List of bridge failures

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This is a list of bridge failures.


Bridge failures[edit]

This is a list of bridge failures including failures during construction. This list may be sorted by any field.[1]

Pre-1900[edit]

BridgeLocationCountryDateConstruction type, use of bridgeReasonCasualtiesDamageComments
Stirling
Bridge
StirlingScotland01297-09-01 September 1297Beam and trestle over the River ForthOverload by attackers during the Battle of Stirling BridgeUnknown, English forces defeatedBridge rendered unusableCollapse may have been assisted by defending forces.
Rialto
Bridge
VeniceVenetian Republic01444-01-011444Wooden structure with central drawbridge.Overload by spectators during the wedding of the Marquess of Ferrara.UnknownBridge total damage
Saalebrücke bei Mönchen-NienburgNienburg, Saxony-AnhaltGermany01825-12-066 December 1825Chain-stayed bridge with small bascule sectionbad material, unbalanced load and vibrations by subjects singing to honour the duke55 drowned or frozen to deathBridge half damaged, other side demolished[5]
Broughton
Suspension
Bridge
Broughton, Greater ManchesterEngland01831-04-1212 April 1831Suspension bridge over River IrwellBolt snapped due to mechanical resonance caused by marching soldiers20 injuredCollapsed at one end, bridge quickly rebuilt and strengthened
The rebuilt Broughton Suspension Bridge in 1883
Collapse due to faulty design. Caused "break step" rule to be issued to UK military.
Yarmouth
Bridge
Great YarmouthEngland01845-05-022 May 1845Suspension bridgePeople had crowded onto the bridge to see a circus clown go down the river in a barrel pulled by geese. The weight of people shifted as the barrel passed underneath, the suspension chains on the south side snapped and the bridge deck tipped over.79 people drowned, mainly children.Suspension chains snapped due to overload.
Dee bridgeChesterEngland01847-05-2424 May 1847Cast iron beam bridge over the River DeeOverload by passenger train on faulty structure5 killedBridge rendered unusable
The Dee bridge after its collapse
Collapse due to faulty design.
Angers BridgeAngersFrance01850-04-1616 April 1850Suspension bridge over Maine RiverWind and possibly resonance of soldiers led to collapse226 killed, unknown injuredBridge total damage
Gasconade BridgeGasconade, MissouriUnited States01855-11-011 November 1855Wooden rail bridgeInaugural run of Pacific Railroad conducted before bridge's temporary trestle work was replaced with permanent structure31 killed, hundreds injuredSpan from anchorage to first pier destroyed
Desjardins Canal bridgeDesjardins Canal, OntarioCanada01857-03-1212 March 1857Rail bridgeMechanical force due to broken locomotive front axle59 killed
Sauquoit Creek3 miles (4.8 km) from Utica, New YorkUnited States01858-05-1111 May 1858Railroad trestleWeight (two trains on the same trestle)9 killed, 55 injured
Springbrook bridgeBetween Mishawaka and South Bend, IndianaUnited States01859-06-2727 June 1859Railroad embankment bridgeWashout41 killed (some accounts of 60 to 70)Known as the Great Mishawaka Train Wreck or South Bend train wreck
Wootton bridge collapseWoottonEngland01860-06-1111 June 1860Cast iron rail bridgecast iron beams cracked and failed2 killedtotal damage to floor
Wootton bridge after the crash
flawed design using unreliable cast iron, failed from a repair
Bull bridge accidentAmbergateEngland01860-09-2626 September 1860Cast iron rail bridgecast iron beam cracked and failed0 killed 0 injuredtotal collapse of bridge
Section of broken girder
bridge collapsed while freight train was on it; engine had passed bridge; rear cars had not yet gone onto it; train moving slowly due to fog and darkness
Platte Bridge Railroad TragedySt. Joseph, MissouriUnited States01861-09-033 September 1861Sabotage by Confederate partisans during US Civil War.17-20 killed, 100 injured
Chunky Creek Train Wrecknear Hickory, MississippiUnited States01863-01-011863Winter flood caused a debris build-up which shifted the bridge trestle.
train bridgeWood River JunctionUnited States01873-04-1919 April 1873Washaway
Portage BridgePortageville, New YorkUnited States01875-05-055 May 1875Wooden beam bridge over the Genesee RiverFire0 killed 0 injuredBridge was a total lossFire destroyed all but the concrete abutments
bridgebetween Valparaiso and SantiagoChile01875-07-01 July 1875Collapsed beneath the overnight train
Ashtabula River Railroad DisasterAshtabula, OhioUnited States01876-12-2929 December 1876Wrought iron truss bridgePossible fatigue failure of cast iron elements92 killed, 64 injuredBridge total damage
Ashtabula bridge disaster
Tay Rail BridgeDundeeScotland01879-12-2828 December 1879Continuous girder bridge, wrought iron framework on cast iron columns, railway bridgeFaulty design, construction and maintenance, collapsed because of structural deterioration and wind load exceeding estimate75 killed (60 known dead), no survivorsBridge unusable, girders partly reused, train damaged
Fallen Tay Bridge from the north
Locomotive was saved from the Tay and was still in use 19 years later known as "The Diver". The disaster was immortalized in a poem by "Scotland's worst poet", William McGonagall
Inverythan rail accidentAberdeenshireScotland01882-11-2727 November 1882Cast iron girder rail bridgeHidden defects in cast iron caused collapse as train was passing over5 killed, 17 injuredBridge rebuilt
Crash scene after the accident
Board of Trade issued warning about similar under-bridges.
Little Silver, New JerseyUnited States01882-06-3030 June 1882Trestle railway bridgeTrain derailment due to insecure railroad switch on the northbound side of the bridge.3 killed, 65+ injuredEstimated $15,000 worth of damage to the bridge and cars combined. Bridge was repaired.5 of the 7 cars of the Long Branch Railroad's Lightning Express derailed and fell approximately 7 feet off of the trestle bridge into the shallow waters of Parker's Creek. Ulysses S. Grant was a passenger of the train crossing the bridge at the time.[2]
Camberwell road accidentLondonEngland01884-05-1515 May 1884Cast iron trough girder bridge over railwayHidden defects in cast iron caused collapse of four girders0 killed, 1 injuredBridge rebuilt
Bussey bridgeBostonUnited States01887-03-1414 March 1887Iron railroad bridge collapses under trainpoor construction[3]30 killed, 40 injuredBridge rebuilt
Big Four BridgeLouisville, KentuckyUnited States01888-10-1010 October 1888caisson and truss12 died when caisson flooded,

4 died when beam broke, 21 died when truss fell into river

37 killed
Norwood junction rail accidentLondonEngland01891-05-011 May 1891Cast iron girder fails under passing trainHidden defects in cast iron caused collapse0 killed, 1 injuredBridge rebuilt
Munchenstein rail disasterMunchensteinSwitzerland01891-06-1414 June 1891wrought iron trusstrain falls through centre of bridge71 killed, 171 injured
Point Ellice BridgeVictoria, British ColumbiaCanada01896-05-2626 May 1896overloaded tram car collapses central span47/53/50—60 killed (reports vary)

