit is the state's largest city.
MinnesotaMN1858Saint Paul184952.82285,0683,502,891Minneapolis is the state's largest city; it and Saint Paul form the core of the state's largest metropolitan area.
MississippiMS1817Jackson1821104.91173,514539,057
MissouriMO1821Jefferson City182627.31543,079149,807Kansas City is the state's largest city, and Greater St. Louis is the state's largest metropolitan area.
MontanaMT1889Helena187514.0628,19074,801Billings is the state's largest city.
NebraskaNE1867Lincoln186774.62258,379302,157Omaha is the state's largest city.
NevadaNV1864Carson City1861143.4655,274Las Vegas is the state's largest city.
New HampshireNH1788Concord180864.3342,695Manchester is the state's largest city.
New JerseyNJ1787Trenton17847.661084,913366,513Newark is the state's largest city. Trenton served as the US capital for a short period in the late 18th century.
New MexicoNM1912Santa Fe161037.3475,764183,732Santa Fe is the longest serving capital in the United States. El Paso del Norte served as the capital of the Santa Fe de Nuevo México colony-in-exile during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692. Santa Fe has the highest elevation of any state capital. Albuquerque is the state's largest city.
New YorkNY1788Albany179721.4697,856857,592New York City is the state's largest city.
North CarolinaNC1789Raleigh1792114.62403,8921,130,490Charlotte is the state's largest city.
North DakotaND1889Bismarck188326.9261,272108,779Fargo is the state's largest city.
OhioOH1803Columbus1816210.31787,0331,967,066Columbus is Ohio's largest city, and the fourth-largest state capital; however, the Cincinnati and Cleveland metropolitan areas are both slightly larger.
OklahomaOK1907Oklahoma City1910607.01580,0001,252,987Oklahoma City is the shortest serving current state capital in the United States.
OregonOR1859Salem185545.73154,637390,738Portland is the state's largest city.
PennsylvaniaPA1787Harrisburg18128.11949,528647,390Philadelphia is the state's largest city.
Rhode IslandRI1790Providence190018.51178,0421,630,956Providence also served as the capital 1636–1686 and 1689–1776. It was one of five co-capitals 1776–1853, and one of two co-capitals 1853–1900.
South CarolinaSC1788Columbia1786125.21131,686913,797Columbia is the largest city in South Carolina but second largest metro area and combined statistical area behind Greenville.
South DakotaSD1889Pierre188913.0813,646Sioux Falls is the state's largest city.
TennesseeTN1796Nashville1826473.32635,7101,582,264Memphis is the state's largest city, and Nashville is the largest metro area.
TexasTX1845Austin1839251.54842,5921,716,291Houston is the state's largest city and the previous capital, and Dallas–Fort Worth is the largest metro area. Austin is the largest state capital that is not also the state's largest city. Texas would have the tallest state capitol building if all of the underground work were above ground.
UtahUT1896Salt Lake City1858109.11186,4401,124,197
VermontVT1791Montpelier180510.257,855Montpelier is the least populous U.S. state capital. Burlington is the state's largest city.
VirginiaVA1788Richmond178060.14204,2141,231,675Virginia Beach is the state's largest city, and Northern Virginia is the state's largest metro area.
WashingtonWA1889Olympia185316.72246,478234,670Seattle is the state's largest city.
West VirginiaWV1863Charleston188531.6151,400304,214
WisconsinWI1848Madison183868.72233,209561,505Milwaukee is the state's largest city.
WyomingWY1890Cheyenne186921.1159,46691,738

Insular area capitals[edit]

An insular area is a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district. Those insular areas with territorial capitals are listed below.

Capitals of United States Insular Areas
Insular areaAbr.DateCapitalNotes
American SamoaAS1899Pago PagoDe facto capital of the Territory of American Samoa. Fagatogo is the official seat of government stated in the territory's constitution since 1967.
GuamGU1898HagåtñaDededo is the area's largest village.
Northern Mariana IslandsMP1947Saipan
Puerto RicoPR1898San JuanThe city of San Juan was originally called Puerto Rico while the island was called San Juan Bautista. When Ponce de León landed here it was originally named Borínquen.
U.S. Virgin IslandsVI1917Charlotte Amalie

Former national capitals[edit]

United States[edit]

Congress convenes at the Federal Hall National Memorial in New York for a special session on September 6, 2002.

