List of apple cultivars

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Over 7,500 cultivars of the apple are known.[1] The following is a list of the more common and important cultivars, with the year and place of origin (where documented) and an indication of whether the apples are for cooking, eating, or making cider. Those varieties marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Table of apples[edit]

Common nameImageOriginFirst developedCommentUse
Adams PearmainMalus Adams Parmäne 4593.jpgEngland1826A dessert apple. Similar flavour to Russet, first introduced under the name "Norfolk Pippin".Eating
Aia IluEstonia1946Apple is large in size, weighing 250–300 g. It is yellow, juicy, and bittersweet with a weak aroma.Eating
Airlie Red Flesh (Newell-Kimzey red flesh, Aerlie's Red Flesh)Oregon, USc. 1961A large, conic apple. Light yellow-green skin strewn with white dots, occasionally with a faint red-orange blush. Light pink to deep red flesh is crisp, sweet and mildly tart.Eating
AkaneJapan1970Jonathan × Worcester Pearmain. Tangy taste.Eating
ÅkeröSweden15th centuryApple is egg-shaped, medium to large in size, sweet and aromatic. Best in November, keeps well till February. Oldest cultivar in Northern Europe, grown mostly in Sweden and Estonia.Eating
Alkmene agm[2]Germany1930Cox's Orange Pippin × Doktor OldenburgEating
Allington PippinLincolnshire, UK1880sA versatile English dessert apple raised by horticulturalist Thomas Laxton some time before 1884. Exhibited as Brown's South Lincoln Beauty, the name was changed to Allington Pippin by Bunyard Nursury in 1896. A cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and King of the Pippins. A small apple, aromatic, with a pineapple-like flavour, keeps its shape when cooked.Eating, Cooking, Dessert
AmbrosiaMalus 'Ambrosia'.jpgBritish Columbia, Canada1980sMedium to large in size, mostly red coloration with yellow patches. Has cream-coloured flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Ambrosia trees are hardy and no major disadvantages have yet been identified.Eating
AnnaIsrael1965Colour is yellow with a red blush. This variety does not grow well in the cold and prefers heat and humidity.Eating
mela annurca (it)Annurca apple.JPGCampania, Italy1876 (documented)Very old apple; possibly one of the oldest of all. Believed to be older than first mention in Pasquale's Manuale di Arboricultura, 1876. Believed to be the apple depicted in frescoes at ruins of Pompeii[3] and mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia. It has a white pulp, firm and crunchy, a sweet aroma, and a pleasantly acidic taste.[4] The cultivar enjoy Protected Geographical Indication status within the European Union with the "PGI Melannurca" recognition[4]Eating
AntonovkaAntonovka.jpgKursk, Russia17th centuryA very old Russian variety, often planted at dachas. Apples are large, yellow-green and bracingly tart to eat out of hand, but superb for cooking, as they keep their shape. Extremely tolerant of cold weather, and because it produces a single, deep taproot (unusual among apple trees), Antonovka is propagated for use as a rootstock. Antonovka rootstock provides a cold-hardy (to -45 °C), well-anchored, vigorous, standard-sized tree.Cooking, Cider
ApolloCox’s Orange Pippin × Geheimrat Dr. OldenburgEating
ArianeAngers, France2002Scab resistant. Developed at the National Institute of Agricultural Research in France.Eating
Arkansas BlackArkansas Black apples.jpgArkansas, USc. 1870Hard and crunchy; stores well. Very deep red, appearing black from a distance.Eating
Arthur Turner agm[5]Englandlarge golden cooker: prone to mildew but scab resistantCooking
Ashmead's Kernel agm[6]Ashmead's Kernel.JPGEnglandc. 1700Small, very sweet and very tart.Eating
Aurora Golden GalaBritish Columbia, Canada2003Dessert apple; medium size, sweet, juicy, crisp, firm, very long storage life.Eating
Autumn Glory[7]Washington, US2011Red over golden background. Very sweet, firm flesh with a subtle "cinnamon" flavour. Produced by Domex Superfresh Growers in Washington's Yakima Valley.Eating
BaileyNew Yorkc. 1840Red apple with considerable white flecks. Has some russeting.Eating
BaldwinBaldwin(apple).jpgMassachusetts, USc. 1740Sweet to subacid flavour. Also known as "Woodpecker". Very old variety for North America. Makes lots of juice.Cooking, Eating
BallyfattenCounty Tyrone, Northern Irelandc. 1740A large, round apple with firm, dry, sweet, slightly tart white flesh. Excellent keeper. Scab and canker resistant.Cooking, Eating
BeaconMinnesota, US1936Lively, juicy flavour; good for baking. Does not keep very well.Cooking, Eating
Beauty of BathBeauty of Bath Apples.jpgEngland1864Deep red flush and streaks of red with a little russet. Early maturing but short season. Formerly grown commercially in England for local markets. Good flavour in its home climate if it is eaten soon after picking. Poor flavour if distributed long distances and stored for weeks, so now rare.Eating
Belle de Boskoop agm[8]Malus-Boskoop organic.jpgBoskoop, Netherlands1856Bright red, fairly large, early in season (end of August to early September).Cooking (applesauce)
Ben DavisSoutheastern USNoted for keeping well prior to refrigerated storage, but flavour has been compared with cork.Eating
Beverly HillsCalifornia, US1997Slightly tart flavour. Likes warm weather.Eating
BismarckVictoria, Australia1870Medium sized fruit with a green and red skin, sharp in flavour and not a common apple.Cooking
Blenheim Orange agm[9]Deutsche Pomologie - Aepfel - 036.jpgEnglandc. 1740Has greenish-yellow to orange skin streaked with red. Distinctive nutty flavour excellent for cooking. The vigorous tree is slow to come into crop but then produces heavily.Cooking, Eating
Bloody PloughmanCarse of Gowrie, Scotlandc. 1800A medium-sized, very dark red, heavily ribbed apple. Crisp, mildly sweet white flesh, sometimes pink-streaked. It is reputed to have got its name from a ploughman who was caught stealing apples near Megginch Castle and was shot by the gamekeeper. His wife got the bag of apples and threw them on the compost heap where a seedling then grew and - voila - Bloody Ploughman.Eating
Bottle GreeningGreen Mountains, USc. 1800Produces large fruit. Has thick skin, but juicy.Eating, Cider
BraeburnBraeburn2008.jpgNew Zealand1952Chance seedling. The fruit is widely sold commercially in the UK.Eating
