List of butterflies of Australia

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Cairns Birdwing (Ornithoptera euphorion): Australia's largest endemic butterfly

Australia has more than 400 species of butterflies, the majority of which are continental species, and more than a dozen endemic species from  remote islands administered by various Australian territorial governments. The largest butterflies in the world are endemic to the Australasian ecozone. They are the birdwingsOrnithoptera and other genera—of the Troidini tribe of swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae).[1]

Papilionidae: Swallowtails[edit]

family: Papilionidae (Swallowtails) — 18+2 species [*2 non-continental species]

Papilioninae[edit]

subfamily: Papilioninae
tribe: Leptocircini (formerly Graphiini)
genus: Protographiumendemic to Australia
P. l. leosthenes (Doubleday, 1846)[2]
P. l. geimbia (Tindale, 1927)[3]
genus: Graphium (Swordtails)
G. m. macleayanus (Leach, 1814)[5]
G. m. moggana (Couchman, 1965)[6]
G. e. lycaon (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
G. e. nyctimus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
G. e. lycanoides (Rothschild, 1895)[10]
tribe: Papilionini (Fluted Swallowtails)
genus: Papilio (Linnaeus, 1758)[7]
P. a. aegeus (Donovan, 1805)[13]
P. a. ormenus (Guérin-Méneville, 1830)[14]
P. f. canopus (Westwood, 1842)[17]
P. f. capaneus (Westwood, 1843)[18]
P. f. indicatus (Butler, 1876)[19]
tribe: Troidini (Aristolochia-eating Swallowtails)
genus: Cressida
C. c. cressida (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Ornithoptera (Birdwings)
O. p. poseidon (Doubleday, 1847)[2][23]
O. p. pronomus (Gray, 1853)[22]
O. p. macalpinei (Moulds, 1974)[24]
genus: Pachliopta

Pieridae: Whites and Yellows[edit]

family: Pieridae (Whites and Yellows) — 35+2+1 species [†1 introduced species]

Pierinae: Whites[edit]

subfamily: Pierinae (Whites)
tribe: Pierini
genus: Pieris
  • †Small Cabbage White, Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758)[7] [†introduced species] — pictured right
tribe: Aporiini
genus: Cepora
C. p. scyllara (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
genus: Delias (Jezebels)
D. a. argenthona (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
D. a. inferna (Butler, 1871)[27]
D. e. nigidius (Miskin, 1884)[29]
D. e. tindalii (Joicey & Talbot, 1926)[30]
D. m. mysis  (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
D. m. aestiva  (Butler, 1897)[31]
D. m. onca  (Fruhstorfer, 1910)[32]
D. n. nysa (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
D. n. nivira (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]

Coliadinae: Yellows[edit]

subfamily: Coliadinae (Yellows)
genus: Catopsilia (Migrants or Emigrants)
C. p. crokera (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
C. s. etesia (Hewitson, 1867)[33]
  • Yellow Migrant, Catopsilia gorgophone (Boisduval, 1836)[34]
C. g. gorgophone (Boisduval, 1836)[34]
genus: Eurema (Grass-yellows)
E. b. australis (Wallace, 1867)[28]
E. b. zoraide (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
E. l. sana (Butler, 1877)[11]
E. s. smilax (Donovan, 1805)[13]
  • Broad-margined Grass-yellow, Eurema puella (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
E. p. papuan (Butler, 1898)[35]
E. p. virgo (Wallace, 1867)[28]
E. h. hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758)[7]
E. h. phoebus (Butler, 1886)[37]

Incertae sedis: Uncertain phylogeny[edit]

Incertae sedis (Uncertain phylogeny)
genus: Belenois (formerly Anaphaeis)
B. j. peristhene (Boisduval, 1859)[20]
B. j. teutonia (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Leptosia
genus: Elodina (Pearl-whites)
genus: Appias (Albatrosses)
A. a. caria (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
A. a. albina (Boisduval, 1836)[34]
A. p. ega (Boisduval, 1836)[34]

Riodinidae: Metalmarks[edit]

family: Riodinidae (Metalmarks) — 1 species

Nemeobiinae[edit]

subfamily: Nemeobiinae
genus: Praetaxila
P. s. punctaria (Fruhstorfer, 1914)[44]

Lycaenidae: Gossamer-winged Blues and Coppers[edit]

family: Lycaenidae (Gossamer-winged Blues and Coppers) — 142+7 species

Miletinae: Harvesters[edit]

subfamily: Miletinae (Harvesters)
tribe: Liphyrini
genus: Liphyra
L. b. major (Rothschild, 1898)[46]