From 1774 to 1800, Congress met in numerous locations; therefore, the following cities can be said to have once been the United States capital:[1]

First Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
Articles of Confederation
United States Constitution

Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii Flag of Hawaii.svg[edit]

Prior to becoming a territory of the United States in 1898, Hawaii was an independent nation. Five sites served as its capital:

Republic of Texas Flag of Texas.svg[edit]

Before joining the United States under the Texas Annexation in 1845, Texas was an independent nation known as the Republic of Texas. Seven cities served as its capital:

Unrecognized national capitals[edit]

There have been a handful of nations within the current borders of the United States which were never officially recognized as legally independent sovereign entities; however, these nations did have de facto control over their respective regions during their existence.

Vermont Republic Flag of Vermont Republic.svg[edit]

Before joining the United States as the fourteenth state, Vermont was an independent republic known as the Vermont Republic. Two cities served as the capital of the Republic:

The current capital of the State of Vermont is Montpelier.

Confederate States of America CSA FLAG 28.11.1861-1.5.1863.svg[edit]

The Confederate States of America had two capitals during its existence. The first capital was established on February 4, 1861 in Montgomery, Alabama and remained there until it was moved to Richmond on May 29, 1861. The Confederate state capitals remained the same as in the Union, although as advancing Federals used the same capitals for military districts, some of the Confederate governments were relocated or they moved out of state, traveling along with rebel armies.

Following the surrender of General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, which ended the American Civil War on April 9, 1865, the eleven southern states which had vacated their delegations gradually had their Senators and Representatives recognized and seated by Congress. The first was Tennessee on July 24, 1866, then Arkansas on June 22, 1868, Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina on June 25, 1868, Alabama on July 14, 1868, Virginia on January 26, 1870, Mississippi on February 23, 1870, Texas on March 30, 1870 and finally Georgia on July 15, 1870.

In Williams v. Bruffy the U.S. Supreme Court held that recognition of revolution “depends entirely upon its ultimate success”.[2] Likewise in the Court's decision in Texas v. White it allowed some possibility of divisibility of the union "through revolution, or through consent of the States." But in the case of the American Civil War, Texas never left the Union. Essentially, once a territory is admitted and recognized as a state, it is in perpetuity a state in the Union.[3]

State of Franklin[edit]

The State of Franklin was an autonomous, secessionist United States territory created, not long after the end of the American Revolution, from territory that later was ceded by North Carolina to the federal government. Franklin's territory later became part of the state of Tennessee. Franklin was never officially admitted into the Union of the United States and existed for only four years.

State of Muskogee[edit]

The State of Muskogee was a short-lived Native American state in Florida. It consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. It existed from 1799 to 1803. It had one capital:

Republic of West Florida[edit]

The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic consisting of parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida and Alabama.

Republic of Indian Stream[edit]

The Republic of Indian Stream was an unrecognized independent nation within the present state of New Hampshire.

California Republic 1stBearFlag.svg[edit]

Before being annexed by the United States in 1848 (following the Mexican–American War), a small portion of north-central California declared itself the California Republic, in an act of independence from Mexico, in 1846 (see Bear Flag Revolt). The republic only existed a month before it disbanded itself, to join the advancing American army and therefore became part of the United States.

The very short-lived California Republic was never recognized by the United States, Mexico or any other nation. There was one de facto capital of the California Republic:

Historical state capitals[edit]

Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals occupied or attacked by the British during the American Revolution. State governments operated where and as they could. The City of New York was occupied by British troops from 1776 to 1783. A similar situation occurred during the War of 1812, during the American Civil War in many Confederate states, and during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692 in New Mexico.