Bramley (Bramley's Seedling) agm[10]004bramley.jpgNottinghamshire, UK1809The fruit is the most widely sold cooker in the UK. Large sized fruits with waxy skin, green with a red flush. A favourite ingredient in many traditional British puddings.[11]Cooking
Bravo de EsmolfeEsmolfe, Penacova, Portugal18th centuryA small, juicy and sweet apple, considered one of the best Portuguese applesEating
Breedon PippinEngland1801Sweet flavour. Originally raised by a parson in Berkshire. Rare.Eating
BrinaItaly1998Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with intermediate vigour; full flowering season is medium-late, production is heavy, fruit is medium or medium-large, with smooth skin; white lenticels, no russet, excellent taste characteristics. Ripens first week of October (Trentino).Eating
Byfleet SeedlingEngland
Calville Blanc d'hiverMalus-Weißer-Winterkalvill.jpgFrance1598Noted for unusual looks (somewhat lumpy on the side) but excellent reward when tried. Noted for having unusually high vitamin C content. Apple of choice for tarte tatin in France.Cooking
CameoCameo apple.jpgWashington State, US1980sExistence owed to freak accidental crossing of two most popular apples in world: Red and Golden Delicious. Retains prongs on bottom of latter parent but has flavour more resembling Golden.Eating
Carolina Red JuneTennessee, USc. 1810Has unusual habit of blossoming twice, and producing two crops per year. Very popular Civil-War-era Southern apple. Does beautifully in humid weather. Good choice for backyard gardener in subtropical climate.Cooking, Eating
Carroll1947Ripens early.Eating
Carter's BlueAlabama, US1840sMedium to large, roundish oblate; skin green or greenish yellow washed with dull red with darker red broken tripes, covered with a heavy bluish bloom. Crisp, juicy, sugary, aromatic, mild subacid. Foliage also has a blue hue. Ripens September and keeps until November. Once widely grown in the American South, then thought extinct. Reintroduced to America in 1994 after being discovered at the National Fruit Trust in Kent England, where it had been added in 1947 from a collection in Rhone, France, after it had been acquired around 1860 from the Fruitland Nursery in Augusta, Georgia.[12]Eating, Cooking
CatsheadEngland1600sSharp flavour. Lumpy shape and electric green colouring. Known to have been a variety planted in early Virginia by settlers as well as native England. Extremely rare in native UK; occasionally still found growing in southern US.Cooking
Charles RossBerkshire, UK1890sHas been an AGM winner. Orange to red. Best cooked early in season. Good flavour, and sweet when eaten later in season.Multi-purpose
Chelmsford WonderEssex, UKc. 1870A large long keeping yellow-skinned apple with diffuse orange pink flush. [1]. Still grown in Essex orchards including Lathcoats Farm Shop.Multi-purpose
Chiver's DelightHiston, Cambridgeshire, UK1920sMedium to large oblate apple. Red flush over greenish yellow skin. Crisp, juicy, sweet white flesh. Flavour can be variable but at its best is very well balanced. Grown by Chivers (now a brand of Premier Foods) for apple sauce.Multi-purpose
Claygate Pearmain agm[13]UKSuitable for northerly, cold, wet climates: rich, nutty flavourDessert
CliviaGermanyGeheimrat Dr. Oldenburg × Cox's Orange PippinEating
Cornish GilliflowerCornish gillyflower.jpgCornwall, UK1813Discovered as accidental seedling. Shy bearer.Eating
CortlandCortland apples.jpgNew York1890sPale crisp flesh. Ripens in October in state of origin. Classic red coloration, nice crunch.Eating
Court Pendu PlatFrance1613Extremely old variety, may date from as early as Roman times. Popular during the Victorian era. Yellow to light green, flushed with red.Eating
Cox's Orange PippinCox orange renette2.JPGEngland1829One of the most celebrated apples in the UK, valued for its aromatic "orange" colour and flavour. The fruit is widely sold commercially. Mainly grown in UK, Belgium and the Netherlands but also grown for export in New Zealand.Eating
Cripps Pink ('Pink Lady')Pink lady and cross section.jpgAustralia1970sCrisp, very sweet and slightly tart. Light red, pink and light yellow-green striped skin.Cooking, Eating
CrispinJapan1930See MutsuEating
CriterionNew York1898One of parents believed to be Ben Davis, but very tart unlike parent. Dark red skin underlaid with stripes.Cooking, Eating
D'Arcy SpiceTolleshunt D'Arcy, Essex, UK1785A medium-sized apple with yellow-green skin, a red blush where exposed to the sun and covered with an spotty ochre russet. White flesh is aromatic, firm and crisp with noticeable hints of anise and clove.Eating
DelblushFranceDelbard 1979Tentation delblush
, Golden Delicious × Grifer
Delcorf agm[14]FranceDelbard 1960Delbarestivale delcorf,
Golden Delicious × Stark Jonagrimes
DelflogaFranceDelbard 2008Delbardivine delfloga,
Royal Gala Tenroy × Florina, scab resistant
DelflopionFranceDelbardSampion × Florina, scab resistantEating
DelrouvalFranceDelbard 1995Cybèle delrouval,
Delcorf × Akane
DeltanaFranceDelbard 2010Delbard Celeste deltana,
(Golden Delicious × Grive Rouge) × Florina, scab resistant
Devonshire QuarredenEngland, France?1685 (documented)Possible French parentage or ancestry. Crimson red peel. Juicy.Eating
Discovery agm[15]Essex, UK1949Possibly from an open-pollinated Worcester Pearmain, or could well be a Worcester × Beauty of Bath. Sharp, sweet flavour. Fruits are sold commercially in the UK.Eating
Dorsett GoldenBahamas1964Grown from chance seedling of Golden Delicious. One of the most southerly apples grown in North America.Eating
Duchess of OldenburgRussia18th centuryHas red stripes with splashes of green. Excellent resistance to freezing temperatures.Cooking, Eating
Dudley WinterCastle Hill, Maine, US19th centuryA medium-sized oblate apple with greenish-yellow skin covered with red stripes over a solid red blush. Flesh is firm but tender, juicy, aromatic and quite tart, becoming milder as it ages. Good for fresh eating and cooking; rated by many as one of the best for apple pies and sauces. Tree is a natural semi-dwarf, very hardy and bears heavily annually.Cooking, Eating
Dummellor's Seedling agm[16] also known as Dumelow's Seedling[17]Shackerstone, Leicestershire, UK18th centuryLarge, roundish-oblate apple with pale greenish-yellow skin strewn with large russet dots, occasionally covered with a delicate pinkish-orange blush. Yellow-tinted white flesh is aromatic, firm, crisp, tart, and very juicy. One of the most widely grown culinary apples of Victorian England, esteemed for its fine flavour and good keeping qualities.Cooking
