List of battles by casualties

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The following is a list of the casualty count in battles in world history. The list includes both sieges (not technically battles but usually yielding similar combat-related deaths) and civilian casualties during the battles. Large battle casualty counts are almost impossible to calculate precisely. Many of these figures are estimates, and, where possible, a range of estimates is presented. Figures display numbers of all types of casualties when available (killed, wounded, missing, and sick) but may only include number killed. Where possible, the list specifies whether or not prisoners are included in the count. This list does not include most bombing runs or missile strikes (such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki), which, despite potentially massive casualties, are not typically classified as "battles," since they are usually one-sided engagements. Tactical or strategic strikes, however, may form part of larger engagements which are themselves battles.

Classical formation battles[edit]

These refer to battles in which armies met on a single field of battle and fought each other for anywhere from one to several days. With more advanced weapons, military formations lost their impact and use of this type of battle died out in favor of grander military operations. Many of these battles are ancient, and in several cases, the few extant historical records differ, sometimes wildly, on casualties. Entries here use modern figures when available.

This list is sortable. Click a column heading to sort by that criterion.

BattleConflictCasualtiesYear
Assyrian Conquest of SyriaAssyrian Conquest of Syria0,014,000 Approximately 14,000[1]!9146 853 BC
Battle of ThymbraLydian–Persian War0,100,000 Approximately 100,000[1]!9452 547 BC
Battle of ThermopylaeGreco–Persian Wars0,022,300 22,300[2]–22,500[3]!9519 480 BC
Battle of PlataeaGreco–Persian Wars0,051,500 51,500[3]–257,000[2]!9520 479 BC
Battle of ChaeroneaWars of Alexander the Great0,020,000 20,000 or more[4]!9661 338 BC
Battle of the GranicusWars of Alexander the Great0,015,000 15,000 or more[4]!9665 334 BC
Battle of IssusWars of Alexander the Great0,050,450 50,450[5]!9666 333 BC
Battle of GaugamelaWars of Alexander the Great0,053,500 53,500[6]!9668 331 BC
Battle of the HydaspesWars of Alexander the Great0,023,310 23,310[6]!9673 326 BC
Battle of SentinumThird Samnite War0,033,500 33,500[7]!9704 295 BC
Battle of HeracleaPyrrhic War0,011,000 11,000–26,000[7]!9719 280 BC
Battle of KalingaKalinga-Maurya Empire0,150,001 150,000[8]–200,000[9][10] (including civilians)!9737 262 BC
Battle of ChangpingQin's wars of unification0,700,000 700,000 (doubtful, according to ancient sources)!9739 260 BC
Battle of the TrebiaSecond Punic War0,035,000 35,000[11]!9781 218 BC
Battle of Lake TrasimeneSecond Punic War0,030,000 Approximately 30,000[11]!9782 217 BC
Battle of CannaeSecond Punic War0,056,000 56,000[12]–92,000 or more[13]!9783 216 BC
Battle of the MetaurusSecond Punic War0,012,000 12,000[14]!9792 207 BC
Battle of ZamaSecond Punic War0,021,500 21,500[14]!9797 202 BC
Battle of MagnesiaRoman–Syrian War0,053,350 53,350[15]!9809 190 BC
Battle of PydnaThird Macedonian War0,021,000 21,000[15]!9831 168 BC
Battle of ArausioGermanic Wars (Cimbrian War)0,084,000 84,000[16][17][18]!9894 105 BC
Battle of CarrhaeRoman–Persian Wars0,024,000 24,000[19]!9946 53 BC
Battle of PharsalusCaesar's Civil War0,017,000 17,000[20]!9951 48 BC
Battle of Teutoburg ForestRoman–Germanic wars0,020,000 20,000[21]!Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "#". #0009 AD
Battle of Watling StreetIceni Revolt0,080,400 80,400[22]!Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "#". #0061 AD
Battle of Mons GraupiusRoman conquest of Britain0,010,360 10,360[23]!Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "#". #0084 AD
Battle of Red CliffsThree Kingdoms0,100,001 Approximately 100,000[24]#0208
Battle of AdrianopleGothic War0,040,000 40,000 or more[25]#0378
Battle of Fei RiverWu Hu Era0,150,001 150,000 or more [26]#0383
Battle of the Catalaunian PlainsHunnic Invasion0,165,000 165,000 (doubtful, according to one ancient source)[27]#0451
Battle of SalsuGoguryeo–Sui Wars0,302,300 302,300[28]#0612
Battle of al-QādisiyyahMuslim conquest of Persia0,031,000 31,000[29]#0636
Battle of MuzayyahMuslim conquest of Persia0,010,000 10,000#0633
Battle of UllaisMuslim conquest of Persia0,035,000 35,000[30]#0633
Battle of RiverMuslim conquest of Persia0,015,000 more than 15,000[31]#0633
Battle of WalajaMuslim conquest of Persia0,022,000 22,000[32]#0636
Battle of SaniyyMuslim conquest of Persia0,005,000 5,000#0633
Battle of NahāvandMuslim conquest of Persia0,028,500 28,500[33]#0642
Battle of YarmoukByzantine–Arab Wars0,070,000 70,000 circa[34]#0636
Battle of DidgoriGeorgian-Seljuk wars0,210,000 Approximately 210,000 [35][not in citation given]#1121
Battle of HattinAyyubid–Crusader War0,017,000 17,000–20,000[36]#1187
Battle of Las Navas de TolosaReconquista0,060,000 Approximately 60,000[37]#1212
Battle of the Kalka RiverMongol invasion of Rus'0,020,000 20,000 or more[38]#1223
Battle of LiegnitzMongol invasion of Poland0,030,000 Approximately 30,000[39]#1241