1900-1949[edit]

BridgeLocationCountryDateConstruction type, use of bridgeReason

Casualties

DamageComments
Eden train wreckEden, ColoradoUnited States01904-08-077 August 1904Wooden railway bridgeCollapsed because of a sudden washout111 killed, unknown injuredBridge completely destroyed 
Egyptian BridgeSaint PetersburgRussian Empire01905-01-2020 January 1905Stone suspension bridgeDisputed0 killed, 0 injuredBridge rebuilt
The collapsed bridge.
Portage Canal Swing BridgeHoughton, MichiganUnited States01905-04-1515 April 1905Steel swing bridgeSwing span struck by the steamer Northern Wave.0 killed, 0 injuredSwing span rebuilt
The damaged bridge.
Cimarron River rail crossingDover, Oklahoma TerritoryUnited States01906-09-1818 September 1906Wooden railroad trestleWashed out under pressure from debris during high water4-100+ killedEntire span lost; rebuiltBridge was intended as temporary, but construction of a permanent replacement had been delayed by the railroad for financial reasons.[4][5][6] Number of deaths is uncertain; estimates range from 4 to over 100.[7]
Quebec BridgeQuebec CityCanada01907-08-2929 August 1907Cantilever bridge, steel framework, railway bridgeCollapsed during construction: design error, bridge unable to support own weight75 killed, 11 injuredBridge completely destroyed.Redesigned, and rebuilding continued through the 2nd partial collapse in 1916 (below).
Romanov Bridgenow Zelenodolsk[disambiguation needed]Russian Empire01911-11-2222 November 1911Railway bridgeCollapsed during construction: ice slip undermined scaffolding13 confirmed killed, ~200 missingScaffold with workers fell on the ice, causing many to drownBridge was completed later
Division Street Bridge (Spokane)Spokane, WashingtonUnited States01915-12-1818 December 1915Steel framework, trolley car bridgeCollapsed a week after being resurfaced; poor steel, metal fatigue, and a previous impact by another bridge swept downstream during a flood in 1894 were cited as possible causal factors5-7 killed, 10 injuredComplete loss, plus two trolley cars destroyedReplaced by a 3-vault concrete span
Quebec BridgeQuebec CityCanada01916-09-1111 September 1916Cantilever bridge, steel framework, railway bridgeCentral span slipped whilst being hoisted in place due to contractor error11 killed, unknown injuredCentral span dropped into the river, where it still lies todayRebuilt and opened in December 1919 for rail traffic, after almost two decades of construction. It is still the longest cantilevered bridge span in the world and is considered a major engineering feat.
OtsuJapan01934-01-011934Typhoon11 killed, 216 injured
When an express train running, following derail by Muroto Typhoon in Seta River Bridge, on September 1934
Swan River railroad bridgeFremantleAustralia01926-01-011926Flood? killed, ? injuredProposed replacement by Combined Bridge, road and rail.

[8]

Appomatox River DrawbridgeHopewell, VirginiaUnited States01935-12-2222 December 1935Bus drove across the drawbridge when it was open.14 killed
Falling Creek BridgeChesterfield County, VirginiaUnited States01936-09-011 September 1936Wood and steel.Two trucks were crossing the bridge when one struck a tie rod causing the bridge to collapse. One truck fell to the creek bed 15 feet below, and the other made it off the bridge and onto the road.4 killed, 5 injuredThere is no link to this story. It is described in the September 2, 1936 issue of the Richmond News-Leader newspaper.
Kasai RiverKasaiBelgian Congo01937-09-1212 September 1937Railway bridgeWhile under construction.Began in 1935; Construction never resumed.
Upper Steel Arch Bridge (also known as Honeymoon Bridge and Falls View Bridge)Niagara Falls, NY – Niagara Falls, ONUnited States – Canada01938-01-2727 January 1938Steel arch road bridgeIce jam in gorge pushed bridge off foundations0 killed, 0 injuredBridge completely destroyedReplaced in 1941 by the Rainbow Bridge
Sandö BridgeKramfors, ÅngermanlandSweden01939-08-3131 August 1939Concrete arch bridgeCollapsed during construction18 killedComplete loss of the main spanDid not receive much media attention as the Second World War began the next day. The bridge was finished in 1943 as the longest concrete arch bridge in the world until 1964.
Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Galloping Gertie)Tacoma, WashingtonUnited States01940-11-077 November 1940Road bridge, cable suspension with plate girder deckAerodynamically poor design resulted in aeroelastic flutter0 killed, 0 injured (1 dog killed)Bridge completely destroyed, no person killed, but one dog killed and three vehicles lost.Became known as "Galloping Gertie", in the first 4 months after opening up until its collapse under aeroelastic flutter. Since that time most major new bridges have been modelled in wind tunnels. Rebuilt in 1950; parallel span opened in 2007.
Theodor Heuss BridgeLudwigshafenGermany01940-12-1212 December 1940Bridge of concrete, Motorway bridgeCollapsed during constructionUnknownBridge totally destroyedResulted in delay in completion of the motorway crossing of the Rhine until 1953
Chesapeake City BridgeChesapeake City, MDUnited States01942-07-2828 July 1942Road bridge, vertical lift drawbridgeTanker Franz Klasen rammed the movable bridge supports, causing collapseUnknownCentral span completely destroyedBridge replaced by high-level tied-arch bridge in 1949
Ludendorff Bridge (often called The bridge at Remagen)RemagenGermany01945-03-1717 March 1945Truss railroad and pedestrian bridgeCollapse due to previous battle damage incurred 7 March 194528 U.S. soldiers killedTotal destruction
Ludendorff Bridge at March 17, 1945 after the collapse
Capture of intact bridge offered significant short term tactical advantage to Allied forces. Collapse was not strategically significant due to placement of parallel floating bridges during the previous week
John P. Grace BridgeCharleston, South CarolinaUnited States01946-03-2424 February 1946Steel cantilever truss automobile bridgeThree spans collapsed due to collision with the freighter Nicaragua Victory5 killedThree collapsed spans 240 feet (73 m) were replaced and stood until 2005 when the bridge was closed following the opening of the Arthur Ravenel Bridge
Inotani wire bridgeToyamaJapan01949-01-01194929 killedConstruction of bridge and cause of collapse are unclear from text provided

1950-1999[edit]