Early VictoriaEssex, UK1899 (introduced)Possibly from Lord Grosvenor × Keswick Cod. Also called Emmeth Early. Ripens in late July. Pale yellow fruit.Eating
Edward VII agm[18]Worcestershire, UK1908 (introduced)A large oblate-round apple with yellow-green skin and pinkish-brown blush. Suitable for more northerly, cold, wet climates. White flesh is sharp and pleasant. Extraordinary keeper; apple ripens in autumn and will keep until Easter. Possibly Blenheim Orange × Golden Noble.Cooking
Egremont Russet agm[19]Egremont Russet Apple.jpgSussex, UK1872Brown russeting, nutty flavour. Excellent keeper.Eating
Ein ShemerIsrael1963Zabidani × Golden Delicious. This variety ripens in June. Tastes tart, does not do well in cold weather.Eating
Ellison's Orange agm[20]Ellison's Orange.jpgLincolnshire, UK1911Cox's Orange Pippin × Calville Blanc. Rich aniseed flavour.Eating
Elstar agm[21]Malus-Elstar.jpgNetherlands1950sGolden Delicious × Ingrid Marie. Medium-sized, mostly red with yellow showing. Often used in desserts due to its intense honey flavour.Cooking, Eating
Emneth Early agm[22]UKSuitable for northerly, cold, wet climates. A biennial crop that needs thinning.Cooking
EmpireNew York1966Lovely white subacid flesh. Tangy taste. Ruby red colour.Eating
EnterpriseIllinois, US1993Classic North American red apple. Stores well up to six months. Makes very good candy apple.Eating
EnvyEnvy Apple.jpgNew Zealand2009Sweet and crispy, takes 4–8 hours after cutting to start browning. Royal Gala × Braeburn.Eating
EpicureUK1909Yellowish apple with reddish blush. Good clean taste.Eating
Esopus SpitzenburgEsopus-spitzenburg.jpgEsopus, New Yorkc. 1750Grown by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Named for creek near which first seedling found. Heirloom variety still available at farmstands in Northeast and portions of Virginia. Difficult to grow for inexperienced planters.Cooking, Eating
Falstaff agm[23]UKA good pollinator.Dessert
Fiesta agm[24]Fiesta Apfelsorte.JPGKent, UK1972Sometimes called Red Pippin. Claims both UK and US heritage: parents are Cox's Orange and Idared. Has flavour similar to the former but storage, colouring, and cold tolerance of the latter.Eating
FiresideMinnesota, United States1943Very fragrant. Yellow with red striping. Sweet apple, very popular in upper Midwest.EatingFiesta_Apfelsorte.JPG
FlorinaMalus Florina 4485.jpgAnger, France(Querina), scab resistantEating
Flower of KentKent, UK18th centuryThis is the variety that inspired Sir Isaac Newton to consider gravity.Eating
Fortune agm[25] (Laxton's Fortune)1904Cox's Orange Pippin × WealthyEating
FujiRosaceae Malus pumila Malus pumila Var domestica Apples Fuji.jpgJapan1930sRed Delicious × Ralls Genet. Dark red, conic apple. Sweet, crisp, dense flesh is very mildly flavoured. Keeps very well. One of the most widely grown apple varieties in the world.Eating
Gala, Royal Gala agm[26]Malus-Gala.jpgNew Zealand1970sA small to medium-sized conic apple. Thin, tannic skin is yellow-green with a red blush overlaid with reddish-orange streaks. Flesh is yellowish-white, crisp and grainy with a mild flavour. Cross of three of the world's best known apples: Kidds Orange Red (a cross of Red Delicious and Cox's Orange Pippin) × Golden Delicious. One of the most widely available commercial fruit.Eating
Garden RoyalSudbury, Massachusetts, US1800sA medium-sized roundish-oblate, sometimes slightly conical apple. Greenish-yellow skin is striped and splashed with bright red, dull or grayish toward the stem; dots few, light and gray; cavity deep, basin shallow, slightly uneven. Flesh yellow, very tender, juicy, rich, mildly subacid and aromatic. Poor keeper. Upright habit, productive bearer, some biennial tendency.Eating
Gascoyne's ScarletKent, England1871large red fruitEating
Geheimrat Dr. OldenburgGeheimrat Oldenburg.jpgGermany1897Created at the Höheren Lehranstalt für Obstbau of Geisenheim in the Rheingau; Minister von Hammerstein × Baumanns Renette.Eating
George CaveEssex, UK1923Pale green-yellow fruit with red flush. Early harvest.Eating
George Neal agm[27]Kent, UK1904Pale green to yellow colour, will keep nicely until late autumn.Cooking
GlockenapfelMalus Glockenapfel 4455.jpgSwitzerland17th centuryA medium-sized green-yellow elongate bell-shaped apple, sometimes takes on a reddish blush. Tart and juicy, stores well, taste improves with age. Excellent culinary variety; renowned for its use in Strudel.Cooking, Eating
GlosterMalus Gloster 4558.jpgGermany1969Conical shape. Somewhat tart, ruby red colour like parent Red Delicious. Good choice for backyard gardening.Eating
Ginger GoldMalus Ginger-Gold.jpgVirginia, US1960sTangy flavour, crunchy texture, pale green-yellow colour. Noted for being an extremely early bearer (Europe by September 1, California late July, Eastern US in August).Cooking, Eating
Golden Delicious agm[28]Golden delicious apple.jpgClay County, West Virginia, US1914One of the most popular varieties in the world. Due to its regular size, even colour and storage qualities the fruit is widely sold commercially. Uniform light green-yellow coloration, very sweet. A good pollinator.Eating
Golden Noble agm[29]Malus-Gelber-Edelapfel.jpgEngland1820Tree is short and stocky. Produces mint green fruit with blush of pink.Eating
Golden OrangeItaly1979
released 1996
PRI 1956-6 × Ed Gould Golden. Resistant to scab. Moderate vigour, spreading habit and medium-late blooming season; fruit is moderately large (207 g) and symmetric, skin is smooth, no russeting. Ripens some days after Golden Delicious; fruit is very attractive; large, good storage ability.Eating
Golden RussetNew York1845 (documented)A medium-sized heavily russeted light green apple, occasionally with a reddish blush. Crisp, fine-grained flesh is rich, sugary and very sweet. Excellent dessert apple, keeps very well. Makes extraordinary cider, known as the "Champagne of cider apples."Cider, Eating
Golden SpireLancashire, UK1850An old Northern English variety. Unusually tall and oblong with a tart flavour.Cider, Eating
Golden SupremeIdaho, US1960Eating
GoldspurJabuka goldspur.jpgEating
GradiroseLanguedoc-Roussillon, France2004Created by Pépinières Grard. Early dessert apple with pink blush. Ripens in September and stores well. Very productive.Eating