Battle of MohiMongol invasion of Europe0,015,000 Approximately 15,000[40]#1241
Siege of Baghdad (1258)Mongol conquests2,100,000 250,000-2,100,000+ including civilians[41]#1258
Battle of YamenMongol conquest of the Song Dynasty0,100,000 Approximately 100,000#1279
Battle of BannockburnFirst War of Scottish Independence0,019,000 Approximately 19,000[42]#1314
Battle of KulikovoList of Tatar and Mongol raids against Rus'0,136,000 Approximately 136,000#1380
Battle of the Terek RiverTokhtamysh–Timur war0,100,000 Approximately 100,000[43]#1395
Conquest of DelhiTimur's Indian campaign0,100,000 Approximately 100,000[44][45]#1398
Battle of AnkaraOttoman–Timur War0,015,000 15,000 or more[46]#1402
Battle of GrunwaldPolish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War0,013,001 Approximately 13,000[47]#1410
Tumu CrisisMing–Mongol War0,200,001 200,000 or more[citation needed]#1449
Battle of TowtonWars of the Roses0,028,000 28,000[48]#1461
Battle of KabulCampaigns of Babur0,020,000 20,000 or more[49]#1504
Battle of RavennaWar of the League of Cambrai0,013,500 13,500[50]#1512
Battle of MarignanoWar of the League of Cambrai0,011,000 11,000–15,000[51]#1515
Battle of RidaniyaOttoman wars in the Near East0,013,000 13,000[52]#1517
First Battle of PanipatMughal Conquest0,020,000 20,000–50,000[53]#1526
Battle of MohácsOttoman–Hungarian Wars0,030,000 Probably 30,000[54]#1526
Battle of GhaghraMughal Conquest0,013,000 Approximately 13,000[55]#1529
Battle of LepantoOttoman-Venetian Wars0,022,566 22,566–27,566[56]#1571
Battle of SekigaharaSengoku Period0,060,000 60,000 or less[57]#1600
First Battle of BreitenfeldThirty Years' War0,020,000 20,000 or more[58]#1631
Battle of LützenThirty Years' War0,011,000 11,000–14,000[58]#1632
Battle of NördlingenThirty Years' War0,017,000 17,000[59]#1634
Battle of the DownsEighty Years' War0,015,000 15,000 or more[60]#1639
Battle of SamugarhMughal Conquest0,032,000 32,000[60]#1658
Battle of KhajwaMughal Conquest0,020,000 20,000[60]#1659
Battle of ViennaOttoman–Habsburg wars0,019,500 19,500[61]#1683
Battle of BijapurMughal Conquest0,017,000 17,000[62]#1686
Battle of LandenWar of the Grand Alliance0,028,000 28,000[62]#1693
Battle of ZentaOttoman–Habsburg wars0,030,300 30,300[63]#1697
Battle of JinjiMughal Conquest0,016,000 16,000[62]#1698
Battle of BlenheimWar of the Spanish Succession0,032,000 32,000[62]#1704
Battle of RamilliesWar of the Spanish Succession0,015,600 15,600[64]#1706
Battle of MalplaquetWar of the Spanish Succession0,095,000 95,000[64]#1709
Battle of FontenoyWar of the Austrian Succession0,014,000 14,000[65]#1745
Battle of LeuthenSeven Years' War0,011,800 11,800[66]#1757
Battle of ZorndorfSeven Years' War0,030,000 30,000[citation needed]#1758
Third Battle of PanipatMarathas and Afghans0,100,000 Approximately 100,000; up to 200,000 (including civilian camp followers)[67][68]#1761
Battle of ArcoleWar of the First Coalition0,011,000 11,000[69]#1796
Battle of MarengoWar of the Second Coalition0,016,400 16,400[70]#1800
Ulm CampaignWar of the Third Coalition0,011,500 11,500[70]#1805
Battle of AusterlitzWar of the Third Coalition0,024,300 24,300[71]#1805
Battle of Jena-AuerstedtWar of the Fourth Coalition0,052,000 52,000 including prisoners later killed[72]#1806
Battle of EylauWar of the Fourth Coalition0,040,000 40,000[72]#1807
Battle of WagramWar of the Fifth Coalition0,077,000 77,000[72]–79,000[73]#1809
Battle of TalaveraPeninsular War0,013,900 13,900[74]#1809
Battle of SalamancaPeninsular War0,018,800 18,800[75]#1812
Battle of BorodinoFrench Invasion of Russia0,074,000 74,000[76]#1812
Battle of BerezinaFrench Invasion of Russia0,060,000 60,000[76]#1812
Battle of VitoriaPeninsular War0,013,000 13,000[75]#1813
Battle of LeipzigWar of the Sixth Coalition0,124,000 124,000[77]#1813
Battle of LignyHundred Days0,028,000 28,000[78]#1815
Battle of WaterlooHundred Days0,047,000 47,000 or more (not including prisoners and missing)[79][80]#1815
Battle of Blood RiverZulu purge of Voortrekkers0,003,000 3,000 or more to Zulu side only (not including wounded)[81]#1838
Battle of InkermanCrimean War0,015,857 15,857[82]#1854
Battle of ShilohAmerican Civil War0,024,000 24,000[83]#1862
Battle of AntietamAmerican Civil War0,023,000 23,000[84]–26,193[85]#1862
Battle of FredericksburgAmerican Civil War0,017,300 17,300[84]–17,962[86]#1862
Battle of GettysburgAmerican Civil War0,051,000 51,000[87][88]#1863
Battle of ChickamaugaAmerican Civil War0,034,000 Approximately 34,000[89]#1863
Battle of Spotsylvania Court HouseAmerican Civil War0,030,000 Approximately 30,000[90]#1864
Battle of Stones RiverAmerican Civil War0,024,000 Approximately 24,000[91]#1862 - 1863
Battle of KöniggrätzAustro–Prussian War0,047,500 47,500[92]#1866
Battle of TuyutíParaguayan War0,016,000 7,000–16,000[93]#1866
Battle of Mars-la-Tour/Battle of GravelotteFranco–Prussian War0,034,000 34,000[92]#1870
Battle of SedanFranco–Prussian War0,026,000 26,000[94]#1870
Battle of AdowaFirst Italo–Ethiopian War0,017,300 17,300[95]#1896
Battle of Binakayan-DalahicanPhilippine Revolutionary War0,005,000 2,000-15,000[96]#1896
Battle of OmdurmanMahdist War0,020,430 20,430[97]#1898
Battle of Mons/Battle of Le CateauWorld War I0,018,000 18,000[98]#1914
Battle of SakaryaGreco–Turkish War of 1919–220,061,000 61,000[99][100]#1921