BridgeLocationCountryDateConstruction type, use of bridgeReason

Casualties

DamageComments
Duplessis bridge collapseTrois-Rivières-Cap-de-la-Madeleine, QuebecCanada01951-01-3131 January 1951Steel bridgeStructural failure due to adverse temperature4 killedTotal destructionReconstructed
Footbridge at Harrow & Wealdstone stationWealdstoneEngland01952-10-088 October 1952Pedestrian footbridgeStruck by train(s) during accident112 killed, 340 injuredTotal destructionIt is not recorded how many casualties were due to the bridge collapse
Tangiwai railway bridgeTangiwaiNew Zealand01953-12-2424 December 1953Railway bridgeDamaged by lahar minutes before passenger train passed over it.151 killed. New Zealand's worst train disaster.Bridge destroyed
Rail bridge near St Johns stationLewisham, South LondonEngland01957-12-044 December 1957Railway bridgeTwo trains collided and smashed into supports, collapsing part of bridge onto the wreckage90 killed, 173 injuredBridge destroyedUnknown how many deaths/injuries specifically due to bridge collapse, since its effect was to worsen the train wreck
Temporary footbridgeHavanaCuba01958-03-2525 February 1958Temporary footbridgeBridge struck by an out-of-control Ferrari sports-racing car, driven by Armando Garcia Cifuentes, which then ploughed into trackside spectators during the 1958 Cuban Grand Prix7 killed, 40+ injuredBridge destroyedUnknown how many deaths/injuries specifically due to bridge collapse
Second Narrows Bridge (Now known as Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing)Vancouver, British ColumbiaCanada01958-06-1717 June 1958Steel truss cantileverCollapsed during construction due to miscalculation of weight bearing capacity of a temporary arm.19 killed, 79 injuredRebuilt8 additional deaths during the course of construction
Severn Railway BridgeGloucestershireEngland01960-10-2525 October 1960Cast ironTwo of 22 spans collapsed after two petrol barges collided with one of the support columns in thick fog. A third span collapsed 5 months later.5 killedDemolished 1967-1970
The remains of the bridge in 1966
King Street bridgeMelbourneAustralia01962-07-1010 July 1962One span collapsed under the weight of a 47-long-ton (48 t) semi-trailer due to brittle fracture on a very cold winter day0 killed
General Rafael Urdaneta BridgeMaracaiboVenezuela01964-04-066 April 1964Road bridgeShip collision7 killed2 section collapsedCurrently in operation
Kansas Avenue BridgeTopeka, KansasUnited States01965-07-022 July 1965Kansas Avenue Melan Bridge for traffic between downtown and North TopekaStructural deteriorationKilled a Topeka manSingle span collapseSuddenly collapsed about 5:30 p.m. on 2 July 1965, killing a Topeka man.[9]
Heron Road BridgeOttawaCanada01966-08-1010 August 1966Concrete road bridgeUse of green lumber and the lack of diagonal bracing on the wooden support forms during concrete pour.9 killedRebuilt.
European route E313 (a.k.a. King Baudoin motorway/Boudewijnsnelweg) BridgeVierselBelgium01966-11-1313 November 1966Concrete road bridge over Nete Canal (Netekanaal)Collapse due to faulty design: the foundation of the piers was not deep enough.2 killed, 17 injuredRebuilt.
Heiligenstedten Bascule BridgeHeiligenstedtenGermany01966-01-011966Road bridgeShip collision0 killedBridge Rebuilt
Silver BridgePoint Pleasant, West Virginia and Gallipolis, OhioUnited States01967-12-1515 December 1967Road bridge, chain link suspensionMaterial fault and corrosion46 killed, 9 injuredBridge and 37 vehicles destroyed
The collapsed Silver Bridge, as seen from the Ohio side
Inspired the book Mothman Prophecies and The Mothman Prophecies (film).
Queen Juliana BridgeWillemstad, CuraçaoNetherlands Antilles01967-11-066 November 1967Portal bridgeConstruction support fault. Bridge fell during construction15 killedBridge collapsed at the Punda sideBridge reconstruction started in 1969 and was completed in 1971
Countess Weir BridgeExeter, DevonEngland01968-01-066 January 1968Brick Arch bridgeConstruction support fault. Scour under raft foundationPier 23 collapsedBridge repaired and reinforced
Britannia BridgeMenai StraitWales01970-05-2323 May 1970Railway tubular bridgeChildren accidentally set light to debris and railway sleepers and irreparably damaged the bridgeNo casualtiesTubular section buckled beyond repairBridge re-built to a new design using the original piers with a road deck over the new railway deck
West Gate BridgeMelbourneAustralia01970-10-1515 October 1970Road BridgeCollapsed during construction due to poor design and ill-advised construction methods35 killed112-metre (367 ft) span between piers 10 and 11 collapsedCantilevered section under construction sprang back and collapsed following attempts to remove a buckle caused by a difference in camber of 11 cm (4.5 inches) between it and the other section of the span to which it was to be joined
Cleddau BridgePembroke Dock and NeylandWales01970-06-022 June 1970Box girder road bridgeInadequacy of the design of a pier support diaphragm4 killed, 5 injured70-metre (230 ft) cantilever being used to put one of the 150-tonne (150-long-ton) sections into position collapsed
South Bridge, KoblenzKoblenzGermany01971-11-1010 November 1971Road bridgeBridge bent into Rhine13 killed, unknown injuredBridge completely destroyed
Sidney Lanier BridgeBrunswick, GeorgiaUnited States01972-11-077 November 1972Vertical Lift Bridge over the South Brunswick RiverStruck by the freighter African Neptune10 deaths, multiple injuriesSeveral spans knocked outRepaired during 1972-73 then completely replaced with a new cable-stayed bridge in 2003
Welland Canal Bridge No. 12Port Robinson, OntarioCanada01974-08-2525 August 1974Vertical lift bridge over the Welland CanalStruck by the ore carrier Steelton0 killed, 2 injuredBridge declared a loss; new tunnel or bridge rebuilding costs were found to be unjustified.Remaining structure dismantled; passenger ferry instated. Car traffic must use the northern Allanburg bridge or the southern East Main Street tunnel in Welland.
Makahali River bridgeBaitadiNepal01974-11-01 November 1974140 killed
Tasman BridgeHobartAustralia01975-01-055 January 1975Bridge of concrete, Motorway bridgeOre freighter Lake Illawarra collided with pylons. A 400-foot (120 m) section of bridge collapsed onto freighter and into the river. Four cars drove off bridge12 killed (7 ship crewman and 5 motorists)2 pylons and three sections of bridge collapsed, ore freighter sank, 4 cars fell into riverCity of Hobart was split in two. Residents living in the east were forced to make a 50 kilometres (31 mi) trip to the CBD via the next bridge to the north. Missing sections were reconstructed and the bridge reopened on 8 October 1977