Gragg (aka Red Gragg, Winter Queen)North Carolina, US1860Originated on the farm of James Gragg in Caldwell County, NC about 1860. Valued by North Carolina growers for its fine cooking qualities, crispness and long storage ability. The conical shaped fruit is red in colour with moderately conspicuous dots. Ripens in October and is a great keeper.Cooking, Eating
Granny SmithGranny smith and cross section.jpgAustralia1868This is the apple once used to represent Apple Records. A favourite variety, widely sold in the UK. Also noted as common pie apple. Lime green colouring. Extremely tart.Cooking, Eating
GravensteinGravensteiner.poupou.JPGGråsten, Jutland, Denmark17th centuryA medium-sized early yellow-green apple, often with red stripes. Crisp, sweet, tart flavour. Exceptional cooking apple, especially for applesauce and pies. Poor keeper; becomes soft quickly. German immigrants introduced this variety to California's San Joaquin Valley in the mid-19th century. Has many sports.Cooking, Eating
Green CheeseNorth Carolina or Georgia, US18th centuryA very old southern apple thought to have originated in North Carolina or Georgia but its true origin is uncertain. The fruit is medium to large, oblate to oblique in shape. The skin is deep green in colour, turning pale yellow when fully ripe. The yellowish flesh is sweet, crisp, tender and juicy.Eating
Greensleeves agm[30]Kent, UK1966Golden Delicious × James Grieve; good garden apple, with a pleasant but unexceptional flavour. Likely named for famous Renaissance era song.Eating
Grenadier agm[31]England1862 (documented)Possibly one of the strangest of all British apples: it is ribbed and lumpy with a tough coat, looking as though it has taken a beating. Grenadier cooks down to cream-coloured puree with a superb apple flavour. Makes an excellent apple jam. Poor keeper. Reliably heavy annual bearer.Cooking
Grimes GoldenGrimes Golden crop from brown brothers catalog.jpgBrooke County, West Virginia, US1804A medium-sized roundish to slightly oblong apple. Greenish-yellow skin, ripening to a clear yellow, stem cavity sometimes russeted, covered with yellow or russet dots. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender, with a rich, spicy, sugary-sweet flavour. A good all-purpose dessert and cooking apple, Grimes also makes a strong single-variety cider. Excellent keeper. Grimes Golden is the parent of the ubiquitous Golden Delicious. Relatively rare among apples, Grimes Golden is self-fertile. Original tree discovered near a known orchard of John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed).Cider, Cooking, Eating
HaralsonMinnesota, US1923Red colour and large, moderately conspicuous dots. Crisp and juicy with a tart flavour. Excellent choice for pies.Cooking, Eating
Harrison Cider AppleNew Jersey, US1770Yellow skin, sometimes red-blush, black spots, small size, sweet, rich and dry.Cooking, Cider
Hawaii 1945 (introduced)Noted for pineapple-like taste.Eating
Heyer 12Very cold-tolerant.Eating
HoneycrispHoneycrisp-Apple.jpgMinnesota, US1960Has excellent eating and keeping qualities. Mottled red and yellow colour. Very crisp white flesh is slightly tart with a strong honey-like sweetness. Quality varies from apple to apple. Developed by the University of Minnesota and best suited to cool climates.Eating
HoneygoldMinnesota, US1969Sweet tasting fruit. Tree has very showy, light pink blossoms in spring.Eating
Howgate WonderIsle of Wight, UK1960Usually a big apple. Makes a lot of juice.Cooking
Idared agm[32]Malus-Idared.jpgMoscow, Idaho, US1942A medium-sized deep red apple. Crisp white flesh is tart and juicy, and can be somewhat bland if eaten out of hand, however, Idared is an exceptional cooking apple. Flesh keeps is shape, and the flavour becomes much stronger with cooking. An excellent keeping apple, Idared remains hardy and durable in proper storage for as long as 8 months. Idared is a cross between Jonathan and Wagener developed at the University of Idaho.Cooking
Irish PeachKilkenny, Ireland19th centuryExcellent for baking. Early harvest. More difficult to find within land of origin due to primary use for export to UK. Hardy, tastes very good straight off tree.Cooking, Eating
James Grieve agm[33]Edinburgh, Scotland1893Good taste, but poor keeper (bruises easily).Cooking, Eating
Jazz (Scifresh)Jazz apples.jpgNew Zealand2007 (launched)Bright red round apple with subtle yellow under-striping. Tart to sweet, dense and very crunchy with effervescent texture. From sweet Royal Gala × firm, tart Braeburn. Widely sold commercially in the UK.Eating
Jonagold agm[34]Malus-Jonagold.jpgNew York1968Popular in Europe and land of origin. Several highly coloured strains are available. Widely sold commercially in the UK.Eating, Cooking
JonathanMalus-Jonathan.jpgNew York1820sTart taste. Mostly red apple with patches of lime green. Does well in cooler areas; some frost resistance.Cooking (Pie), Eating
JunaluskaNorth Carolina, USc. 1815Battle of Horseshoe Bend, believed to have planted original tree. Extremely russeted and ugly apple but very hardy tree with superior taste to commercial varieties.Cooking, Cider, Eating
JunamiSwitzerlandc. 2010A cross between Ideared and Maigold with Elstar. Beautifully round, fresh and fruity taste with a crunchy bite.Cooking, Eating
Jupiter agm[35]North Carolina, USc. 1815A large, round, slightly conic apple. Light yellow-green skin with a red-orange blush and stripes. Strong apple flavour is well-balanced between sweet and sharp. Cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and Starking Delicious (a sport of Red Delicious), apple retains Cox's flavour, but tree is easier to grow.Eating
Kanzi (Nicoter)Belgium1991Gala × Braeburn. Crunchy, juicy, sweet, slightly tangier than Gala.Eating
Karmijn de SonnavilleMalus - Karmijn de Sonnaville.JPGWageningen, Netherlands1949Yellow ground colour when ripe, with red flush, and russet depending on the season. Large apple, though shape can be irregular.Cooking (Apple Juice), Eating
KatySweden1947Medium-sized early eating apple with red skin and pale cream flesh. Well suited to Northern European climate.Eating
Kerry PippinCounty Antrim, Irelandc. 1805Pale to golden yellow flesh. Delightful spicy taste. Well suited to Ireland's moist, cool climate.Eating
Kidd's Orange Red agm[36]New Zealand1924Cox's Orange Pippin × Delicious. Yellow skin with orange red flush. Chewy rather than crunchy.Eating