Sieges and urban combat[edit]

This list includes sieges, as well as modern battles that were fought primarily in urban areas. Major military operations that included city fighting are listed below. Sieges and urban combat often include heavy civilian casualties, which are included in this list.

This list is sortable. Click the box next to a column heading to sort by that criterion.

SiegeConflictCasualtiesYear
Siege of SidonPhoenician Rebellion Against Persia0,040,000 Over 40,000[101]!9656 343 BC
Siege of JerusalemFirst Jewish–Roman War0,060,000 ~60,000 to 1,100,000[102]#0070
Siege of JerusalemRoman–Persian Wars0,070,000 ~70,000 to 90,000[103]#0614
Siege of ConstantinopleByzantine–Arab Wars0,130,000 130,000–170,000[34]#0717–718
Siege of JerusalemFirst Crusade0,040,000 ~40,000[104]#1099
Siege of BaghdadMongol invasions0,080,000 80,000[105]#1258
Siege of TenochtitlanSpanish Conquest of Mexico0,100,000 ~100,000 to 240,000[106][107]#1521
Siege of RhodesOttoman wars in Europe0,055,200 55,200[52]#1522
Siege of MaltaOttoman wars in Europe0,029,000 29,000[63]–40,000[108]#1565
Siege of La RochelleFrench Wars of Religion0,018,600 Over 18,600[60]#1627–28
Sack of MagdeburgThirty Years' War0,020,000 20,000[109]–25,000+[110]#1630
Second Siege of ZaragozaPeninsular War0,019,000 64,000[111]#1808–09
Siege of VicksburgAmerican Civil War0,019,000 19,000[111]#1863
Siege of PetersburgAmerican Civil War0,070,000 70,000[112]#1864–65
Siege of PlevnaRusso–Turkish War0,037,000 37,000[113]#1877
Siege of Port ArthurRusso–Japanese War0,100,000 100,000[114]#1904–05
Siege of AdrianopleFirst Balkan War0,093,282 93,282, including captured[115]#1912–13
Siege of OdessaWorld War II0,100,000 133,813[116]#1941
Battle of StalingradWorld War II1,250,000 1,250,000[117]–1,798,619[118]#1942–43
Siege of LeningradWorld War II4,500,000 1,117,000[119][120] – 4,500,000[121]#1941–44
Warsaw UprisingWorld War II0,200,000 200,000+ killed[122]#1944
Siege of BudapestWorld War II0,422,000 422,000[123]#1944–45
Battle of BerlinWorld War II1,298,745 1,298,745[124][125]#1945
Siege of ChangchunChinese Civil War0,425,000 425,000[126]#1948[127]
Battle of KievWorld War II0,700,544 700,544[128]#1941
Nanking MassacreWorld War II0,050,000 50,000-300,000 [129]#1937–38
Siege of SarajevoBosnian War0,012,000 12,000 killed, with 50,000 wounded[130][131]#1992–96


Major operations[edit]

This list includes major operations and prolonged battles or operations fought over a large area or for a long time. The duration of some operations, like the Battle of Moscow, are disputed so numbers found in various sources may differ for that reason alone.