ReichsbrückeViennaAustria01976-08-011 August 1976Road bridge with tramColumn fractured1 killed, 0 injuredBridge, one bus and a lorry destroyed, ships damagedConcrete of the column had never been examined, was internally totally destroyed; "higher force"
Granville Railway BridgeSydneyAustralia01977-01-1818 January 1977Vehicle overpassPassenger train derailed while passing under the Bold Street road overpass and collided with a supporting pier. Section of bridge collapsed onto train cars.83 killed, 210 injuredBridge destroyedThe bridge was supported by two piers situated between the various rail tracks. Part of the derailed train virtually demolished the northern pier, resulting in the collapse of the northernmost span of the bridge.
Benjamin Harrison Memorial BridgeHopewell, VirginiaUnited States01977-03-2424 February 1977Lift bridgeAn ocean-going tanker ship, the 5,700 ton, 523-ft long S.S. Marine Floridian struck the bridge collapsing a section of the bridge.0 killed, minor injuriesSection of bridge destroyedBridge repaired
Green Island BridgeTroy, New YorkUnited States01977-03-1515 March 1977Lift bridgeFlooding undermined the lift span pier resulting in the western lift tower and roadbed span of the bridge collapsing into the Hudson River.0 killed, 0 injuredBridge destroyed
Hood Canal Floating Bridge (William A. Bugge Bridge)Olympic, WashingtonUnited States01979-03-1313 February 1979Floating bridgeBlown pontoon hatches combined with extreme windstorm0 killed, 0 injuredWestern drawspan and western pontoons sunk; other sections survived.Lost portions rebuilt 1979-1982; the remainder of the bridge has since been replaced.
Almöbron (Tjörnbron)StenungsundSweden01980-01-1818 January 1980Steel arch bridgeShip collision during bad visibility (mist)8 killed, unknown injuredBridge and several cars destroyed
Sunshine Skyway Bridgenear St. Petersburg, FLUnited States01980-05-099 May 1980Steel cantilever bridgeShip collision35 killed, 1 injured1,200 feet (370 m) of southbound span, several cars and a bus destroyedTurned into state-run fishing pier/replaced with cable-stayed bridge
Hayakawa wire bridgeSaito, KyūshūJapan01980-01-011980Wire bridge (?)Lack of inspection and maintenance for 10 years previous7 killed, 15 injured
Hyatt Regency walkway collapseKansas City, MissouriUnited States01981-07-1717 July 1981Double-deck suspended footbridge in hotel interiorOverload/weak joint/construction error114 killed, 200 injuredwalkway destroyed
View of the lobby floor, showing remains of the pedestrian bridge
Cline Avenue over the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and surrounding heavy industryEast Chicago, IndianaUnited States01982-04-1515 April 1982Indiana State Route 9121,200 feet (370 m) of the bridge collapsed while under construction when a concrete pad supporting shoring towers developed cracks.14 killed, 16 injuredBridge rebuiltSection between US 12 and the Indiana Toll Road renamed Highway Construction Workers Memorial Highway
Ulyanovsk railway bridgeUlyanovskUSSR01983-06-055 June 1983Railway bridgeShip collision177 killed, unknown injuredNo collapseThe span cut the deck house and the cinema hall, whilst the lowest deck was undamaged. The ship damaged the railway bridge and some freight cars from the train fell onto the ship.
Mianus River BridgeGreenwich, ConnecticutUnited States01983-06-2828 June 1983Interstate 95 (Connecticut Turnpike) over the Mianus RiverMetal corrosion and fatigue/Deferred maintenance3 killed, 5 injured100-foot (30 m) section of the northbound lanes fell into the Mianus RiverCollapse due to failure of the pin and hanger assembly supporting the span. Temporary span installed to re-open I-95; new Mianus River Bridge completed in 1990.
Amarube railroad bridgeKasumi, HyōgoJapan01986-12-2828 December 1986Strong wind6 killed (One train conductor and five factory workers)An out-of-service train fell onto a fish processing factory
Schoharie Creek Bridge collapse Thruway BridgeFort Hunter, New YorkUnited States01987-04-055 April 1987I-90 New York Thruway over the Schoharie CreekImproper protection of footings by contractor lead to scour of riverbed under footings.10 killed, unknown injuredTotal collapse[10]
Schoharie Creek's Mill Point BridgeWellsville, Amsterdam, NYUnited States01987-04-1111 April 1987State highwayFlooding0 killed, 0 injuredTotal collapseThe Mill Point Bridge is 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream from the Thruway bridge that collapsed on 5 April. Flood waters from the same flood that finally undermined the Thruway bridge were up to the girders of the Mill Point bridge. It was closed as a safety precaution. It collapsed six days after the earlier collapse.[11]
Glanrhyd BridgeCarmarthenWales01987-10-1919 October 1987River TywiTrain washed off railway bridge by flood waters4 killed, including 1 school boy who drowned trying to rescue passengers
Aschaffenburg Main River Freeway BridgeAschaffenburgGermany01988-01-011988Bridge of Motorway 3 over River MainError in construction1 killed, 0 injuredBridge total damagePartial collapse at Repetitive sliding
Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal bridgeButterworth, PenangMalaysia01988-07-3131 July 1988More than 32 killed.[12]
Tennessee Hatchie River BridgeBetween Covington, Tennessee and Henning, TennesseeUnited States01989-04-011 April 1989Northbound lanes of U.S. 51 over the Hatchie RiverShifting river channel, deterioration of foundation timber piles8 killedTotal collapseNTSB faulted Tennessee for not fixing the bridge before the collapse
Injaka Bridge CollapseBushbuckridge, MpumalangaSouth Africa01989-07-066 July 1989300m 7-span continuous pre-stressed concrete road bridge over the Ngwaritsane River under construction.Incompetence and negligence; Steel launch nose not structurally stiff enough; Incorrect temporary works slide path; Incorrectly placed temporary bearings; Incorrect feeding of bearing pads; Under-designed deck slab.[13]14 killed, 19 injuredStructure destroyed. Rebuilt completed in 2000, now carrying the R533 over the Injaka Dam (Reservoir).Collapsed while being inspected. Victims include design and consulting engineers.
Cypress Street ViaductOakland, CaliforniaUnited States01989-10-1717 October 1989I-880 (Nimitz Freeway)Destroyed in Loma Prieta Earthquake42 killedStructure destroyed, remains demolished and removed. The ground-level Cypress Street is now Mandela Parkway.
The collapsed Cypress Street Viaduct seen from ground-level. Note detachment of upper vertical elements from lower and the lack of reinforcement at the point of detachment.
Replacement route for I-880 built around West Oakland.
San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridgeconnects San Francisco and Oakland, CaliforniaUnited States01989-10-1717 October 1989I-8050-foot (15 m) section of the upper deck and lower deck collapsed in Loma Prieta Earthquake1 killed
Collapsed section of roadway deck