Theclinae: Hairstreaks[edit]

subfamily: Theclinae (Hairstreaks)
tribe: Luciini
genus: Lucia
  • Chequered Copper, Lucia limbaria (Swainson, 1833)[47]
genus: Paralucia
P. p. lucida (Crosby, 1951)[49]
genus: Pseudodipsas
  • Bright Forest-blue, Pseudodipsas cephenes (Hewitson, 1874)[51]
  • Dark Forest-blue, Pseudodipsas eone (C & R Felder, 1865)[52]
P. e. iole (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Acrodipsas (Ant-blues)
genus: Hypochrysops (Jewels)
  • Copper Jewel, Hypochrysops apelles (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
H. a. apelles (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
  • Apollo Jewel, Hypochrysops apollo (Miskin, 1891)[59]
H. a. apollo (Miskin, 1891)[59]
H. a. phoebus (Waterhouse, 1928)[60]
  • Yellow Jewel, Hypochrysops byzos (Boisduval, 1832)[15]pictured right
  • Splendid Jewel, Hypochrysops cleon (Grose-Smith, 1900)[61]
  • Cyane Jewel, Hypochrysops cyane (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
  • Moonlight Jewel, Hypochrysops delicia (Hewitson, 1875)[62]
H. d. delicia (Hewitson, 1875)[62]
H. d. duaringae (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
  • Silky Jewel, Hypochrysops digglesii (Hewitson, 1874)[51]
  • Amethyst Jewel, Hypochrysops elgneri (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1909)[64]
H. e. elgneri (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1909)[64]
H. e. barnardi (Waterhouse, 1934)[65]
H. h. nebulosis (Sands, 1986)[67]
  • Fiery Jewel, Hypochrysops ignita (Leach, 1814)[5]
H. i. ignita (Leach, 1814)[5]
H. i. chrysonotus (Grose-Smith, 1899)[68]
H. i. erythina (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
H. i. oliffi (Miskin, 1889)[5]
  • Coral Jewel, Hypochrysops miskini (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
H. m. miskini (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
H. n. narcissus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
H. n. sabirus (Fruhstorfer, 1908)[69]
  • Bulloak Jewel, Hypochrysops piceata (Kerr, Macqueen & Sands, 1969)[70]
  • Royal Jewel, Hypochrysops polycletus (Linnaeus, 1758)[7]
H. p. rovena (Druce, 1891)[71]
  • Peacock Jewel, Hypochrysops pythias (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
H. p. euclides (Miskin, 1889)[41]
  • Green-banded Jewel, Hypochrysops theon (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
H. t. medocus (Fruhstorfer, 1908)[69]
H. t. cretatus (Sands, 1986)[67]
genus: Philiris (Moonbeams)
  • Azure Moonbeam, Philiris azule (Wind & Clench, 1947)[72]
  • Large Moonbeam, Philiris diana (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
P. d. diana (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
P. d. papuanus (Wind & Clench, 1947)[72]
  • Bicolour Moonbeam, Philiris fulgens (Grose, Smith & Kirby, 1897)[73]
P. f. kurandae (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
  • Purple Moonbeam, Philiris innotatus (Miskin, 1874)[74]
  • Blue Moonbeam, Philiris nitens (Grose-Smith, 1898)[75]
P. n. nitens (Grose-Smith, 1898)[75]
P. n. lucina (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
  • Sapphire Moonbeam, Philiris sappheira (Sands, 1980)[56]
  • White-margined Moonbeam, Philiris ziska (Grose-Smith, 1898)[75]
tribe: Arhopalini
genus: Arhopala (Oak-blues)
A. m. amphis (Waterhouse, 1942)[76]
A. w. wildei (Miskin, 1891)[59]
tribe: Ogyrini
genus: Ogyris (Azures)
tribe: Zesiini (Hairstreaks)
genus: Jalmenus
J. i. inous (Hewitson, 1865)[87]
J. i. notocrucifer (Johnson, Hay & Bollam, 1992)[88]
genus: Pseudalmenus
 P. c. chlorinda (Blanchard, 1948)[48]
 P. c. conara (Couchman, 1965)[6]
 P. c. zephyrus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
 P. c. myrsilus (Westwood, 1851)[77]
 P. c. chloris (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
 P. c. barringtonensis (Waterhouse, 1928)[60]
tribe: Hypolycaenini
genus: Hypolycaena
H. d. turneri (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
H. p. phorbas (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
H. p. ingura (Tindale, 1923)[90]
tribe: Deudorigini
genus: Deudorix
D. e. dido (Waterhouse, 1934)[65]
D. e. diovis (Hewitson, 1863)[92]
  • Bright Cornelian, Deudorix diovis (Hewitson, 1863)[92]
  • Orange-lobed Flash, Deudorix epirus (C Felder, 1860)[93]
D. e. agimar (Fruhstorfer, 1908)[69]
  • White-spotted Flash, Deudorix democles (Miskin, 1884)[29]
D. d. democles (Miskin, 1884)[29]
  • Princess Flash, Deudorix smilis (Hewitson, 1863)[92]
D. s. dalyensis (le Souëf & Tindale, 1970)[94]
genus: Rapala
R. v. simsoni (Miskin, 1874)[74]
genus: Bindahara
B. p. yurgama (Couchman, 1965)[6]