Twenty-two state capitals have been a capital longer than their state has been a state, since they served as the capital of a predecessor territory, colony, or republic. Boston, Massachusetts, has been a capital city continuously since 1630, making it the longest-running U.S. capital. Santa Fe, New Mexico, has been a capital city the longest having become capital in 1610 and interrupted only by the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692.

The table below includes the following information:

  1. The state, the year in which statehood was granted, and the state's capital (as of 2010) are shown in bold.
  2. The year listed for each capital is the starting date; the ending date is the starting date for the successor unless otherwise indicated.
  3. In many cases, former capital cities of states are outside the current state borders. These cities are indicated with the abbreviated name of the state in which the city is located (as of 2010).
Historical State Capitals of the United States of America
StateCapitalDateNotes
Alabama[5]
Statehood in 1819
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Savannah (GA)1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA)1778
Heard's Fort (GA)1780
Augusta (GA)1781
Savannah (GA)1782
Ebenezer (GA)1782
Savannah (GA)1784
Augusta (GA)1786
Louisville (GA)1796
Natchez (MS)1798Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington (MS)1802
St. Stephens1817Capital of the Territory of Alabama.
Huntsville1819Capitals of the State of Alabama.
Cahawba1820
Tuscaloosa1826
Montgomery1846Capital of the State of Alabama.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America in 1861.)
Alaska[7]
Statehood in 1959
Novo-Arkhangelsk
Sitka
1808Capital of the Russian colony of Alaska.
1867Capital of the Department of Alaska.
1900Capitals of the District of Alaska.
Juneau1906
1912Capital of the Territory of Alaska.
1959Capital of the State of Alaska.
Arizona[8]
Statehood in 1912
Santa Fe (NM)1848Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1848–1850.
1850Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla (NM)1862Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX)1862Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Fort Whipple1864Capitals of the U.S. Territory of Arizona.
Prescott1864
Tucson1867
Prescott1877
Phoenix1889
1912Capital of the State of Arizona.
Arkansas[9]
Statehood in 1836
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post1819Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw.[10]
Little Rock1821
1836Capital of the State of Arkansas.[10]
(Washington was the Confederate state capital 1863–1865.)
California[11]
Statehood in 1850
Loreto (BCS)1770Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colonies of las Californias.
Presidio Reál de San Carlos de Monterey