Reopened on 18 November of that year. Replaced with a self-supporting cable-stayed bridge and approach spans in 2013.

Swinging BridgeHeber Springs, ArkansasUnited States01989-10-2828 October 1989Pedestrian suspension bridge over the Little Red RiverDestroyed by pedestrians swinging the bridge5 killedStructure destroyed
Lacey V. Murrow Memorial BridgeConnects Seattle and Bellevue, WashingtonUnited States01990-11-2525 November 1990I-90Heavy flooding of pontoons0 killed2,790 feet (850 m) of the bridge sank, dumping the contaminated water into the lake along with tons of bridge material
Astram Line steel bridgeHiroshimaJapan01991-01-011991Metro railwayWhile in construction, 43-ton steel fell to the road below.15 Killed (5 workers and 10 civilians), 8 injured
Claiborne Avenue Bridge9th Ward, New Orleans, LouisianaUnited States01993-05-2828 May 1993Bridge connecting the "upper" and "lower" 9th WardsBarge collision1 killed, 2 injured Empty barge collided with a support pier for the bridge, causing a 145-foot (44 m) section to collapse
Kapellbrücke (Chapel Bridge)LucerneSwitzerland01993-08-1818 August 1993The oldest wooden bridge in Europe, and one of Switzerland's main tourist attractions.It is believed that a cigarette started a fire in the evening.0 killed, unknown injured78 of 111 of the famous paintings were destroyed and the bridge burned nearly completely down. The bridge was rebuilt to match the original.
CSXT Big Bayou Canot rail bridgenear Mobile, AlabamaUnited States01993-09-2222 September 1993Railroad bridge span crossing Big Bayou Canot of Mobile RiverBarge towboat, struck pier in fog; span shifted so next train derailed; impact of derailment destroyed span47 killed, 103 injuredAmtrak train Sunset Limited carrying 220 passengers plunged into waterBridge span had been made movable in case a swing bridge was wanted, and never properly fastened
Temporary bridgeHopkinton, New HampshireUnited States01993-11-2424 November 1993Single-lane temporary bridge in construction zoneCollapsed while being dismantled2 construction workers killed, 1 injuredCollapsed onto roadway belowBridge had been placed to divert traffic from resurfacing project on U.S. Route 202
Seongsu BridgeSeoulSouth Korea01994-10-2121 October 1994Cantilever Bridge crossing Han Riverstructural failure-Bad welding32 killed, 17 injured48-metre (157 ft) slab between the fifth and the sixth piers collapsedStructural failure was caused by improper welding of the steel trusses of the suspension structure beneath the concrete slab roadway.
I-5 Bridge DisasterCoalinga, CaliforniaUnited States01995-03-1010 March 1995Concrete truss bridge Arroyo PasajeroStructural failure — support piers collapsed7 killed, 0 injuredComplete failure of two spans on I-5Due to extreme rainfall, the Arroyo Pasajero experienced high volumes of water at high speed. This caused scouring of the river bed undermining the support piers of both spans.
Walnut Street BridgeHarrisburg, PennsylvaniaUnited States01996-01-01 January 1996Truss bridgeAs a result of rising flood waters and ice floe from the North American blizzard of 1996, when high floodwaters and a large ice floe lifted the spans off their foundations and swept them down the river.0 killed, 0 injuredLost two of its seven western spans, A third span was damaged and later collapsed into the river.
Western span of the Walnut Street Bridge in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania after it collapsed during the 1996 flood.
Eastern span is still in use for pedestrian traffic.
Koror-Babeldaob BridgeKoror and BabeldaobPalau01996-09-2626 September 1996Collapse following strengthening work2 killed, 4 injured
Baikong Railway bridgeRuyuan, GuangdongChina01996-12-2020 December 1996During construction29 killed
Maccabiah bridge collapseTel AvivIsrael01997-07-1414 July 1997Athletes pedestrian BridgePoor design and construction4 killed, 60 injuredDuring opening of the 15th Maccabiah Games, a temporary bridge over the polluted Yarkon River collapsed causing two deaths the same day and infected many with the deadly fungus, Pseudallescheria boydii, from which 2 more died later.
Eschede train disasterEschedeGermany01998-06-033 June 1998Road bridgeTrain disaster101 killed, 105 injured Destruction by train crashing into pillar of road bridge, which collapsed onto derailed train

2000-Present[edit]

