List of battles between Scotland and England

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The Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland fought dozens of battles with each other. They fought typically over land, particularly Berwick-Upon-Tweed, and the Anglo-Scottish border frequently changed as a result. Prior to the establishment of the two kingdoms, in the 10th and 9th centuries, their predecessors, the Northumbrians and the Picts or Dal Riatans, also fought a number of battles. Major conflicts between the two parties include the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1357), and the Rough Wooing (1544–1551), as well as numerous smaller campaigns and individual confrontations. In 1603, England and Scotland were joined in a "personal union" when King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the throne of England as King James I. War between the two states largely ceased, although the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the 17th century, and the Jacobite Risings of the 18th century, are sometimes characterised as Anglo-Scottish conflicts, despite really being British civil wars.

This list is arranged in chronological order.

Battles between Northumbria and the Picts/Dal Riatans[edit]

DateNameNotes
596Battle of RaithAngles defeated an alliance of Scots, Britons and Picts under King Áedán mac Gabráin of Dál Riata
671Battle of Two RiversEcgfrith of the Northumbrians defeated the Picts
685Battle of DunnichenKing Bridei Mac Bili defeats the Northhumbrians. Ending Northumbrian hegemony in northern Britain

Early battles between England and Scotland[edit]

DateNameNotes
937Battle of BrunanburhAnglo-Saxon victory over the combined armies of the kingdoms of Scotland, Dublin and Strathclyde.
1016/1018Battle of CarhamVictory for Malcolm II over Huctred, son of Waldef. Believed to have won Lothian for Scotland.
1093Battle of AlnwickWhile besieging Alnwick Malcolm III was killed by knights led by Robert de Mowbray and his army fled.
1138Battle of ClitheroeEnglish army was routed by William fitz Duncan
1138Battle of the StandardDavid I routed by an army led by William of Aumale. Also known as the Battle of Northallerton.
1174Battle of AlnwickWilliam I of Scotland was captured by a small English force led by Ranulf de Glanvill.

First War of Scottish Independence[edit]

DateNameNotes
1296Capture of BerwickEnglish under Robert de Clifford take Berwick-upon-Tweed.
1296Battle of DunbarJohn de Warenne defeats John Balliol, paving the way for most of Scotland to fall to Edward I.
1297Raid of SconeWilliam Wallace joined forces with William Douglas the Hardy and led a successful raid on Scone.
1297Battle of Stirling BridgeWilliam Wallace defeated the English forces of John de Warenne and Hugh de Cressingham near Stirling on the River Forth.
1298Battle of FalkirkLed by Edward I the English army defeated the Scots led by William Wallace. Shortly after the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland
1303Battle of RoslinA Scottish force under John III Comyn defeated the English under Sir John Segrave in a series of encounters.
1304Action at HapprewWilliam Wallace and Sir Simon Fraser were defeated by an army of English knights led by Sir John Segrave.
1304Siege of Stirling CastleThe English under Edward I capture Stirling Castle
1304Action at EarnsideDetails are scarce, although it is last action known to be fought by William Wallace.
1306Battle of MethvenRobert the Bruce routed at Methven by Aymer de Valence
1307Battle of Glen TroolRobert the Bruce drives back an English raiding party in a minor skirmish.
1307Battle of Loudoun HillRobert the Bruce's first major victory over the English

Second War of Scottish Independence[edit]

Border Wars[edit]

Anglo-Scottish wars[edit]

Main article: Anglo-Scottish Wars

Rough Wooing[edit]

Main article: The Rough Wooing

Border skirmishes[edit]

Main article: Border reivers

External links[edit]