Monterey

1777
1804Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Alta California.
1821Capital of the Mexican province of Alta California.
1846Capital of the U.S. military government of California.
1849Capital of the Provisional government of California.
Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe
San Jose
1850Capitals of the State of California
Vallejo1852
Benicia1853
Sacramento[d]1854
Colorado[12]
Statehood in 1876
Denver City[13]1859Capitals of the extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
Golden City1860
Denver City1861Capitals of the Territory of Colorado.
Colorado City1862
Golden City1862
Denver City
Denver[14]
1867
1876Capital of the State of Colorado.
Connecticut
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY)1625Capital of the Netherlands colony of New Netherland.
Hartford1639Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut 1639–1686.
New-Haven1640Capital of the English Colony of New-Haven until its merger into the Connecticut Colony in 1662.
Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Hartford1689Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut.
joint capitals1701Hartford and New-Haven served as the "co-capitals" of the English Colony of Connecticut, with the Assembly holding its May session in Hartford and its October session in New-Haven.
1707Hartford and New-Haven joint capitals of the British Colony of Connecticut.
1776Hartford and New Haven joint capitals of the State of Connecticut.
Hartford1875Capital of the State of Connecticut.
Delaware
Statehood in 1776
Fort Kristina1638Capital of the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige.
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York (NY)
1655Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
1673Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
Philadelphia (PA)1682Capital of the English Colony of Pennsylvania.
New-Castle1704Capital of the English Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1707Capital of the British Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1776Capitals of the State of Delaware.
Dover1777
Florida[15]
Statehood in 1845
Fort de la Caroline1564Capital of the French colony of la Caroline 1564–1565.
San Agustín
St. Augustine
1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida 1565–1763.[6]
1763Capital of the British Colony of East Florida 1763–1783.
1783Capital of the Spanish colony of Florida Oriental 1783–1821.
Santa María de Ochuse
Pensacola
1763Capital of the British Colony of West Florida 1763–1783.
1783Capital of the Spanish colony of Florida Occidental 1783–1821.
Tallahassee1824Capital of the Territory of Florida.
1845Capital of the State of Florida.
Georgia[16]
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Savannah1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta1778
Heard's Fort1780
Augusta1781
Savannah1782
Ebenezer1782
Savannah1784
Augusta1786
Louisville1796
Milledgeville1807
Macon1864
Milledgeville1865
Atlanta1868
Hawaii
Statehood in 1959
Lahaina1820Capitals of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Honolulu1845
1894Capital of the Republic of Hawaii.
1898Capital of the Territory of Hawaii.
1959Capital of the State of Hawaiʻi.
Idaho[17]
Statehood in 1890
Oregon City (OR)1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[18]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (all of Idaho 1848–1853, southern Idaho 1853–1859.)
Salem (OR)1851
Olympia (WA)1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (northern Idaho 1853–1859, all of Idaho 1859–1863.)
Lewiston1863Capitals of the Territory of Idaho.
Boise1865
1890Capital of the State of Idaho.
Illinois[19]
Statehood in 1818
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
1818Capitals of the State of Illinois.
Vandalia1820
Springfield1839
Indiana
Statehood in 1816
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes1800Capitals of the Territory of Indiana.
Corydon1813
1816Capitals of the State of Indiana.
Indianapolis1825
Iowa[20]
Statehood in 1846
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa.
Iowa City1841
1846Capitals of the State of Iowa.
Des Moines1857
Kansas[21]
Statehood in 1861
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Pawnee1855Capital of the Territory of Kansas (July 2 – July 6).
Shawnee Mission1855Capital of the Territory of Kansas.
Lecompton1856Capital de jure (pro-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
TopekaCapital de facto (anti-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
1861Capital of the State of Kansas.
Kentucky[22]
Statehood in 1792
Williamsburg (VA)1699Capital of the English Colony of Virginia.
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA)1780
Frankfort1792Capital of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
(Bowling Green was the rival Confederate state capital 1861–1862.)
Louisiana[23]
Statehood in 1812
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Mobile Bay (AL)1702Capitals of the French colony of la Louisiane.
Biloxi (MS)1720
la Nouvelle-Orléans
Nueva Orleans
New Orleans
1722
1763Capital of the Spanish district of Baja Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Basse-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the Territory of Orleans.
1812Capitals of the State of Louisiana.
Donaldsonville1830
New Orleans1831
Baton Rouge1849
Opelousas1862
Shreveport1863
New Orleans1865
Baton Rouge1880
Maine[24]
Statehood in 1820
Île Sainte-Croix1604Capitals of the French colony of l'Acadie.
Port-Royal (NS)1605
Boston (MA)1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
1689Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1691Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Portland1820Capital of the State of Maine.
1827Capital de facto of the State of Maine.
AugustaCapital de jure of the State of Maine.
1832Capital of the State of Maine.
Maryland[25]
Statehood in 1776
St. Mary's City1634Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Maryland.
Anne Arundel's Towne
Annapolis