BridgeLocationCountryDateConstruction type, use of bridgeReason

Casualties

DamageComments
Hoan BridgeMilwaukee, WisconsinUnited States02000-12-1313 December 2000Concrete and steel bridgeNorthbound right lane began to buckle during the morning rush hour and sagged a few feet below normal. Damage was said to have been caused by extremely cold weather, snow, and heavy amounts of traffic.0 killed, 0 injuredPartial CollapseDamaged section removed by controlled demolition and rebuilt. Remainder of bridge extensively repaired and retrofitted.
Hintze Ribeiro disasterEntre-os-Rios, Castelo de PaivaPortugal02001-03-055 March 2001Masonry and steel bridge built in 1887Pillar foundation became compromised due to years of illegal, but permitted sand extraction and the central span collapsed.59 killedCollapse of central sections
Hintze Ribeiro Bridge after the collapse
Bridge collapsed when a bus was passing in stormy weather with fast river flow. 3 cars also fell in the collapsed section. Bridge Demolished and replaced by modern bridge
Asagiri footbridgeAkashi, Hyōgo[14]Japan02001-07-2121 July 2001Whilst progressing to a summer firework festival, people stampeded and panicked11 killed, 247 injured
Queen Isabella CausewayPort Isabel, Texas and South Padre Island, TexasUnited States02001-09-1515 September 2001Concrete bridge for vehicle traffic over Laguna Madre4 loaded barges veered 175 feet (53 m) west of the navigation channel and struck one of the bridge supports, causing a partial collapse of 3 sections measuring approximately 80 feet (24 m) each.8 killed, 13 survivorsPartial collapse
The damaged section of the Queen Isabella Causeway
The collapse had a significant economic impact on the region since the Causeway is the only road connecting South Padre Island to Port Isabel. The bridge also carried electricity lines and fresh water to the island. State officials brought in ferries to temporarily carry cars across the Laguna Madre. Repair cost for the bridge was estimated US$5 million.
Kadalundi River rail bridgeKadalundiIndia02001-07-2121 July 2001140-year old rail bridge collapsed57 killed (all drowned)
I-40 bridge disasterWebbers Falls, OklahomaUnited States02002-05-2626 May 2002Concrete bridge for vehicle traffic over Arkansas RiverBarge struck one pier of the bridge causing a partial collapse14 killedPartial collapse
I-40 Bridge, May 31, 2002
Bridge was later repaired
Rafiganj rail bridgeRafiganjIndia02002-09-1010 September 2002Terrorists sabotaged rail bridge, causing crash130 killed
Interstate 95 Howard Avenue OverpassBridgeport, ConnecticutUnited States02004-03-2626 March 2004Girder and FloorbeamCar struck a truck carrying 8,000 US gallons (30,000 litres; 6,700 imperial gallons) of heating oil, igniting a fire that melted the bridge superstructure, causing collapse of the southbound lanes0 killed, 1 injuredPartial collapseNorthbound lanes shored up with falsework and reopened 3 days later; temporary bridge installed to carry southbound lanes. New permanent bridge completed in November 2004.
Kinzua BridgeKinzua Bridge State Park, PennsylvaniaUnited States02003-07-2121 July 2003Historic steel rail viaductHit by tornado with 100 mph winds0 killedPartial collapse
Failed bridge
The state decided not to rebuild the Kinzua Bridge.
Sgt. Aubrey Cosens VC Memorial Bridge,Latchford, Ontario,Canada02003-01-1414 January 2003Partial failure under load of transport truck during severely cold temperatures. Fatigue fractures of three steel hanger rods cited to be primary reason for failure.0 killed, 0 injuredPartial failure of bridge deck. Overhead superstructure undamaged.Bridge reopened after complete reconstruction. Existing overhead arch remained, however new bridge deck was designed to be supported by sets of 4 hanger cables, where the existing deck was designed for single hanger cables.
Loncomilla Bridgenear San JavierChile02004-11-1818 November 2004Concrete bridge for vehicle traffic over Maule RiverThe structure was not built on rock, but rather on fluvial ground.0 killed, 8 injuredPartial collapseBridge was later repaired
Mungo Bridge[15]Cameroon02004-07-011 July 2004Steel girder for road trafficPartial collapseYet to be repaired
Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Bridge replacement projectConnecticutUnited States02004-03-01 February 2004Collapse occurred in during demolition of the original 1940 span1 killedSingle fatality occurred when the crane he was operating was knocked from its barge by falling steel from the bridge
Big Nickel Road BridgeSudbury, OntarioCanada02004-05-077 May 20040 killedCollapsed onto roadway below during construction[16][17]
Veligonda Railway BridgeIndia02005-10-2929 October 2005Railway bridgeflood washed rail bridge away114 killed
Almuñécar motorway bridgeAlmuñécar, Province of GranadaSpain02005-11-077 November 2005Motorway bridgePart collapsed during construction, reason unknown6 killed, 3 injured A 60-metre (200 ft) long part fell 50 metres (160 ft)
Caracas-La Guaira highway, Viaduct #1TacaguaVenezuela02006-03-1919 March 2006Highway viaduct over a gorgeLandslides0 killed, 0 injuredTotal collapseDemolished, it was rebuilt and reopened on 21 June 2007
E45 BridgeNørresundbyDenmark02006-04-2525 April 2006Road bridgeCollapsed during reconstruction due to miscalculation1 killedBridge total damage[18]
Highway 19 overpass at Laval (De la Concorde Overpass collapse)Laval, QuebecCanada02006-09-3030 September 2006Highway overpassShear failure due to incorrectly placed rebar, low-quality concrete5 killed, 6 injured20-metre (66 ft) section gave wayDemolished; was rebuilt, reopened on 13 June 2007.[19]
Yekaterinburg bridge collapseYekaterinburgRussia02006-09-066 September 2006Collapse during construction0 killed, 0 injured
NimuleNimuleKenya/Sudan02006-10-01 October 2006Struck by truck overloaded with cement
Pedestrian bridgeBhagalpurIndia02006-12-01 December 2006150-year-old pedestrian bridge (being dismantled) collapsed onto a railway train as it was passing underneath.[20]More than 30 killed
Railway bridgeEziama[disambiguation needed], near AbaNigeria02006-12-01 December 2006UnknownUnknown killedRestored 2009[21]
Run Pathani Bridge Collapse80 km (50 miles) east of Karachi,Pakistan02006-01-012006Collapsed during the 2006 monsoons
Gosford Culvert washawayAustralia02007-07-088 July 2007Culvert collapse[22]5 killed (all drowned)
Highway 325 Bridge over the Xijiang RiverFoshan, GuangdongChina02007-06-1515 June 2007Motorway bridgeStruck by vessel8 killed, unknown injuredSection collapsedUnknown
Minneapolis I-35W bridge over the Mississippi RiverMinneapolis, MinnesotaUnited States02007-08-011 August 2007arch/truss bridgeThe NTSB said that undersized gusset plates, increased concrete surfacing load, and weight of construction supplies/equipment caused this collapse.13 killed, 145 injuredTotal bridge failure
Security camera images show the collapse in animation, looking north.
Collapsed at 6:05PM beneath bumper-to-bumper rush hour traffic confined to 4 of 8 lanes due to resurfacing in progress. The rebuilt I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge was reopened on 18 September 2008.
Tuo River bridgeFenghuang, HunanChina02007-08-1313 August 2007unknownCurrently under investigation, believed to be linked to the fact that local contractors often opt for shoddy materials to cut costs and use migrant laborers with little or no safety training34 killed, 22 injuredTotal collapseCollapsed during construction as workers were removing scaffolding from its facade
Harp Road bridge[23]Oakville, WashingtonUnited States02007-08-1515 August 2007Main thoroughfare into Oakville over Garrard Creek, Grays Harbor CountyCollapsed under weight of a truck hauling an excavator0 killed, 0 injuredMajority to total collapse; temporary or permanent bridge is needed.Approximate weight of load was 180,000 pounds (82,000 kg); bridge is rated at 35,000 pounds (16,000 kg). Residents must take a 23-mile (37 km) detour.
MacArthur MazeOakland, CaliforniaUnited States02007-04-2929 April 2007Tanker truck crash and explosion, resulting fire softened steel sections of flyover causing them to collapse.1 injured in crash, 0 from collapseSpan rebuilt in 26 days.
Shershah Bridge - Section of the Northern Bypass, KarachiKarachiPakistan02007-09-011 September 2007Overpass bridgeInvestigation underway5 killed, 2 injuredCollapse may have been caused because of lack of material strength. The reconstruction is in progress.[when?]
Can Tho BridgeCần ThơVietnam02007-09-2626 September 2007Investigation underway36-60 killed, hundreds injuredSection buckled while construction was underway
Pieces of Cần Thơ Bridge remaining after its collapse on 4 October 2007, ten days after the accident.
South eastern GuineaGuinea02007-03-01 March 2007Bridge collapsed under the weight of a truck packed with passengers and merchandise.[24]65 killed
Chhinchu suspension bridgeNepalgunj, BirendranagarNepal02007-12-2525 December 2007Overcrowded suspension bridge collapsed19 killed, 15 missing