KingUnited StatesEating
King of the Pippins agm[37]UKSuitable for more northerly (southerly in the Southern Hemisphere) areas with higher rainfallEating, cooking
King Russet agm[38]UKRussetted form of 'King of the Pippins'Eating
Knobbed RussetSussex, England1819Green and yellow, with rough and black russet. Unusually irregular, warty and knobbly surface.Cider, Eating
Lady AliceWashington, US1978Medium-sized, roundish oblate with thin yellow-green skin with an orange blush and bright red stripes. Crisp yellowish-white flesh is sweet with hints of honey and almond. Don Emmons purchased a neglected orchard of Red Delicious near Gleed, Washington, in 1978. While cultivating between trees, a disc from the plow hit the base of a tree. The injury caused a new shoot to grow from the rootstock (likely a seedling grown from a pip). The shoot was allowed to grow and bear fruit which Mr. Emmons named for his mother, Alice.[39]
Lane's Prince Albert agm[40]England1841Green with orange blush. Makes a good apple crumble for Christmas: peak ripening happens in winter.Cooking
Laxton's Epicure agm[41]UKAromatic sweet fruit, tendency to biennial habit, bruises easily.
Laxton's Fortune See 'Fortune'
Laxton's SuperbEngland1897Wyken Pippin × Cox's Orange Pippin. Classic old Victorian, British apple. Green with dull red flush. Firm texture, but not very good juice producer.Eating
LibertyApple liberty.jpgNew York1978Very disease-resistant. Very similar appearance to McIntosh, relatively short storage life in air.Eating
LimelightKent, England2000Greensleeves type; abundant cropping and a compact tree. A pale green apple with a smooth finish and occasional pink blush. Crisp flesh and disease resistant tree.Eating
LodiOhio, US1911Fruit pale yellow flushed with deeper yellow. Resistant to scab. Tangy taste.Eating
Lord DerbyCheshire, Englandc. 1850Yellowish green apple. Acid flavour, likes cooler weather.Cooking
Lord Lambourne agm[42]Lord lambourne apple.jpgEngland1921James Grieve × Worcester Pearmain. Round shape. Orange flush with hint of russet. Strong acid flavour. Good for domestic cultivation.Eating
MacounMacoun Apple.jpgNew York1923Cold-tolerant. Crunchy. Does very well in salads.Eating
Maiden's BlushBurlington, New Jersey, US19th centuryA thin-skinned, flattened apple. Pale yellow-green skin has a telltale crimson blush on the side that faced the sun. White flesh is crisp with a sharp flavour that mellows with storage. Heavy annual bearer. Good cooker. Excellent variety for drying because the flesh remains white and bright.Cooking, Eating
MalindaVermont, US1860Small, conical with sheep's nose; deep, rich yellow with red spots possible. Dry, dense, substantive flesh; mild, pear-like flavour. Tree good in climates with heavy snowfall.Cooking, Eating
MantetManitoba, Canada1929 (introduced)Amber fruit washed with red. Summer apple. Does not do well in warm climates.Eating
MargilLondon1750sSmall, highly flavoured apple held in very high esteem by connoisseurs. Medium to small in size, slightly conical in shape, dull green skin with an orange-red blush, some russeting. The yellow flesh is firm, crisp, sugary, and as pomologist Robert Hogg said, "with a powerful and delicious aromatic flavour." The very small tree is weak and slender and bears light crops. Because it flowers early, it is susceptible to frost damage. It keeps well. Introduced to Brompton Park Nursury from Versailles by Henry Wise in the early 18th century.Eating
May QueenWorcester, England1800sLarge, oblate, often russetted yellow apple with bright red blush and stripes. Crisp, greenish-yellow flesh, rich, nutty flavour. Similar texture to Ribston Pippin, and in a good year, its equal in flavour. In bad years it can be rather dry and harsh. Excellent keeper. Heavy annual bearer.Eating
McIntoshApples on tree 2011 G1 cropped.jpgOntario, Canada1811A popular, cold-tolerant eating apple in North America.Cooking (applesauce), Eating
MelroseOhio, US1944Flavour improves in storage. Coarse flesh.Eating
Merton Charm agmUKSemi-weeping habit, heavy crops of small fruit unless thinned
Merton WorcesterEngland1956Cox's Orange Pippin × Worcester Pearmain. Developed at John Innes Institute.Eating
Miller's SeedlingBerkshire, England1848Sweet apple. Tree prefers chalky soils.Eating
Mollie's DeliciousNew Jersey, US1966Conical shape, pinkish red colour. Lasts long in refrigeration. Good aftertaste.Eating
Mother (American Mother)Massachusetts, US1840Medium-sized yellow apple with crimson stripes and darker red blush. White flesh is rich, sweet and juicy. The fruit has a balsamic aroma with a suggestion of vanilla. Cropping can be a bit irregular, if not completely biennial. A late flowering variety that avoids frost. Some resistance to scab.Eating
Muscadet de DieppeNormandy, Francec. 1750Commonly used in making Calvados brandy.Cider
MutsuMutsu apple.jpgAomori Prefecture, Japan1930Known as "Crispin" in the UK. Golden Delicious × Indo.Eating
My JewelWatsonville, Californiac. 1940[43]Originated as a chance seedling, a cross between Winter Banana (with a banana flavour) and Golden Delicious.[44] Yellow colour. October harvest. Still used in cider blends by Martinelli's)[45]Eating, Cooking, Cider
Newell-Kimzey ( Airlie Red Flesh)Airlie, Oregon1961A medium to medium -large, conic apple. Light yellow-green skin with white dots, occasionally with red-orange blush on one side.Light pink to deep red flesh is crisp, sweet and moderately tart.Eating, pies
Newtown Pippin (Albemarle Pippin)Queens County, New York1759Best known colonial apple in North America. Known favourite of Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Medium to large, often irregularly shaped apple. Greenish-yellow, dotted, often russeted. Tough skin, flesh cream to greenish-white, very quickly browning. Texture is crisp, moderately fine-grained subacid to tart, sprightly. Biennial habit, slow to come into bearing. Good keeper, improves with storage. Prized for its clear juice in cider making. Two sports, Green Newtown Pippin and Yellow Newtown Pippin, differ only in skin colour.Cooking, Eating, Cider
Newton Wonder agm[46]England1870sVery good cooker. Prolific bearer, can be harvested in winter.Cooking