1694Capital of the English Province of Maryland.
1707Capital of the British Province of Maryland.
1776Capital of the State of Maryland.
(Capital of the United States of America 1783–1784.)
Massachusetts
Statehood in 1776
Plimouth1620Capital of the English Colony of New-Plimouth 1620–1686.
Boston1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1630–1686.
1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1686–1689.
Plimouth1688Capital of the dissident Colony of New-Plimouth 1688–1692.
Boston1689Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1689–1692.
1692Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Michigan[26]
Statehood in 1837
Marietta (OH)1788Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (all of Michigan 1788–1800, eastern Michigan 1800–1803.)
Chillicothe (OH)1800
Vincennes (IN)Capitals of the Territory of Indiana (western Michigan 1800–1803; all of Michigan 1803–1805, a portion of the Upper Peninsula 1805–1816.)
Corydon (IN)1813
Detroit1805Capital of the Territory of Michigan (Lower Peninsula 1805–1818, all of Michigan 1818–1837.)
(Detroit was occupied by British Armed Forces 1812–1813.)
1837Capitals of the State of Michigan.
Lansing1847
Minnesota[27]
Statehood in 1858
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana 1765–1800.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (west of Mississippi River 1800–1804.)
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River 1805–1812.)
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (west of Mississippi River 1812–1821.)
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (east of Mississippi River 1788–1800.)
Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana (east of Mississippi River 1800–1809.)
Kaskaskia (IL)1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois (east of Mississippi River 1809–1818.)
Detroit (MI)1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Mississippi River 1818-1834, all of Minnesota 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA)1837
1838Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1838–1841.)
Madison (WI)Capital of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Mississippi River 1838–1848.)
Iowa City (IA)1841Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1841–1846.)
Saint Paul1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota.
1858Capital of the State of Minnesota.
Mississippi[28]
Statehood in 1817
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Savannah (GA)1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA)1778
Heard's Fort (GA)1780
Augusta (GA)1781
Savannah (GA)1782
Ebenezer (GA)1782
Savannah (GA)1784
Augusta (GA)1786
Louisville (GA)1796
Natchez1798Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington1802
Natchez1817Capitals of the State of Mississippi.
Jackson1821
Missouri
Statehood in 1821
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Saint Charles1821Capitals of the State of Missouri.
(A Confederate state government in exile operated from Neosho 1861–1863, and from Marshall, Texas, 1863–1865.)
Jefferson City1826
Montana[29]
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1763–1800.)
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (east of Continental Divide 1800–1804.)
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1805–1812.)
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (east of Continental Divide 1812–1821.)
Fort Vancouver (WA)1825Capital de facto of the Oregon Country (west of Continental Divide 1818–1843.)
Oregon City (OR)1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1843–1848.)
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1848–1853.)
Salem (OR)1851
Olympia (WA)1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (west of Continental Divide 1853–1863.)
Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (east of Continental Divide 1854–1861.)
Yankton (SD)1861Capital of the Territory of Dakota (east of Continental Divide 1861–1863.)
Lewiston (ID)1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Bannack1864Capitals of the Territory of Montana.
Virginia City1865
Helena1875
1889Capital of the State of Montana.
Nebraska
Statehood in 1867
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Omaha1854Capitals of the Territory of Nebraska.
Lancaster
Lincoln
1867
1867Capital of the State of Nebraska.
Nevada[30]
Statehood in 1864
Fillmore (UT)1850Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City (UT)1858
Carson City1861Capital of the Territory of Nevada.
1864Capital of the State of Nevada.
New Hampshire[31]
Statehood in 1776
Boston (MA)1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Portsmouth1680Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Portsmouth1689Capital of the dissident Province of New Hampshire.
1691Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
1698Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1741Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire.
Exeter1775Capital of the Revolutionary War government of New Hampshire.
1776Capitals of the State of New Hampshire.
Concord1808
New Jersey
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY)1625Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland.
1652Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth)1665Capital of the English Province of New Jersey.
Perth Amboy1673Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1673–1688.
BurlingtonCapital of the English Province of West Jersey 1673–1688.
Boston (MA)1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1688–1689.
Perth Amboy1689Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1689–1702.
BurlingtonCapital of the English Province of West Jersey 1689–1702.
joint capitals1702East Jersey and West Jersey were re-united as the English Province of New Jersey in 1702. Perth Amboy and Burlington served jointly as the capital until 1784.
1707Joint capitals of the British Province of New Jersey.
1776Joint capitals of the State of New Jersey.
Trenton1784Capital of the State of New Jersey.
(Capital of the United States of America in 1784.)
New Mexico
Statehood in 1912
San Juan de los Caballeros1598Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís1610
El Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez CHH)1680Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony-in-exile of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Pueblo Revolt 1680–1692).
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís

Santa Fe
1692Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1821Capital of the Mexican province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1824Capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1846Capital of the U.S. military government of New Mexico 1846.
1846Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1846–1850.
1850Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla1862Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX)1862Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Santa Fe1912Capital of the State of New Mexico.
New York
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York
1625Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (Novum Belgium).
1652Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664Capital of the English Province of New York.
1673Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674Capital of the English Province of New York.
Boston (MA)1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
New-York1689Capital of the dissident government of New-York.
1691Capital of the English Province of New York.
1707Capital of the British Province of New York.
1776Capitals of the State of New York.
Kingston1777
Hurley1777
Poughkeepsie1777
New York1788Capital of the State of New York.
(Capital of the United States of America 1785–1788 and 1789–1790.)
Albany1797Capital of the State of New York.
North Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Charlestown (SC)1670Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
New Bern1712Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776Capitals of the State of North Carolina.
Fayetteville1789
Raleigh1794
North Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1836–1838.)
Burlington (IA)1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City (IA)1841
Saint Paul (MN)1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1849–1858.)
Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River or White Earth River 1854–1861.)
Yankton (SD)1861Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck1883
1889Capital of the State of North Dakota.
Ohio
Statehood in 1803
Marietta1788Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Chillicothe1800
1803Capitals of the State of Ohio.
Zanesville1810
Chillicothe1812
Columbus1816
Oklahoma
Statehood in 1907
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post (AR)1819Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw[10] (south of the parallel 36°30' north 1819–1824, southeastern Oklahoma 1824–1828.)
Little Rock (AR)1821
Tahlequah1838Capital of the Cherokee Nation.
Tuskahoma1838Capital of the Choctaw Nation.
Tishomingo1855Capital of the Chickasaw Nation.
Wewoka1866Capital of the Seminole Nation.
Okmulgee1867Capital of the Creek Nation.
Pawhuska?Capital of the Osage Nation.
Guthrie1889Capital of the Territory of Oklahoma.
1907Capitals of the State of Oklahoma.
Oklahoma City1910
Oregon[32]
Statehood in 1859
Champoeg1841De facto Capital of the Oregon Country
Oregon City1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[18]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem1851
Corvallis1855
Salem1855
1859Capital of the State of Oregon.
Pennsylvania[33]
Statehood in 1776
Philadelphia1682Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1707Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1776, 1777, 1778–1783, and 1790–1800.)
Lancaster1799Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1777.)
Harrisburg1812Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island
Statehood in 1776
Providence1636Capital of the English Colony of Providence 1636–1663.
Portsmouth1639Capital of the English Colony of Aquidneck Island 1639–1644.
1644Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island 1644–1663.
Providence1663Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Providence1689Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
1707Capital of the British Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
five capitals1776From 1776 to 1853, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations rotated among the county seats of the state's five counties: Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, Kingston, and Bristol.
joint capitals1854From 1854 to 1899, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations alternated sessions between Providence and Newport.
Providence1900Capital of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
South Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Charlestown1670Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
1712Capital of the British Province of South Carolina.
1776Capitals of the State of South Carolina.
Columbia1786
South Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River 1836–1838.)
Burlington (IA)1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City (IA)1841
Saint Paul (MN)1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River 1849–1858.)
Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River 1854–1861.)
Yankton1861Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck (ND)1883
Pierre1889Capital of the State of South Dakota.
Tennessee[34]
Statehood in 1796
New Bern (NC)1712Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776Capital of the State of North Carolina.
Rocky Mount1790Capitals of the Territory South of the River Ohio.
White's Fort
Knoxville
1791
1796Capital of the State of Tennessee.
Kingston1807Capital of the State of Tennessee for one day in 1807 to fulfill treaty obligations with the Cherokee Nation.
Knoxville1807Capitals of the State of Tennessee.
Nashville1812
Knoxville1817
Murfreesboro1818
Nashville1826
Texas
Statehood in 1845
Los Adaes (LA)1729Capitals of the Spanish colony of Tejas.
San Antonio de Béxar (now San Antonio)1772
Saltillo (COA)1824Capitals of the Mexican province of Coahuila y Tejas.
Monclova (COA)1833
Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos)1836Capitals of the Republic of Texas.
Galveston1836
Harrisburgh1836
Velasco1836
Columbia1836
Houston1837
Austin1839
1845Capital of the State of Texas.
Utah
Statehood in 1896
Salt Lake City1849Capital of the extralegal State of Deseret.
Fillmore1850Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City1858
1896Capital of the State of Utah.
Vermont[35]
Statehood in 1791
Westminster1777Capitals of the Republic of New Connecticut.
Windsor1777
1777Capital of the Vermont Republic.
1791Capitals of the State of Vermont.
Montpelier1805
Virginia[36]
Statehood in 1776
Jamestown1619Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation
Williamsburg
1698
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America 1861–1865.)
(A rival pro-Union state government operated from Wheeling 1861–1863 and from Alexandria 1863–1865.)
Washington[37]
Statehood in 1889
Oregon City (OR)1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[18]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem (OR)1851
Olympia1853Capital of the Territory of Washington.
1889Capital of the State of Washington.
West Virginia
Statehood in 1863
Jamestown (VA)1619Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation (VA)
Williamsburg (VA)
1698
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA)1780
Wheeling1861Capital of the rival pro-Union government of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
1863Capitals of the State of West Virginia.
Charleston1870
Wheeling1875
Charleston1885
Wisconsin[38]
Statehood in 1848
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia (IL)1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
Detroit (MI)1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA)1837
Madison1838
1848Capital of the State of Wisconsin.
Wyoming[39]
Statehood in 1890
Lewiston (ID)1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Yankton (SD)1864Capital of the Territory of Dakota.
Cheyenne1869Capital of the Territory of Wyoming.
1890Capital of the State of Wyoming.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^[a] Even though the urbanized area of Carson City is about 15 miles (24 km) from the California border, the larger Consolidated Municipality of Carson City does form part of the Nevada state border. Similarly, the City and Borough of Juneau extends eastward to British Columbia, although the urbanized area of Juneau is about 35 miles (56 km) from the Canadian border. See:[1]
^[b] Congress was forced to move from Philadelphia due to a riot of angry soldiers. See: Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783
^[c] President James Madison fled to the home of Caleb Bentley in Brookeville, Maryland following the burning of Washington on August 24–25, 1814. As such, the town claims to have been the "U.S. Capital for a Day" despite the fact that Congress never met there. See: "A Brief History". Town of Brookeville, Maryland. 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
^[d] Due to flooding in Sacramento, San Francisco served as a temporary capital from January 24, 1862 to May 15, 1862. See "California’s State Capitols 1850–present". .