South Korea02007-04-055 April 2007parts of a bridge collapses during construction5 killed, 7 injuredBridge being built between the two Southern Islands.[25]
Jiujiang BridgeFoshan, Guangdong provinceChina02007-06-1515 June 2007Freight ship struck support pillar[26]9 killed, 0 injured200m of the bridge fell into the river, 4 cars submerged
Water bridgeTaiyuan, Shanxi provinceChina02007-08-1616 August 2007180t vehicle overloaded bridge designed for 20t[26]unknowntotal collapse of 1 span of 2
Flyover bridgePunjagutta, Hyderabad, Andhra PradeshIndia02007-09-099 September 2007during construction15-30 killed[27]
Jintang BridgeNingbo, Zhejiang provinceChina02008-03-2727 March 2008Ship hit lower support structure of bridge[26]4 Killed, 0 Injured60m span of under-construction bridge collapsed
StudenkaCzech Republic02008-08-088 August 2008Train crashed into a road bridge over the railway under construction, which collapsed before the arrival of a train8 killed, 70 injured
The Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway (CRANDIC) bridgeCedar Rapids, IowaUnited States02008-06-1212 June 2008Railroad bridgeduring June 2008 Midwest Floods0 killed, 0 injuredThree of the bridge's four steel spans were swept into the river along with 15 CRANDIC rail cars loaded with rockThe Cedar River was still swollen in this image taken 10 days after the bridge's collapse.
Somerton BridgeSomerton, NSWAustralia02008-12-088 December 2008Timber road bridgeHeavy floodingNoneCollapse of northern spanBridge collapsed during heavy flooding due to poor maintenance[28]
Devonshire Street pedestrian bridgeMaitland NSWAustralia02009-03-055 March 2009FootbridgeOver Sized truck clipping main span0 killed, 4 injured (Car & Truck Drivers)Main Span falling on New England Highway, road closed for 4 daysReplaced by taller Footbridge 18 months later[29]
Bridge on SS9 over River PoPiacenzaItaly02009-04-3030 April 2009Road bridgeCollapsed due to flood of River Po0 killed, 1 injuredreplaced by a temporary floating bridge 6 months later, then by a definitive new bridge that opened on 18 December 2010[30]
9 Mile Road Bridge at I-75Hazel Park, MichiganUnited States02009-07-1515 July 2009Road Bridgecollapsed due to tanker accident[31]0 killed, 1 injuredrebuilt and reopened on 11 December of that year
Malahide ViaductBroadmeadow - 13 km (8.1 miles) north of DublinIreland02009-08-2121 August 2009Railway bridgeOne span of viaduct collapsed after tidal scouring of foundations — first reported by local Sea-scouts.[32]
San Francisco – Oakland Bay BridgeConnects San Francisco and Oakland, CaliforniaUnited States02009-10-2727 October 2009I-80Two tension rods and a crossbeam from a recently installed repair collapsed during the evening commute, causing the bridge to be closed temporarily.0 killed, 1 injuryDuring an extended closure as part of the eastern span replacement of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge over the 2009 Labor Day holiday, a critical failure was discovered in an eyebar that would have been significant enough to cause a closure of the bridge.[33] Emergency repairs took 70 hours and were completed on 9 September 2009. This is the repair that failed.
Tarcoles BridgeOrotinaCosta Rica02009-10-2222 October 2009Suspension bridge built 1924, 270-foot (82 m) span.Overload by heavy trucks and dead loads (water pipes).[34]5 killed, 30 injuredBridge total damage
Railway Bridge RDG1 48 over the River Crane near FelthamFelthamEngland02009-11-1414 November 2009Brick arch railway bridge built 1848Undermined by scour from river.[35]No injuries .River span beyond repair.Rebuilt as reinforced concrete.
Northside Bridge, Workington. Navvies Footbridge, Workington. Camerton Footbridge, Camerton. Memorial Gardens footbridge, Cockermouth. Low Lorton Bridge, Little Braithwaite Bridge.CumbriaEngland02009-11-2121 November 2009Traditional sandstone bridges.Very intense rainfall produced extreme river loads that overwhelmed all the bridges.[36]1 policeman killedAll bridges destroyed or damaged beyond repairSee Barker Crossing.
Kota Chambal BridgeKota, RajasthanIndia02009-12-2525 December 20099 killed, 45 missing[37]Bridge collapsed while under construction
MyllysiltaTurkuFinland02010-03-066 March 2010Bridge bent 143 centimetres (56 in) due to structural failures of both piers0 killed, 0 injuredDemolished June–July 2010
Gungahlin Drive Extension bridgeCanberraAustralia02010-08-1414 August 2010Concrete road bridgeUnder investigation15 workers injuredCollapse of the half-built span
GDE Bridge after the collapse
Bridge collapsed during a concrete pour.[38][39]
Guaiba's Bridge (BR-290)Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do SulBrazil02010-10-011 October 2010Concrete and steel bridge [40]Braking system (electrical) failure stuck the main span 9 meters above the lane rendering the bridge useless by (at least) 3 hours.[41]0 killed, 0 injuredBridge fixedDamaged probably due to a vessel which collided, bending the main span in April 30, 2008.[42]
Overbridge over Chengdu-Kunming FreewayZigongChina02011-07-011 July 2011Truck crashed against concrete support pillar[26]Overbridge destroyed, fell onto highway.
No. 3 Qiantang River Bridge over Qiantang RiverHangzhou, Zhejiang provinceChina02011-07-1515 July 2011Overloading[43]0 Killed, 1 InjuredPartial collapse leaving a 20-meter-long, 1-meter-wide pit in one laneCollapse due to two trucks each loaded with over 100 tonnes of goods crossing bridge[26]
Gongguan BridgeWuyishan, Fujian provinceChina02011-07-1414 July 2011Overloading[43]1 Killed, 22 InjuredEntire bridge collapsed, tourist bus with 23 people on board crashed to ground
Baihe Bridge in Huairou districtBeijingChina02011-07-1919 July 2011Bridge designed for max. 46 tonne vehicles, truck overloaded with 160 tons of sand caused it to collapse.[43]0 Killed, 0 InjuredEntire 230m bridge destroyed.
Kutai Kartanegara BridgeTenggarong, East KalimantanIndonesia02011-11-2626 November 2011Suspension bridgeHuman error. Bridge collapsed while workers repaired a cable. (Under investigation)20 Killed, 40 Injured (33 missing)Deck completely destroyed, 2 bridge pillars still standing
Kutai Kartanegara Bridge
Eggner Ferry Bridge over the Tennessee RiverBetween Trigg County, Kentucky and Marshall County, KentuckyUnited States02012-01-2727 January 2012Truss BridgeThe MV Delta Mariner struck the bottom portion of a span of the bridge when travelling in the incorrect channel of the river.0 Killed, 0 InjuredSpan over the recreational channel of the river collapsed.Emergency repairs to bridge completed on May 25, 2012. There were preexisting plans before the collapse to replace the bridge with a 4-lane bridge over the river.
Yangmingtan Bridge over the Songhua RiverHarbinChina02012-08-2424 August 2012Suspension BridgeOverloading; usage of unsuitable building material (suspected)[44]3 Killed, 5 Injured100-metre section of a ramp of the eight-lane bridge dropped 100 feet to the ground.Main bridge reopened on the same day, ramp still defunct.
Bridge under construction in LadeTrondheimNorway02013-05-088 May 2013Bridge collapsed under construction[45]2 killed
I-5 Skagit River Bridge collapseMount Vernon, WashingtonUnited States02013-05-2323 May 2013Polygonal Warren through truss BridgeOversized semi-truck load carrying drilling equipment from Alberta clipped top steel girder causing bridge collapse.0 Killed, 3 InjuredOne 167 foot span collapsed.Truss bridges like this one require both the top and the bottom to remain equal in strength and solidity. When the truck hit the top girder, or girders, this caused the pressure/squeeze system to fail, which made the bridge fold up. The design was outdated; more modern types of truss can better withstand such forces.
Scott City roadway bridge collapseScott City, MissouriUnited States02013-05-2525 May 2013Concrete road bridgeA Union Pacific train T-boned a Burlington Northern Santa Fe train outside of Scott City, Missouri at approximately 2:30 am. The impact caused numerous rail cars to hit a support pillar of a highway overpass, collapsing two sections of the bridge onto the rail line. Two cars ended up driving onto the collapsed sections, injuring three people in one vehicle and two in the other. Two people on one of the trains were also injured.[46][47]7 injuredTwo roadway bridge sections collapsed onto the rail line below
Wanup train bridgeSudbury, OntarioCanada02013-06-022 June 2013Steel bridgeTrain trestle over the Wanapitei River near Sudbury, Ontario was struck by derailed railcar0 killed, 0 injuredTotal Bridge CollapseCP trains temporarily diverted over CN track. Bridge reconstructed with new pier in 9 days.
CPR Bonnybrook BridgeCalgary, AlbertaCanada02013-06-2727 June 2013Steel railroad bridgePartial pier collapse due to scouring from flood event of the Bow River0 killed, 0 injured so far (ongoing current event)Partial Bridge CollapseSee: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/story/2013/06/27/calgary-flood-train-derailment-bonnybrook-bridge.html