OperationConflictCasualtiesYear
Six Days CampaignWar of the Sixth Coalition0,080,000 80,000[77]#1814
Peninsula CampaignAmerican Civil War0,036,463 36,463[132]#1862
Battle of ChancellorsvilleAmerican Civil War0,030,000 30,000[133]–30,500[84]#1863
Overland CampaignAmerican Civil War0,087,000 87,000[134]–92,000[111]#1864
Appomattox CampaignAmerican Civil War0,016,500 16,500[112]#1865
Battle of MukdenRusso–Japanese War0,160,000 160,000[135]#1905
Battle of Lule BurgasFirst Balkan War0,042,162 42,162+[136]#1912
First Battle of ÇatalcaFirst Balkan War0,022,000 22,000[137]#1912
Battle of BregalnicaSecond Balkan War0,036,620 36,620[115]#1913
Rape of BelgiumWorld War I0,032,000 32,000[98]#1914
Battle of TannenbergWorld War I0,145,000 145,000[138]–160,000[139]#1914
First Battle of the MarneWorld War I0,513,000 513,000[140]#1914
First Battle of YpresWorld War I0,210,000 210,000[141]#1914
Battle of ŁódźWorld War I0,130,000 130,000[142]#1914
Second Battle of YpresWorld War I0,104,208 104,208[143]–107,000[144]#1915
Gallipoli CampaignWorld War I0,503,000 503,000[143]–552,000[145]#1915
Second Battle of ArtoisWorld War I0,186,000 186,000[143]#1915
Second Battle of ChampagneThird Battle of ArtoisWorld War I0,075,000 75,000[144]–440,000[143]#1915
Gorlice–Tarnów OffensiveWorld War I0,300,000 300,000[143]#1915
Serbian Campaign (1915)World War I0,331,000 331,000, including prisoners[146]#1915
Battle of VerdunWorld War I0,755,000 755,000[147]–976,000[143]#1916
Battle of AsiagoWorld War I0,250,000 250,000[143]#1916
Brusilov OffensiveWorld War I1,600,000 1,600,000[143]#1916
Battle of the SommeWorld War I1,120,000 1,120,000[148]–1,215,000[143]#1916
Monastir OffensiveWorld War I0,111,000 111,000[149]#1916
Romanian CampaignWorld War I0,240,000 240,000[143][dubious ]#1916–1917
Nivelle OffensiveWorld War I0,354,000 354,000[150]#1917
Battle of MessinesWorld War I0,042,000 42,000[151][152]#1917
Tenth Battle of the IsonzoWorld War I0,200,000 200,000[153]#1917
Third Battle of YpresWorld War I0,585,000 Over 585,000[154]#1917
Battle of CaporettoWorld War I0,060,000 60,000[155]#1917
Battle of CambraiWorld War I0,095,000 95,000[155]#1917
Spring OffensiveWorld War I0,900,000 900,000[156]#1918
Second Battle of the MarneWorld War I0,288,000 288,000[156]#1918
Battle of WarsawPolish–Soviet War0,130,000 About 130,000, not including prisoners[157]#1920
Battle of GuadalajaraSpanish Civil War0,012,000 12,000[158]#1937
Battle of TeruelSpanish Civil War0,110,000 110,000, including prisoners[159]#1937–38
Battle of the EbroSpanish Civil War0,106,500 106,500[159]#1938
Battle of Khalkhin GolSoviet-Japanese Border Wars0,042,000 42,000[160]#1939
Invasion of PolandWorld War II0,310,000 310,000[161]#1939
Winter WarWorld War II0,152,000 152,000[161]–225,000[162]#1939–40
Operation WeserübungWorld War II0,012,800 12,800[161]#1940
Battle of FranceWorld War II0,469,000 469,000[163]#1940
Greco-Italian WarWorld War II0,100,000 100,000 dead[164]#1940–41
Battle of GreeceWorld War II0,046,295 46,295 dead[165]#1941
Battle of CreteWorld War II0,016,007 16,007 dead [166]#1941
Operation BarbarossaWorld War II1,800,000 1,400,000[167]–5,000,000[168]#1941
Battle of MoscowWorld War II1,000,000 1,000,000[167]#1941
Battle of Hong KongWorld War II0,018,000 18,000 including prisoners[169]#1941