Polyommatinae: Blues[edit]

subfamily: Polyommatinae (Blues)
tribe: Candalidini
genus: Candalides (Pencil– and Dusky-blues)
C. h. helenita (Semper, 1879)[85]
C. m. margarita (Semper, 1879)[85]
C. c. consimilis (Waterhouse, 1942)[76]
C. c. goodingi (Tindale, 1965)[97]
C. c. toza (Kerr, 1967)[98]
C. c. cyprotus (Olliff, 1886)[99]
C. c. pallescens (Tite, 1963)[100]
C. h. hyacinthina (Semper, 1879)[85]
C. h. simplexa (Tepper, 1882)[101]
C. h. gilesi (Williams & Bollam, 2001)[102]
C. e. erinus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
C. h. heathi (Cox, 1873)[104]
C. h. alpina (Waterhouse, 1928)[60]
C. h. doddi (Burns, 1948)[106]
  • Golden-rayed Blue, Candalides noelkeri (Braby & Douglas, 2004)[107]
genus: Nesolycaena (Opals)
  • Dark Opal, Nesolycaena medicia (Miskin, 1891)[59]
  • Satin Opal, Nesolycaena albosericea (Braby, 1996)[108]
  • Spotted Opal, Nesolycaena urumelia (Tindale, 1922)[109]
  • Kimberley Spotted Opal, Nesolycaena caesia (d'Apice & Miller, 1992)[110]
tribe: Lycaenestheni
genus: Anthene (Ciliate-blues)
A. s. affinis (Waterhouse & RE Turner, 1905)[112]
A. l. godeffroyi (Semper, 1879)[85]
tribe: Polyommatini
genus: Petrelaea
  • Mauve Line-blue, Petrelaea tombugensis (Röber, 1886)[111]
genus: Nacaduba
N. b. berenice (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
N. k. parma (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
N. k. felsina (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
N. b. biocellata (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
N. c. calauria (C Felder, 1860)[93]
genus: Erysichton
E. l. lineata (Murray, 1874)[114]
E. p. tasmanicus (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Danis
  • Large Green-banded Blue, Danis danis (Cramer, 1775)[4]
D. d. serapis (Miskin, 1891)[59]
D. d. syrius (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Nothodanis
  • *Dark Green-banded Blue, Nothodanis schaeffera (Eschscholtz, 1821)[115] [*native to Murray Island]
genus: Psychonotis
P. c. taygetus (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
genus: Prosotas
P. d. dubiosa (Semper, 1879)[85]
  • Short-tailed Line-blue, Prosotas felderi (Murray, 1874)[114]
  • Long-tailed Line-blue, Prosotas nora (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
P. n. auletes (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Catopyrops
  • Papuan Line-blue, Catopyrops ancyra (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
C. a. mysia (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
  • Speckled Line-blue, Catopyrops florinda (Butler, 1877)[11]
C. f. halys (Waterhouse, 1934)[65]
C. f. estrella (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Ionolyce
  • Bronze Line-blue, Ionolyce helicon (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
I. h. hyllus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Theclinesthes
  • Bitter-bush Blue, Theclinesthes albocincta (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
  • Western Bitter-bush Blue, Theclinesthes hesperia (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. h. hesperia (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. h. littoralis (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. m. miskini (TP Lucas, 1889)[117]
T. m. eucalypti (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. m. arnoldi (Fruhstorfer, 1916)[118]
  • Cycad Blue, Theclinesthes onycha (Hewitson, 1865)[87]
T. o. onycha (Hewitson, 1865)[87]
T. o. capricornia (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
  • Saltbush Blue, Theclinesthes serpentata (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
T. s. serpentata (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
T. s. lavara (Couchman, 1954)[119]
  • Samphire Blue, Theclinesthes sulpitius (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Sahulana
  • Glistening Line-blue, Sahulana scintillata (TP Lucas, 1889)[117]
genus: Neolucia (Heath-blues)
  • Fringed Heath-blue, Neolucia agricola (Westwood, 1851)[77]
N. a. agricola (Westwood, 1851)[77]
N. a. insulana (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
N. a. occidens (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
  • Montane Heath-blue, Neolucia hobartensis (Miskin, 1890)[80]
N. h. hobartensis (Miskin, 1890)[80]
N. h. monticola (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
  • Dull Heath-blue, Neolucia mathewi (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Jamides (Ceruleans)
  • White-banded Cerulean, Jamides aleuas (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
J. a. coelestis (Miskin, 1891)[59]
J. c. claudia (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
  • Purple Cerulean, Jamides phaseli (Mathew, 1889)[120]
genus: Catochrysops (Pea-blues)
  • Cobalt Pea-blue, Catochrysops amasea (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
C. a. amasea (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
C. p. platissa (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
C. p. pauana (Tite, 1959)[121]
genus: Lampides
genus: Leptotes (synonyms Tarucus and Syntarucus)
L. p. pseudocassius (Murray, 1873)[123]
genus: Zizeeria
genus: Zizina
Z. l. labradus (Godart, 1824)[125]
Z. l. labdalon (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Famegana
Black-spotted Grass-blue, Famegana alsulus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
F. a. alsulus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
genus: Zizula
Z. h. attenuata (TP Lucas, 1890)[127]
genus: Everes
E. l. australis (Couchman, 1962)[128]
genus: Pithecops
  • Pied Blue, Pithecops dionisius (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
P. d. dionisius (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
genus: Neopithecops
  • Devil's Blue, Neopithecops lucifer (Röber, 1886)[111]
N. l. heria (Fruhstorfer, 1919)[129]
genus: Megisba
  • Small Pied Blue, Megisba strongyle (C Felder, 1860)[93]
M. s. nigra (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Udara
  • Delicate Blue, Udara tenella (Miskin, 1891)[59]
genus: Euchrysops
E. c. cnidus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Freyeria
  • Jewelled Grass-blue, Freyeria putli (Kollar, 1844)[131]
F. p. putli (Kollar, 1844)[131]