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948.
  2. ^ Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan, Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession, p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
  3. ^ Texas v. White, 74 U.S. 700 (1868) at Cornell University Law School Supreme Court collection.
  4. ^ The State of Muskogee, State Flags of Florida, Cultural, Historical and Information Programs, Office of Cultural and Historical Programs website, Florida Department of State, Government of Florida, retrieved October 31, 2007.
  5. ^ Capitals of Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Updated October 29, 2001. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g The Spanish name la Florida originally referred to all of the American continent north of Mexico. As other European nations colonized North America, the extent of la Florida shrank to encompass only the Spanish territorial claims in the southeastern portion of the present United States.
  7. ^ Frequently Asked Questions About Alaska. Statewide Library Electronic Doorway. Updated September 21, 2004. Accessed June 9, 2005; based on Alaska Blue Book 1993–94, 11th ed., Juneau, Department of Education, Division of State Libraries, Archives & Museums. ExploreNorth: The History of Sitka. Department of Community and Economic Development, Alaska Community Database Online. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  8. ^ Capitals before the Capitol. Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  9. ^ Educational Materials: Facts. Arkansas Secretary of State. Accessed June 9, 2005. Washington State Park 19th century village in SW Arkansas. Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, Confederate Capital Old Division of State Parks. 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  10. ^ a b c The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. The region was organized as the Territory of Arkansaw on July 4, 1819, but the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Arkansas on June 15, 1836. The name was historically pronounced /ˈɑrkənsɔː/, /ɑrˈkænzəs/, and several other variants. In 1881, the Arkansas General Assembly passed the following concurrent resolution (Arkansas Statutes, Title 1, Chapter 4, Section 105):

    Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.