NickajackNorth Carolina, United Statesc. 1810Native American origin, believed to be originally grown by Cherokee along banks of Nickajack Creek. Only grown in Appalachians, favourite of later settlers for desserts. Rusty red colour with sweet, crisp taste.Cooking, Eating
Norfolk RoyalEnglandc. 1850Crisp, sharply sweet and well-flavoured. Available as a russet or smooth.Eating
Northern Spy012nrthnspy.jpgNew Yorkc. 1800Tart, firm, stores very well. Noted for being excellent choice for making American-style apple pie. Sometimes used as a rootstock.Cider, Cooking, Eating
OpalCzech Republic1999Firm, fine to medium grained, medium juicy, full flavoured, sweet, mild-subacid. Golden Delicious × Topaz.[47]Eating
OrinJapan1952Sweet and distinctive fragrance. Notes of pineapple. Medium hardness. Golden Delicious × Indo.Eating
Orleans ReinetteOrleans, France1776Reliable bearer. Extraordinary complex flavour, similar to Blenheim Orange, but not related.Eating
Ozark GoldMissouri, US1970Light green with pink blush. Has taste with notes of honey.Eating
Pacific RoseNew Zealand1995Extremely crisp, sweet apple. Also grows well in California.Eating
Pam's DelightBedfordshire, England1958A medium-sized apple with a red blush. Flesh is crisp, juicy and sweet-tasting. Alfred Hull, a retired clerk planted some apple pips in pots which he placed on his bathroom windowsill. He planted the most vigorous in his garden. His daughter, Pam, teased her father by telling him that he should dig the tree up as it did not look as if it was capable of producing fruit. Unfortunately, Pam developed Hodgkin's Disease, and Alfred told her that if his tree, which had become a family joke, ever bore fruit she would be the recipient of the first apple. Seven years after he planted the pip, the tree produced its first blossom, and from that, a single apple. He proudly presented it to Pam that October. Sadly, her illness became more severe, and she died, at the age of 28 the following April, just as the tree blossomed fully for the first time. That year the tree produced twenty two pounds of apples. In 1968, Brogdale Farm accepted Pam's Delight for full commercial trials. Later that year it was included in the National Register.[48] As of 2011, Pam's Delight is available from East of England Apples and Orchard Group.Eating
Paula RedPaula red.jpgKent County, Michigan, US1960sFirm white flesh; McIntosh mutation.Eating
Peasgood's Nonsuch agm[49]Malus Goldrenette von Peasgood 4233.jpgEngland1858A very large yellowish-green apple, deepening to orange-yellow, flushed and striped red with some russet patches. Flesh is sweet and juicy. Good eating and superb for cooking. Large, hardy and heavy cropping tree. Apples can weigh up to half a kilogram, and are famously large enough to make a pie from a single apple.Cooking, Eating
Pink PearlCalifornia, US1944Noted for having bright pink flesh. Sweet. Possibly has crab apple in its ancestry.Eating
PinovaPinata grouping.jpgGermany1986Bred in Germany over an 18-year period. Marketed as "Piñata" in the United States. Fragrant smell, thin skin and balanced sweet and tart flavour profile. From Clivia × Golden Delicious.Cooking, Eating
Pitmaston PineappleMoseley, Worcester, England1785Pitmaston Pineapple is a dessert apple known since 1785. Small oblong apples with a yellow-green russeted skin. Tender flesh is an intense nutty, honeyed flavour with, as the name suggests, tropical undertones and some balancing acidity. Trees are biennial but produce heavy crops in the 'on' year.
Pixie agm[50]England1947Resistant to scab and mildew. Very small apple.Eating
Porter'sUSSmallish, squat, deep golden yellow colour with red blush and firm, white, fine-grained aromatic sweet flesh.Eating, Cooking or Cider.
Pott's SeedlingEnglandPale green to yellow colour and white flesh.Cooking
Pound SweetManchester, Connecticut, US1834Amber coloration. Used mostly for making apple butter. Russets. Does well in moderate cold. Suitable to areas with snowy winters.Cooking
RajkaCzech RepublicScab-resistant cross of Rezista × RomeEating
Red AstrachanRed astrachan.jpgRussiac. 1800Extremely resistant to frost.Cooking
Red DeliciousRed delicious apples.jpgIowa, USc. 1870Unmistakable for its acutely conic shape, dark red colour and telltale bumps on bottom. Flavour is sweet and mild, bordering on bland. Poor choice for cooking or cider. Original seedling known as "Hawkeye." Rights bought by Stark Brothers in 1893. First marketed as "Delicious" or "Stark's Delicious," name changed to "Red Delicious" in 1914 when Stark bought the rights to Mullin's Yellow Seedling, changing that apple's name to "Yellow Delicious". Red Delicious has many sports and ranks as the world's most prolific apple.Eating
Red PrinceWeert, Netherlands1994Medium-sized, conic, uniform deep red skin. White flesh is crisp, sweet and juicy, with hints of cherry and almond. Excellent keeper. Chance seedling (a natural cross of Jonathan and Golden Delicious) discovered in 1994. Marketed throughout Europe, in 2001, Global Fruit in Ontario became exclusive growers of the variety in North America.[51]Eating, Cooking
Rev. W. WilksEngland1908Pastel green with a light pink flush. Very disease-resistant.Cooking
Rhode Island GreeningRhode Island Greening Apple outside.jpgNewport, Rhode Island, US1650sExtremely old variety for United States, second only to Roxbury Russet in age. Very tart. Grass-green colour with some possible russeting near stem. Very tart.Cider, Cooking
Ribston Pippin agm[52]Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England1708An irregularly-shaped and sometimes lopsided apple, usually round to conical and flattened at the base with distinct ribbing. Skin is yellow with an orange blush and red streaked with russet dots. Yellow flesh is firm, fine-grained, and sweet with a pear-like flavour. The original Ribston Pippin sprouted in 1708 from one of three apple pips sent from Normandy to Sir Henry Goodricke of Ribston Hall at Knaresborough. The original tree stood until 1835. It then sent up a new shoot and, on the original roots, lived until 1928. Ribston Pippin is thought to be a parent of Cox's Orange Pippin.Eating
Rome BeautyRome Apples, Newark Delaware Farmer's Market.jpgRome, Ohio, United States19th centuryRounded, deep red, and very glossy. Crisp, juicy white flesh is mild as a dessert apple, but develops an extraordinary depth and richness when cooked. Good keeper.Cooking
Rosemary Russet agm[53]UKRegular cropper. Fruit sweet and sharp, like 'Ashmead's Kernel'.