Battle of Malaya/Battle of SingaporeWorld War II0,143,800 143,800, and 60,000 prisoners[170]#1941–42
Battle of Bataan/Battle of CorregidorWorld War II0,030,000 30,000 killed[171]#1942
Battle of the Kerch PeninsulaWorld War II0,176,000 Over 176,000[172]#1942
Second Battle of KharkovWorld War II0,300,000 300,000[172]#1942
Battle of GazalaWorld War II0,148,000 148,000[173]#1942
Guadalcanal CampaignWorld War II0,031,100 29,100[174]–31,100[175]#1942–43
Second Battle of El AlameinWorld War II0,039,400 39,400[173]–82,500[176]#1942
Operation IskraWorld War II0,129,332 129,332[177]#1943
Battle of KurskWorld War II0,257,125 257,125[178]–388,000[179]#1943
Dnieper CampaignWorld War II1,582,000 1,582,000 (lowest est.) - 2,480,000 (highest est.)#1943
Allied invasion of SicilyWorld War II0,036,000 At least 36,000 killed, and over 100,000 Italian POWs[180]#1943
Allied invasion of ItalyWorld War II0,017,092 17,092 killed[181]#1943
Bougainville CampaignWorld War II0,021,929 21,929 killed, and 23,571 Japanese prisoners[182]#1943–45
Battle of Monte CassinoWorld War II0,185,000 185,000[183]#1944
Battle of NarvaWorld War II0,550,000 550,000 all causes[184]#1944
Operation ShingleWorld War II0,052,200 52,200 killed[185]#1944
Normandy LandingsWorld War II0,014,000 14,000 – 19,000[186]#1944
First Jassy–Kishinev OffensiveWorld War II0,195,000 195,000[187]#1944
Battle of SaipanWorld War II0,043,500 43,500 killed, including mass suicides[188]#1944
Operation BagrationWorld War II0,528,000 528,000[123]–1,430,000[189]#1944
Falaise PocketWorld War II0,140,000 140,000[190]#1944
Second Jassy–Kishinev OffensiveWorld War II0,485,424 485,424, including prisoners[191][192]#1944
Operation Market GardenWorld War II0,027,200 27,200[193]#1944
Battle of Hürtgen ForestWorld War II0,063,000 63,000[194]#1944–45
Battle of Leyte GulfWorld War II0,012,000 12,000 killed[195]#1944
Battle of the BulgeWorld War II0,186,369 186,369[196]#1944–45
Battle of LuzonWorld War II0,340,330 332,330–345,330, including sick[197]#1945
Battle of the RhinelandWorld War II0,082,000 82,000 and 250,000 prisoners[198]#1945
Battle of Iwo JimaWorld War II0,044,821 44,821[199]–48,700[200]#1945
Battle of OkinawaWorld War II0,113,920 113,920[201]–158,400[202]#1945
Arab–Israeli WarArab–Israeli conflict0,012,000 12,000–19,000[203]#1948–49
Liaoshen CampaignChinese Civil War0,542,000 542,000, including captured[204]#1948
Huaihai CampaignChinese Civil War0,689,000 689,000, including captured[205]#1948
Pingjin CampaignChinese Civil War0,560,000 560,000, including captured[206]#1948–49
Battle of InchonKorean War0,017,429 17,429[207]#1950
Invasion of North KoreaKorean War0,051,700 51,700[208]#1950
Battle of Dien Bien PhuFirst Indochina War0,031,500 31,500, not including prisoners[209]#1954
Tet OffensiveVietnam War0,065,000 65,000[210]#1968
Operation OAUNigerian Civil War0,030,000 30,000[210]#1968
Easter OffensiveVietnam War0,150,000 150,000[210]#1972
Yom Kippur WarArab–Israeli conflict0,021,688 21,688, not including prisoners[211]#1973
Falklands WarFalklands War0,014,095 14,095, including prisoners[212]#1982
1982 Lebanon WarIsraeli–Lebanese conflict0,018,500 18,500[211]#1982–85
Gulf WarGulf War0,025,678 25,678[212]#1991
Invasion of IraqIraq War0,034,543 34,543[213]#2003