    And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.

    Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the native Indians and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.

    Citizens of the State of Kansas often pronounce the Arkansas River /ɑrˈkænzəs/ in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state.

  11. ^ Ebbert (Chief Editor), Brian S.; E. Dotson Wilson, Chief Clerk of the Assembly (2006). California's Legislature. Sacramento, California: State of California. pp. 157–165. Retrieved 2006-10-03. 
  12. ^ Early Capitol and Legislative Assembly Locations Colorado State Archives, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour. Updated June 20, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  13. ^ From December 3, 1859, to December 3, 1861, Denver City was formally the City of Denver, Auraria, and Highland.
  14. ^ On November 15, 1902, the City of Denver became the City and County of Denver.
  15. ^ Florida State History. Florida Division of Historical Resources.
  16. ^ Jackson, Edwin L. Story of Georgia's Capitols and Capital Cities. Carl Vinson Institute of Government. University of Georgia. 1988
  17. ^ Chronological History of Idaho. Idaho Office of the Governor. Created 2000. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  18. ^ a b c Clarke, S.A. (1905). Pioneer Days of Oregon History. J.K. Gill Company. 
  19. ^ Past Capitols; based on Illinois Bluebook, 1975–1976. Created March 5, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  20. ^ Sabin, Henry. Making of Iowa, chapter 24: Locating a Capital. Originally published 1900 by A. Flanagan Co. of Chicago and New York; published online by Iowa History Project, posted August 25, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  21. ^ Harding, Eldon. Stories from the Kansas State Capital: Choosing a Capital City--Why Topeka?. Kansas State Historical Society. April 2001. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  22. ^ Kentucky's State Capitols. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  23. ^ Note: The Louisiana Capitals information may be incorrect or incomplete. See http://www.state.la.us/about_history2.htm and elsewhere.
  24. ^ Students Questions Frequently Ask. Maine State Senate. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  25. ^ Historical Chronology. Maryland State Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  26. ^ Michigan in Brief State of Michigan. Updated March 7, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  27. ^ Saint Paul's 150th birthday. City of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  28. ^ Bunn, Mike and Clay Williams, Capitals and Capitols: The Places and Spaces of Mississippi's Seat of Government. Mississippi History Now. Mississippi Historical Society Online. Posted September 2003. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  29. ^ Lambert, Kirby. Montana's crown jewel of architecture: The Montana state capitol Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Montana Historical Society. Summer 2002. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  30. ^ Rocha, Guy Nevada State Archives Historical Myth a Month: Myth #28, Las Vegas: Nevada's Next State Capital. Updated July 14, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005; originally published as Sierra Sage, Carson City/Carson Valley, Nevada. May 1998 edition.
  31. ^ New Hampshire Senate Page For Kids. New Hampshire General Court. Accessed June 9, 2005. New Hampshire History in Brief. New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources. Created 1989. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  32. ^ Oregon Legislative Assembly History. Oregon State Archives. Accessed February 17, 2012.
  33. ^ The History of Pennsylvania's Capital. Pennsylvania Department of Education. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  34. ^ Capital Cities. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. 2002. Accessed March 12, 2006.
  35. ^ Early History of Montpelier, Vermont. Vermont Historical Society. Accessed June 9, 2005; adapted from Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints of History, 1977, 1996, and Montpelier Heritage Group, Three Walking Tours of Montpelier, Vt., 1991.
  36. ^ About Our Capital. Virginia General Assembly. Accessed July 20, 2006.
  37. ^ The History of Olympia. City of Olympia. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  38. ^ Cravens, Stanley H."Capitals and Capitols in Early Wisconsin". Wisconsin Blue Book, 1983–1984 edition.
  39. ^ Saban, Mary Thompson, Wyoming Sage: Brief History of Wyoming. Updated January 17, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]