Royal Gala See Gala
Rubens (Civni)Rubens apples on plate.jpgItaly1985Sweet and crunchy; Gala × Elstar.Eating
St. Edmund's Pippin agm[54]Suffolk, England1870sUnusual in fact that it has scaly russet patches mixed with smooth. Has vanilla/pear taste. Usually a light yellow-green.Eating
Santana[55]Wageningen, Netherlands1978Scab resistant.Eating.
SaturnKent, England1980Scab resistant.Eating.
SmokehouseMill Creek, Pennsylvania, US1837A medium to small apple. Greenish-yellow with flushed red-orange stripes. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender with a spicy-sweet flavour that tastes like cider. Excellent all-purpose apple. Unusual in that it also makes excellent cider. Seedling discovered growing next to the smokehouse on William Gibbons' farm in Mill Creek, PA. Bears fruit from young age.Eating, Cooking, Cider.
Snow apple (Fameuse)Quebec, Canada17th centuryTender, aromatic, distinct flavour. A parent of McIntosh.Cider, cooking, eating
SonyaNew Zealand2000Cross between a Red Delicious and Gala. Coppery coloration. Crisp.Eating
SpartanSparťan.jpgBritish Columbia, Canada1926Good all-purpose, medium sized apple. Has a bright red blush and may have background patches of greens and yellows. Popular across border in United States as well.Cooking, Eating
Stark EarliestUS1938Does nicely in fruit salads. Red striping on light background. Ripens in summer.Eating
StaymanUS1866Dullish red skin often covered with a light russet. Tart, wine-like flavour. Stores well. Particularly known for tangy cider.Cider, Cooking, Eating
Streifling HerbstNetherlands or Western EuropeSour sweet. Popular in Eastern EuropeEating, juice, jam, compote, dried
Sturmer PippinSturmer, Essex, Englandc. 1800A medium-sized, bright greenish-yellow apple with a reddish-brown blush, often on one face only. White-fleshed and crisp. One of the best English keeping apples, with proper storage Sturmer Pippin lasts 4 to 5 months. Flavour is sprightly, more sharp than sweet when first picked, but improves dramatically in storage, becoming sweeter and richer, while maintaining its crisp texture. This keeping ability made it ideal for long journeys, as such, it was brought to Australia where it is still widely grown. Parent of Granny Smith.Eating
SummerfreeItaly1998Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with moderate vigour, fruit is large, average weight of 175 g, skin is smooth, ripens 1–2 days before Gala, good storage ability.Eating
Sunset agm[56]England1918Easy to grow. Has very similar flavour to Cox's Orange Pippin. Won't do well in heat.Eating
Suntan agm[57]UKFruits ripen orange-red, flavour is sharp and intense
Sweet SixteenMinnesota, US1973Large fruit, some russeting near top. Moderately acidic taste.Eating
SweeTangoSweeTango packaging close-up.jpgMinnesota, US2009Juicy and sweet, and viewed as a successor to the Honeycrisp by many growers.Eating
Tolman SweetUS1822Very sweet apple. Once used to make dried fruit for winter.Cider, Cooking
Tom PuttTrent, Dorset, England18th centurySmall to medium, flat and irregularly shaped apple. Green, usually covered entirely with a bright red blush. Crisp, sharp flavour. An excellent cooker and ideal single-variety cider apple. Softens during storage. Tree is vigorous and precocious. Scab-resistant. Seedling found by a Rev. Tom Putt of Trent, Somerset, England in the late 1700s. Triploid.Cider, Cooking
TopazCzech Republic1990Rubin × Vanda, scab-resistant, sharp flavour.Cider, Cooking, Eating
Twenty OunceNew York1840Huge: apple weighs over one pound, or nearly 500 g. Green overlaid with broad red striping. Excellent cooker. Nice juice qualities.Cider, Cooking, Eating
Tydeman's Early WorcesterEngland1929Mclntosh × Worcester Pearmain. Crimson over yellow background colour.Eating
Tydeman's Late OrangeEngland1930Good storage qualities, but loses fragrance with age.Eating
WagenerNew York1795Antique American variety, known since Colonial times. Tree is scab-resistant. Green with red flush, crispy, subacid and sweet. Keeps very well. Very versatile in kitchen; not only does it cook well, but makes a good single-variety cider. Wagener is a parent of Idared, to which it imparts its keeping and cooking qualities.Cider, Cooking, Eating
Warner's King agm[58]Kent, Englandc. 1700Oblong and light green. Very tart. Do not attempt to eat out of hand.Cooking
Westfield Seek-No-FurtherWestfield, Massachusetts, US18th centuryA medium-sized conic to truncate-conic apple. Greenish-yellow, dull skin, flushed orange with carmine stripes, russet dots and patches. Shaded fruit are often irregularly russeted all over, with little colour showing. Flesh is light buttery-yellow, firm but tender, and moderately fine-grained. Flavour is nicely balanced, a honey-like sweetness balanced with a lemon-like citric acidity, rich, notes of pear and vanilla. Vigorous grower, some disease resistance.Eating
WealthyMinnesota, US1860Cherry Red × Sops of Wine.

Pretty reddish pink coat. Believed at one time Minnesota was too cold to grow apples until "Wealthy" was cultivated. Now a parent to many apples for resistance to temperatures below freezing. Still available in upper Midwest.