Nymphalidae: Brush– or four-footed[edit]

family: Nymphalidae (Brush– or four-footed) — 81+6 species

Morphinae[edit]

subfamily: Morphinae
tribe: Amathusiini
genus Taenaris
  • Pearl Owl, Taenaris artemis (Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1860)[132]
T. a. jamesi (Butler, 1876)[19]

Satyrinae[edit]

subfamily: Satyrinae
tribe: Biini
subtribe: Melanititi
genus: Melanitis
M. l. bankia (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
  • *Banded Evening Brown, Melanitis amabilis  (Boisduval, 1832)[15] [*native to Darnley Island]
  • *Papuan Evening Brown, Melanitis constantia  (Cramer, 1777)[4] [*native to Murray Island]
tribe: Elymniini
subtribe: Elymniiti
genus: Elymnias
  • Palmfly, Elymnias agondas  (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
E. a. australiana (Fruhstorfer, 1900)[133]
subtribe: Mycalesiti
O. m. moira (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
M. p. perseus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
  • Cedar Bush-brown, Mycalesis sirius (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
M. s. sirius (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
M. t. terminus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
tribe: Satyrini
subtribe: Ypthimiti
genus: Ypthima
  • Dusky Knight, Ypthima arctoa (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
Y. a. arctoa (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
subtribe: Hypocystiti
genus: Hypocysta
H. a. angustata (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Nesoxenicaendemic to Tasmania
  • Tasmanian Xenica, Nesoxenica leprea (Hewitson, 1864)[136]
N. l. leprea (Hewitson, 1864)[136]
N. l. elia (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Argynnina
genus: Oreixenica
  • Oreixenica correae (Olliff, 1890)[137]
  • Oreixenica kershawi (Miskin, 1876)[66]
  • Oreixenica lathoniella (Westwood, 1851)[77]
  • Oreixenica latialis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
  • Oreixenica orichora (Meyrick, 1885)[138]
  • Oreixenica ptunarra (Couchman, 1953)[139]
genus: Geitoneura
genus: Heteronympha
genus: Tisiphone

Charaxinae: Leafwings[edit]

subfamily: Charaxinae (Leafwings)
genus: Charaxes
  • Orange Emperor, Charaxes latona (Butler, 1865)[146]
genus: Polyura
Polyura pyrrhus sempronius (Fabricius, 1793)[26]

Apaturinae[edit]

subfamily: Apaturinae
genus: Apaturina
A. e. papuana (Ribbe, 1884)[148]

Heliconiinae: Longwings[edit]

subfamily: Heliconiinae (Longwings)
tribe: Acraeini
genus: Acraea
A. a. andromacha (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
tribe: Heliconiini
genus: Cethosia
C. c. chrysippe (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
C. p. paksha (Fruhstorfer, 1905)[149]
tribe: Vagrantini
genus: Vindula
V. a. ada (Butler, 1874)[150]
genus: Cupha
  • Bordered Rustic, Cupha prosope (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
C. p. prosope (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Vagrans
V. e. propinqua (Miskin, 1884)[29]
genus: Phalanta
P. p. araca (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
tribe: Argynnini
genus: Argyreus
A. h. inconstans (Butler, 1873)[151]

Nymphalinae[edit]

subfamily: Nymphalinae
genus: Doleschallia
D. b. australis (C & R Felder, 1867)[152]
genus: Hypolimnas
H. a. lamina (Fruhstorfer, 1903)[153]
H. a. darwinensis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
H. a. albula (Wallace, 1869)[154]
H. b. bolina (Linnaeus, 1758)[7]
H. b. nerina (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Yoma
Yoma sabina parva (Butler, 1876)[19]
genus: Junonia
  • Northern Argus, Junonia erigone (Cramer, 1775)[4]
Junonia hedonia zelima (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
Junonia orithya albicincta (Butler, 1875)[135]
Junonia villida calybe (Godart, 1819)[156]
genus: Vanessa
genus: Mynes
M. g. guerini (Wallace, 1869)[154]