Bridge disasters in fiction[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ For published analyses of bridge failures see:Biezma, María Victoria; Schanack, Frank (2007). "Collapse of steel bridges". Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 21: 398–405.  or Wardhana, Kumalasari; Hadipriono, Fabian (20 03). "Analysis of Recent Bridge Failures in the United States". Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 17: 144–150. 
  2. ^ "Railway Accident.". Camperdown Chronicle (Vic. : 1877 - 1954) (Vic.: National Library of Australia). 2 August 1882. p. 4. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  3. ^ Haine, Edgar A. (1993). Railroad Wrecks. Associated University Presses. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-8453-4844-4. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  4. ^ Kite, Steven (September 20, 2000). "Corporate Greed Leads to Death in Oklahoma Territory". Oklahoma Audio Almanac. Oklahoma State University Library. Retrieved May 18, 2010. 
  5. ^ "Dover". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved May 18, 2010. 
  6. ^ Goins, Charles Robert; Goble, Danney (2006). Historical Atlas of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-8061-3482-8. 
  7. ^ Sencicle, Lorraine (January 2008). "Dover Oklahoma". The Daughters of Dover: Dover around the world. Dover, England: The Dover Society. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  8. ^ "FREMANTLE BRIDGE.". Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900-1954) (Launceston, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 9 September 1926. p. 4 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  9. ^ Hooper, Michael (August 5, 2007). "1965 Flashback: Melan Arch Bridge tumbles". The Topeka Capitol-Journal. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  10. ^ http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/1988/HAR8802.htm
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ [2][dead link]
  13. ^ Injaka Bridge Collapse: Lessons Learned
  14. ^ "2007 (A) No. 1634". Osaka High Court. 6 April 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2011. "The 32nd Akashi Summer Festival was held in Akashi City, Hyogo Prefecture, on July 20 and 21, 2001" 
  15. ^ "The Collapsed Mungo Bridge And Anglophone Neglect". Cameroon-Info.Net. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Collapsed Highway in Sunbury". 
  17. ^ BIG NICKEL ROAD BRIDGE AT LORNE STREET HAS COLLAPSED
  18. ^ "E45 Bridge collapsed". 
  19. ^ Laval overpass reopens 8½ months after deadly collapse
  20. ^ "International News | World News — ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2013-04-25. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  21. ^ RailwaysAfrica 5/2009 p36
  22. ^ "Culvert tragedy: coroner blames council". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 September 2008. 
  23. ^ [3][dead link]
  24. ^ "Bridge collapse in Guinea kills 65". Reuters. 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  25. ^ "South Koreans killed in bridge collapse". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 April 2007. 
  26. ^ a b c d e "Look At All The Major Chinese Bridges That Have Collapsed In The Recent Years". Business Insider. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  27. ^ "Hyd flyover collapse: 30 feared killed". 
  28. ^ Chamberlain, Simon (8 December 2008). "Somerton Bridge closed indefinitely". Northern Daily Leader. Retrieved 13 September 2010. 
  29. ^ "Pedestrians injured in bridge collapse". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press Pty Limited (AAP). Retrieved 2012-05-11. 
  30. ^ "New Po River Bridge". Structurae. Nicolas Janberg ICS. Retrieved 2011-08-06. 
  31. ^ [4][dead link]
  32. ^ Irish Bridge aftermath
  33. ^ DiGiacomo, Janet (September 6, 2009). "Officials: Crack may keep Bay Bridge closed past Tuesday". San Francisco, California: CNN. Retrieved September 6, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Costa Rican bridge collapse kills six". London, England: New Civil Engineer. 23 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009. 
  35. ^ "Failure of a railway bridge spanning the River Crane near Feltham in West London". Rail Accident Investigation Branch. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  36. ^ "Gordon Brown pledges help for Cumbria flood victims". BBC News. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  37. ^ 9 die in Kota bridge collapse, 45 still missing
  38. ^ Towell, Noel (25 August 2010). "Experts identify flaws in bridge formwork". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  39. ^ Dziedzic, Stephen (25 August 2010). "Poor formwork behind bridge collapse". Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC News). Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  40. ^ "Como foi a construção da ponte do Guaíba | Almanaque Gaúcho". Wp.clicrbs.com.br. 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  41. ^ "Pane no vão móvel da Ponte do Guaíba causa colapso no trânsito da Região Metropolitana — Geral — Zero Hora". Zerohora.clicrbs.com.br. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  42. ^ "Ponte do Guaíba teve sete grandes paralisações em 10 anos — Diário Gaúcho". Diariogaucho.clicrbs.com.br. 2010-07-31. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  43. ^ a b c "Falling Down". Global Times. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  44. ^ "Collapse of New Bridge Underscores Worries About China Infrastructure". New York Times. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  45. ^ May 9, 2013 (2013-05-09). "Two found dead after bridge collapse". Newsinenglish.no. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  46. ^ "Missouri motorist couldn't stop before hitting fallen overpass". CNN. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  47. ^ "Two trains collide, overpass collapses in Scott County". Sikeston Standard Democrat. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 

External links[edit]