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Grant, p. 17
  2. ^ a b Herodotus (440 BC). Histories.
  3. ^ a b Grant, p. 23
  4. ^ a b Grant, p. 26
  5. ^ Grant, p. 28
  6. ^ a b Grant, p. 27
  7. ^ a b Grant, p. 37
  8. ^ Grant, p. 56
  9. ^ Ashoka the Great (r. 272–231 BC), Edicts of Ashoka, Major Rock Edict 13.
  10. ^ Radhakumud Mookerji (1988). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-0405-8.
  11. ^ a b Grant, p. 39
  12. ^ Grant, p. 40
  13. ^ Leonard Cottrell (1965). Enemy of Rome. Evans Bros. ISBN 0-237-44320-1.
  14. ^ a b Grant, p. 41
  15. ^ a b Grant, p. 31
  16. ^ Valerius Antias (1st century BC). Manubiae.
  17. ^ Albert A. Howard (1906). "Valerius Antias and Livy", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 17, p. 161–182.
  18. ^ Canon Rawlinson (1877). "On the Ethnography of the Cimbri", The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 6, p. 150–158.
  19. ^ Grant, p. 43
  20. ^ Grant, p. 47
  21. ^ Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187. ISBN 0-393-32643-8.
  22. ^ http://www.search.com/reference/Battle_of_Watling_Street
  23. ^ Grant, p. 49
  24. ^ Records of Three Kingdoms,
  25. ^ Grant, p. 51
  26. ^ Book of Jin,
  27. ^ Jordanes (22 April 1997). "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter XLI". Translated by Charles C. Mierow. 
  28. ^ Book of Sui, Vol. 60.
  29. ^ The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History By Ibn Khaldūn, Franz Rosenthal, N. J.. Dawood pg, 12.
  30. ^ "The Sword of Allah", Chapter 22, by Lieutenant-General Agha Ibrahim Akram, Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 978-0-7101-0104-4.
  31. ^ A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.137
  32. ^ A. I. Akram (1970). The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns. National Publishing House, Rawalpindi. ISBN 0-7101-0104-X.
  33. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/arab-ii
  34. ^ a b Grant, p. 74
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ Jonathan Riley-Smith, the Crusades, 2005, p. 109
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References[edit]