Biblidinae[edit]

subfamily: Biblidinae (Planes)
genus: Pantoporia
  • Orange Plane, Pantoporia consimilis (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
P. c. consimilis (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
P. v. moorei (WJ Macleay, 1866)[158]
genus: Neptis
  • Yellow-eyed Plane, Neptis praslini (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
N. p. staudingereana (de Nicéville, 1898)[159]
genus: Phaedyma
P. s. shepherdi (Moore, 1858)[91]
genus: Lexias

Libytheinae[edit]

subfamily: Libytheinae
genus: Libythea
L. g. genia (Waterhouse, 1938)[160]
L. g. nicevillei (Olliff, 1891)[161]

Danainae: Milkweed butterflies[edit]

subfamily: Danainae (Milkweed butterflies)
tribe: Danaini (Tigers and Crows)
genus Tirumala
T. h. hamata (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
genus Danaus
D. a. affinis (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
D. a. alexis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
D. a.  gelanor (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
conspecific with:[162] D. philene (Stoll, 1782)[4]
D. g. alexis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
D. c. petilia (Stoll, 1790)[163]
D. c. cratippus (C Felder, 1860)[93]
genus Euploea
E. a. eichhorni (Staudinger, 1884)[164]
E. a. enastri (Fenner, 1991)[165]
E. a. monilifera (Moore, 1883)[166]
E. c. corinna (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
E. a. violetta (Butler, 1876)[19]
  • Bates' Crow, Euploea batesii (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
E. b. resarta (Butler, 1876)[19]
  • Climena Crow, Euploea climena (Stoll, 1782)[4]
E. c. macleari (Butler, 1887)[167]
E. d. darchia (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
E. d. niveata (Butler, 1875)[135]
  • Orange-flash Crow, Euploea leucostictos (Gmelin, 1790)[168]
  • Two-brand Crow, Euploea sylvester (Fabricius, 1793)[26]pictured right
E. s. sylvester (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
E. s. pelor (Doubleday, 1847)[23]
E. t. tulliolus (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
tribe: Tellervini
genus Tellervo
  • Hamadryad, Tellervo zoilus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
Cairns Hamadryad, Tellervo zoilus zoilus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
Cape York Hamadryad, Tellervo zoilus gelo (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]

Hesperiidae: Skippers[edit]

family: Hesperiidae (Skippers)[170]121+1 species

Pyrginae: Spread-winged Skippers[edit]

subfamily: Pyrginae (Spread-winged Skippers) (Burmeister, 1878)[171]
genus: Dusk-flats, Chaetocneme (C Felder, 1860)[93]
C. c. sphinterifera (Fruhstorfer, 1910)[32]
genus: Euschemon (Doubleday, 1846)[2]
E. r. rafflesia (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
E. r. alba (Mabille, 1903)[174]
genus: Exometoeca
genus: Netrocoryne
N. r. repanda (C & R Felder, 1867)[152]
N. r. expansa (Waterhouse, 1932)[176]
genus: Tagiades
T. j. janetta (Butler, 1870)[177]

Coeliadinae: Awls, Awlets and Policemen[edit]

subfamily: Coeliadinae (Awls, Awlets and Policemen)
genus: Allora
genus: Badamia
genus: Hasora
H. d. mastusia (Fruhstorfer, 1911)[180]
H. c. chromus (Cramer, 1780)[4]
H. k. haslia (Swinhoe, 1899)[182]

Trapezitinae: Australian Skippers[edit]

subfamily: Trapezitinae (Australian Skippers)
genus: Antipodia
genus: Croitana
genus: Herimosa (Atkins, 1994);[188] previously Anisynta (Lower, 1911)[189]
A. c. cynone (Hewitson, 1874)[51]
A. c. gunneda (Couchman, 1954)[119]
genus: Hesperilla
genus: Mesodina
genus: Motasingha
genus: Neohesperilla
genus: Oreisplanus
genus: Signeta
genus: Toxidia
genus: Trapezites

Hesperinae: Grass Skippers[edit]

subfamily: Hesperinae (Grass Skippers)
genus: Notocrypta
N. w. proserpina (Butler, 1883)[200]
genus: Taractrocera
T. i. ilia (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
genus: Ocybadistes
O. a. ardea (Bethune-Baker, 1906)[209]
O. a. heterobathra (Lower, 1908)[185]
genus: Suniana
genus: Arrhenes
A. d. iris (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
A. m. affinis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1912)[192]
genus: Telicota
T. a. krefftii (WJ Macleay, 1866)[158]
T. c. argeus (Plötz, 1883)[215]
T. m. mesoptis (Lower, 1911)[189]
genus: Cephrenes
C. a. sperthias (C Felder, 1862)[96]
genus: Sabera
genus: Pelopidas
genus: Parnara
genus: Borbo
B. i. lavinia (Waterhouse, 1932)[176]
B. i. tetragaphus (Mabille, 1891)[201]

Remote islands species[edit]

Australia has 8,222 islands within her maritime borders. This is small in comparison with her northern neighbour Indonesia, with about 18,300 islands (high geological activity is constantly adding and removing Indonesian islands). The British Isles include more than 6,000 islands over a much smaller area. The Greek islands include about as many islands depending on the minimum size to take into account, but in an even smaller area.