White TransparentPapierówka owoce na gałęziach.jpgLatvia1850Very pale green skin with an almost white flesh, it is very sharp in taste. Fruit bruises easily and goes soft once harvested.Cooking
WinesapUnited States1817Sweet with tangy finish. Reddish blush flecked with some green.Cider, Eating
Winston (Winter King) agm[59]Englandc. 1935Cox Orange × Worcester Pearmain. Originally called Winter King because of its extraordinary keeping ability, renamed during World War II for Winston Churchill.
Wolf RiverWisconsin, US1881Apple very large, some growing to size of large grapefruit. Red with yellow blush. Once very popular commercial apple in United States but presently relegated to upper Midwest if grown for profit. Occasionally can be found growing wild in backcountry thickets or abandoned land in Shenandoah Valley. Named for area where found. Feral trees can be brought back with care and pruning.Cooking, Eating
Worcester Pearmain agm[60]Worcester parmän.jpgWorcestershire, England1873Crisp and sweet strawberry flavour when ripe. Best if eaten early in season (September).Eating
York Imperial agm[61]York Imperial.jpgYork, Pennsylvania, US1820Tart yet sweet, preserves well, lop-sided shapeCider, Cooking, Eating

Cider apples[edit]

Cider apples may be far too sour or bitter for fresh eating, but are used for making cider. Some apples (especially older ones from the U.S. and Canada) are used for both cider and eating purposes.

Gravenstein apples, used for cooking, dessert, and cider
Less common apple cultivars.
A range of modern apple cultivars
Common nameOriginFirst developed
BaldwinWilmington, Massachusetts, USc. 1740
Brown SnoutHerefordshire, Englandc. 1850
DabinettSomerset, Englandlate 19th century
Dymock RedGloucestershire, England
FoxwhelpGloucestershire, Englandc. 1600
Hagloe Crab
Kingston BlackNear Taunton, Somerset, Englandlate 19th century
Newtown PippinQueens County, New York, USc. 1750
RedstreakHerefordshire, Englandc. 1630
Roxbury RussetMassachusetts, USc. 1640s
Stoke RedRodney Stoke, Somerset, Englandearly 20th century
Tremlett's BitterExe Valley, UKc. 1820
Vista BellaRutgers University, US1944
WinesapUSc. 1817
Yeovil SourYeovil, Somersetc. 1824

Rootstock cultivars[edit]

Selection of rootstock cultivars can be difficult: vigorous roots tend to give trees that are healthy but grow too tall to be harvested easily without careful pruning, while dwarfing rootstocks result in small trees that are easy to harvest from, but are often shorter-lived and sometimes less healthy. Most modern commercial orchards use one of the "Malling series" (aka 'M' series), introduced or developed by the East Malling Research Station from the early 20th century onward. However, a great deal of work has been done recently introducing new rootstocks in Poland, the U.S. (Geneva), and other nations. The Polish rootstocks are often used where cold hardiness is needed. The Geneva series of rootstocks has been developed to resist important diseases such as fireblight and collar rot, as well as for high fruit productivity.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Elzebroek, A.T.G.; Wind, K. (2008). Guide to Cultivated Plants. Wallingford: CAB International. p. 27. ISBN 1-84593-356-7. 
  2. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Alkmene'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  3. ^ Annamaria Ciarallo, Gardens of Pompeii, J. Paul Getty Museum Publications, 2001 ISBN 0-89236-629-X (p. 20).
  4. ^ a b Petraq J. Papajorgji, Panos M. Pardalos, Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, Springer Verlag, 2009 (p. 474) ISBN 978-0-387-75180-1 doi:10.1007/978-0-387-75181-8
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Arthur Turner'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Ashmead's Kernel'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Belle de Boskoop'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Blenhein Orange'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Bramley'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  11. ^
  12. ^ Calhoun, Creighton Lee, Jr. "Old Southern Apples", Blacksburg, Virginia 1995, MacDonald and Woodward, (ISBN 9-780939-923373), page 59
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Claygate Pearmain'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Delcorf'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Discovery'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Dummellor's Seedling'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Edward VII'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  19. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Egremont Russet'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  20. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Ellison's Orange'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  21. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Elstar'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  22. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Emneth Early'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  23. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Falstaff'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  24. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Fiesta'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  25. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Fortune'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  26. ^
  27. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'George Neal'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  28. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Golden Delicious'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  29. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Golden Noble'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  30. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Greensleeves'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  31. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Grenadier'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Idared'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  33. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'James Grieve'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  34. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Jonagold'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  35. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Jupiter'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  36. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Kidd'sOrange Red'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  37. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'King of the Pippins'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  38. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'King Russet'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  39. ^ Story of Lady Alice
  40. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Lane's Prince Albert'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  41. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Laxton's Epicure'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  42. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Lord Lambourne'". Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  43. ^ [1]
  44. ^ [2]
  45. ^ [Santa Cruz Sentinel, June 27, 2006: "Life changes after encounter with fairy-tale horses"]
  46. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Newton Wonder'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  47. ^ Opal
  48. ^ Story of Pam's Delight
  49. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Peasgood Nonesuch'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  50. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Pixie'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  51. ^ Red Prince apples
  52. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Ribston Pippin'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  53. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Rosemary Russet'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  54. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'St Edmund's Pippin'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  55. ^ [Santana details "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Santana'"]. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  56. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Sunset'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  57. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Suntan'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  58. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Warner's King'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  59. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Winston'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  60. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Worcester Pearmain'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  61. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'York Imperial'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 

Khanizadeh, S. and J. Cousineau. 1998. "Our Apples/ Les Pommiers de Chez Nous", A Description of Over 250 Apple Cultivars Grown in Eastern and Central Canada Including 400 Coloured Photographs of the Fruits, Flowers and Leaves. Publisher Shahrokh Khanizadeh, 260 p. Ed: S. Khanizadeh. ISBN 0-660-60543-0.

Further reading[edit]

'Granny Smith', an apple cultivar

Two of the most comprehensive publications on apple cultivars are: Khanizadeh, S. and J. Cousineau. 1998. "Our Apples/ Les Pommiers de Chez Nous", A Description of Over 250 Apple Cultivars Grown in Eastern and Central Canada Including 400 Coloured Photographs of the Fruits, Flowers and Leaves. Publisher Shahrokh Khanizadeh, 260 p. Ed: S. Khanizadeh. ISBN 0-660-60543-0.

External links[edit]