Christmas Island (105°E)[edit]

Torres Strait islands (142–144°E)[edit]

Dauan Island (Dauan, 142.5°E)
Saibai Island (Saibai, 142.7°E)
Yorke Island (Masig, 143.4°E)
Darnley Island (Erub, 143.7°E)
Murray Island (Mer, 144.0°E)

Norfolk Island (168°E)[edit]

Glossary[edit]

Major collections[edit]

Butterflies (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)
in principal collections
CollectionSpecimensAmateurPercent
ANIC, Canberra115,00092,00080%
Australian Museum, Sydney65,00063,90098%
Museum of Victoria24,00018,00075%
Queensland Museum9,0006,30070%
South Australian Museum36,00019,80055%
Total249,000200,00080%

Museums outside of Australia with significant Australian butterfly collections[edit]

See also[edit]

collections
butterfly lists
Australian animal lists

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ NM Collins and MG Morris, Threatened swallowtail butterflies of the world, The IUCN Red Data Book, (IUCN and Cambridge University Press, 1985).
  2. ^ a b c d Edward Doubleday, John Obadiah Westwood and William Chapman Hewitson. The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera: comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habits and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846–52.
  3. ^ Norman Barnett Tindale, "A new butterfly of the genus Papilio from Arnhem Land", Records of the South Australian Museum 3 (1927): 103–134.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Pieter Cramer and Caspar Stoll, Uitlandische Kapellen: voorkomende in de drei Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven (Dutch), Papilions Exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amerique (French), 34 issues in 4 volumes, (Amsterdam: Steven Jacobus Baalde, and Utrecht: Bartholomeus Wild, [1775]–1782).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h William Elford Leach, Zoological Miscellany, (London: British Museum), 1814.
  6. ^ a b c Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1965.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Caroli Linnæi, Systema Naturæ: per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, tomus I, editio decima reformata, (Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), pp. 458ff. (Latin)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1865).
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1914), The Butterflies of Australia: a monograph of the Australian Rhopalocera introducing a complete scheme of structural classification, and giving descriptiosn and illustrations of all the butterflies found in Australia, including a number now recorded for the first time, (Sydney, Angus & Robertson). 239 pp.
  10. ^ Walter Rothschild, 1895.
  11. ^ a b c Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1877.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k William Sharp Macleay, "Annulosa, catalogue of insects, collected by Captain King, RN", Appendix B in Phillip Parker King, Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia, (London: John Murray, 1826): pp. 438–469.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Edward Donovan, An Epitome of the Natural History of the Insects of New Holland, New Zealand, New Guinea, Otaheite, and other Islands in the Indian, Southern, and Pacific Oceans: including the figures and descriptions of one hundred and fifty-three species of the more splendid, beautiful, and interesting insects, hitherto discovered in those countries, and which for the most part have not appeared in the works of any preceding author, (London: Francis, Charles & John Rivington, 1805).
  14. ^ a b c Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville, 1830.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jean Baptiste Alphonse de Chauffour de Boisduval, 1832.
  16. ^ Goeze, 1779.
  17. ^ John Obadiah Westwood, 1842.
  18. ^ John Obadiah Westwood, 1843.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1876.
  20. ^ a b c Jean Baptiste Alphonse de Chauffour de Boisduval, 1859.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Johan Christian Fabricius, Systema Entomologiae: Sistens insectorum—classes, ordines, genera, species; Adiectis—synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus, Officina Libraria Kortii, (Flensburgi et Lipsiae, 1775).
  22. ^ a b c Gray, 1853.
  23. ^ a b c Edward Doubleday, 1847.
  24. ^ Max S. Moulds, 1974.
  25. ^ a b Carl Linnaeus, 1763.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Johannes Christophorus Fabricius, Entomologia Systematica: Secundum—classes, ordines, genera, species; Adjectis—synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus, emendata et aucta, tomus II et III, (Hafniae: Christian Gottlieb Proft, filius et socii, 1793). (Latin)
  27. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1871.
  28. ^ a b c Alfred Russel Wallace, "On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions", Transactions of the Entomological Society of London [3rd series] 4 (1867): 301–406. Plates 6–9, p. 328.
  29. ^ a b c d e William Henry Miskin, 1884.
  30. ^ Joicey & Talbot, 1926.
  31. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1897.
  32. ^ a b Hans Fruhstorfer (1910).
  33. ^ a b c William Chapman Hewitson, 1867.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Jean Baptiste Alphonse de Chauffour de Boisduval, 1836.
  35. ^ a b Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1898.
  36. ^ Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1832).
  37. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1886.
  38. ^ Pierre Hippolyte Lucas (1852), "Description de nouvelles espèces de Lépidoptères appartenant aux collections entomologiques du Musée de Paris", Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2)4(7): 324–343 [326].
  39. ^ a b M. de Baar and DL Hancock (1993), "The Australian species of Elodina C. & R. Felder (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Australian Entomological Magazine 20(1): 25–43. M. de Baar and DL Hancock (1993), "Further Notes on the Australian Species of Elodina C. & R. Felder (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)", Entomological Society of Queensland News Bulletin 21(8): 131–135.
  40. ^ a b c d William Chapman Hewitson, 1853.
  41. ^ a b c d e f William Henry Miskin, 1889.
  42. ^ a b Swinhoe (1890).
  43. ^ William Chapman Hewitson, 1861.
  44. ^ a b Fruhstorfer, Hans. "Die Indo-Australischen Tagfalter". [Family Erycinidae]. Pages 767-798 in Adalbert Seitz (ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde: eine systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Volume 9. Stuttgart: Alfred Kernen, 1914. (German)
  45. ^ Westwood, 1864.
  46. ^ Walter Rothschild, 1898.
  47. ^ W Swainson (1833).
  48. ^ a b c d CE Blanchard, 1848.
  49. ^ Crosby, 1951.
  50. ^ ED Edwards & Common, 1978.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g William Chapman Hewitson, 1874.
  52. ^ Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1860).
  53. ^ CG Miller & ED Edwards, 1978.
  54. ^ Don PA Sands, 1997.
  55. ^ Don PA Sands, 1965.
  56. ^ a b c Don PA Sands, 1980.
  57. ^ Don PA Sands, CG Miller & JFR Kerr, 1997.
  58. ^ Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1913).
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i William Henry Miskin (1891), Synonymical catalogue of the Lepidoptera rhopalocera (Butterflies) of Australia, with full bibliographical references, including descriptions of some new species (Brisbane, James C. Beal).
  60. ^ a b c Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1928.
  61. ^ Grose-Smith, 1900.
  62. ^ a b William Chapman Hewitson, 1875.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1903.
  64. ^ a b Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1909).
  65. ^ a b c Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1934.
  66. ^ a b c William Henry Miskin, 1876.
  67. ^ a b Don PA Sands, 1986.
  68. ^ Grose-Smith, 1899.
  69. ^ a b c Hans Fruhstorfer (1908).
  70. ^ JFR Kerr, Jack Macqueen & Don PA Sands, 1969.
  71. ^ a b Herbert H Druce, 1891.
  72. ^ a b RG Wind and Harry Kendon Clench, 1947.
  73. ^ Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1897.
  74. ^ a b William Henry Miskin, 1874.
  75. ^ a b c Grose-Smith, 1898.
  76. ^ a b c Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1942.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j John Obadiah Westwood, 1851.
  78. ^ Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1902.
  79. ^ a b c d William Chapman Hewitson, 1862.
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h William Henry Miskin, 1890.
  81. ^ Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1900.
  82. ^ Field (1999).
  83. ^ Graham & Moulds, 1988.
  84. ^ Herbert H Druce, 1902.
  85. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Georg Semper, 1879.
  86. ^ Staudinger (1888).
  87. ^ a b c d e f William Chapman Hewitson, 1865.
  88. ^ Johnson, RW Hay & Bollam, 1992.
  89. ^ JFR Kerr & Jack Macqueen, 1967.
  90. ^ Norman Barnett Tindale, 1923.
  91. ^ a b c d Moore, 1858.
  92. ^ a b c William Chapman Hewitson, 1863.
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Cajetan Felder (1860).
  94. ^ JC le Souef & Norman Barnett Tindale, 1970.
  95. ^ Horsfield, 1829.
  96. ^ a b c Cajetan Felder (1862).
  97. ^ Norman Barnett Tindale, 1965.
  98. ^ JFR Kerr, 1967.
  99. ^ a b Arthur Sydney Olliff, 1886.
  100. ^ Tite, 1963.
  101. ^ a b c d JGO Tepper (1882).
  102. ^ Williams & Bollam, 2001.
  103. ^ ED Ewdards & Kerr, 1978.
  104. ^ a b c Cox, 1873.
  105. ^ Jacob Hübner, 1817.
  106. ^ Burns, 1948.
  107. ^ Michael F. Braby & Fabian Douglas (2004), "The taxonomy, ecology and conservation status of the Golden-rayed Blue: a threatened butterfly endemic to western Victoria", Australia Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 81(2): 275–299.
  108. ^ Michael F. Braby, 1996.
  109. ^ Norman Barnett Tindale, 1922.
  110. ^ John WC d'Apice and CG Miller (1992), "The genus Nesolycaena Waterhouse and Turner (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with a description of a new species", Australian Entomological Magazine 19(3): 75–80 [75].
  111. ^ a b c d e Röber, 1886.
  112. ^ Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and Turner (1905).
  113. ^ a b c d e f g h i Herrich-Schäffer, 1869.
  114. ^ a b c Murray, 1874.
  115. ^ a b Eschscholtz, 1821.
  116. ^ a b c d e Sibatani & Grund, 1978.
  117. ^ a b c Thomas Pennington Lucas (1889).
  118. ^ Hans Fruhstorfer (1916).
  119. ^ a b Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1954.
  120. ^ Mathew, 1889.
  121. ^ Tite, 1959.
  122. ^ Carl Linnaeus, 1767.
  123. ^ Murray, 1873.
  124. ^ Moore, 1865.
  125. ^ a b c d Godart, 1824.
  126. ^ a b Johan Christian Fabricius, 1787.
  127. ^ Thomas Pennington Lucas (1890).
  128. ^ Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1962.
  129. ^ Hans Fruhstorfer (1919).
  130. ^ Johan Christian Fabricius, 1798.
  131. ^ a b Kollar, 1844.
  132. ^ Snellen, 1860.
  133. ^ Hans Fruhstorfer (1900).
  134. ^ Jacob Hübner, 1831.
  135. ^ a b c d Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1875.
  136. ^ a b William Chapman Hewitson, 1864.
  137. ^ a b c Arthur Sydney Olliff, 1890.
  138. ^ Edward Meyrick, 1885.
  139. ^ Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1953.
  140. ^ Geyer, 1832.
  141. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1866.
  142. ^ Oswald Bertram Lower, 1893.
  143. ^ Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1937.
  144. ^ Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1904.
  145. ^ Arthur Sydney Olliff, 1888.
  146. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1865.
  147. ^ a b Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1900.
  148. ^ Ribbe, 1884.
  149. ^ Hans Fruhstorfer (1905).
  150. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1874.
  151. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1873.
  152. ^ a b c d Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1867).
  153. ^ Hans Fruhstorfer (1903).
  154. ^ a b c Wallace, 1869.
  155. ^ Carolus Linnaeus (1764), Museum S:ae Rae M:tis Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Suecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque ... in quo animalia rariora, exotica, imprimis insecta et conchilia describuntur et determinantur (Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii). (Latin)
  156. ^ a b c Godart, 1819.
  157. ^ McCoy, 1868.
  158. ^ a b William John Macleay, 1866.
  159. ^ de Nicéville, 1898.
  160. ^ Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1938.
  161. ^ Arthur Sydney Olliff, 1891.
  162. ^ JA Edgar (1982), "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids sequestered by Solomon Island Danaine butterflies: the feeding preferences of the Danainae and Ithomiinae", Journal of the Zoological Society of London 196: 385–399 [393].
  163. ^ Stoll (1790).
  164. ^ Staudinger (1884).
  165. ^ Fenner (1991).
  166. ^ Moore, 1883.
  167. ^ Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1887.
  168. ^ Johann Friedrich Gmelin, 1790.
  169. ^ a b Snellen, 1889.
  170. ^ a b Pierre André Latreille, 1809.
  171. ^ Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister, 1878.
  172. ^ Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville, 1831.
  173. ^ a b c d e f Edward Meyrick & Lower, 1902.
  174. ^ Jules Paul Mabille, 1903.
  175. ^ a b c d Edward Meyrick, 1888.
  176. ^ a b Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1932.
  177. ^ a b Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1870.
  178. ^ a b Walter Rothschild, 1915.
  179. ^ Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1859).
  180. ^ a b Hans Fruhstorfer (1911).
  181. ^ Jules Paul Mabille, 1876.
  182. ^ Swinhoe (1899).
  183. ^ a b Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1882.
  184. ^ a b c d e f g h William Chapman Hewitson, 1868.
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  186. ^ Moore, 1878.
  187. ^ a b ED Edwards, 1979.
  188. ^ A. Atkins, "A new genus Herimosa (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Trapezitinae) and its relationship to the Proeidosa group of endemic Australian skippers", Australian Entomologist 21 (1994): 143–152.
  189. ^ a b c d e f g h i Oswald Bertram Lower, 1911.
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  191. ^ a b c d Carl Plötz, 1884.
  192. ^ a b Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1912).
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  194. ^ Andrew F. Atkins, 1978.
  195. ^ Edward Meyrick, 1901.
  196. ^ ED Edwards, 1987.
  197. ^ ED Edwards & Graham, 1995.
  198. ^ William Chapman Hewitson, 1902.
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  206. ^ Jacob Hübner, 1823.
  207. ^ Mayo & Atkins, 1992.
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  211. ^ Lambkin & Donaldson, 1994.
  212. ^ Heron, 1894.
  213. ^ Rosenstock, 1885.
  214. ^ Carl Plötz, 1885.
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  217. ^ Evans, 1866.
  218. ^ Wallace, 1866.
  219. ^ Jules Paul Mabille, 1883.

Bibliography[edit]

[Reviewed in Australian Journal of Entomology 40 (2001): 202–204.]

Taxonomic authorities[edit]

External links[edit]