List of animal names

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
Mother sea otter with sleeping pup, Morro Bay, California

Many animals, particularly domesticated, have been given specific names for males, females, young, and groups.

The best known source of many of the bizarre words used for collective groupings of animals is The Book of Saint Albans, an essay on hunting published in 1486 and attributed to Dame Juliana Berners.[1]

Most terms used here may be found in common dictionaries and general information web sites.[2][3][4]

Generic terms[edit]

The terms in this table apply to many or all taxa in a particular biological family, class, or clade.

AnimalYoungFemaleMaleCollective nounCollateral adjectiveTrivial name
Aveschickhencockflockavianbird
Bovidaecalfcow (bred), heifer (not bred)bull, steer (castrated)herdbovinecattle; cows
Canidaepuppy, pup,[5] cubbitchdogpackcaninedog
Equidaecolt (male), filly (female), foaljenny (asses), mare (other equids)jack (asses), stallion (other equids), gelding (castrated horse)herdequinehorse
Felidaekitten, cubqueentomclowderfelinecat
Osteichthyesfry, fingerling??school, shoalpiscine, ichthyicbony fish

Terms by species or taxon[edit]

AnimalYoungFemaleMaleCollective nounCollateral adjectiveCulinary noun for meat
A
AardvarkcubsowboarN/Aorycteropodian
AlbatrosschickN/AN/Aflock[6]
rookery[7]
gam (when searching for mates)[8]
?
Alligatorhatchlingcowbullcongregation[9]eusuchian
Alpacacria??herdcamelid
Antlarva
pupa
queen
worker
gyne
dronearmy[10]
bike[10]
colony[10][11]
nest[9]
swarm[10]
formic
myrmicine
AnteaterpupsowboarN/A?
Antelopecalf[12]doebuckherd[10][13]
cluster[10][13]
tribe[10][13]
alcelaphine
bubaline
antilopine
ApeinfantN/AN/Ashrewdness[2][9][13][14]
troop[9][10][13]
simian
Armadillopup
baby
sowboarN/Acingulatan
Ass/Donkeyfoaljennyjackherd[10]
coffle[10][13]
drove[9][10][13]
pace[10][11][13]
asinine
B
BabooninfantN/A?flange[15][note 1]
troop[2][9][15]
?
Badgercub
kit
sowboarcete[2][9][11][15]
colony[15]
musteline
Barracuda???school[16]percesocine
BatpupN/AN/Acloud[15][17]
colony[11][15]
flock[18]
pteropine
noctillionine
Bearcub[19]sowboarsleuth[9][11][15]
sloth[9][11][15]
ursine
Beaverkit
kitten
pup
N/AN/Afamily[9]
colony[9][15]
Beelarva
pupa
queen
worker [note 2]
dronecast (a second swarm)[15]
cluster (of workers around the queen)[15]
colony[15]
drift[2][15]
erst[2][15]
grist[9][15]
hive[2][9][15]
nest[9]
rabble[15]
stand[15]
swarm[2][9][15]
apic
apian
apiarian
Bisoncalfcowbullherdbovine
bubaline
Boar (wild pig)
Also see Pig
piglet
farrow
shoat/shote (just weaned)
??herd[15][20]
singular[9][20]

Groups of 12 or more
sounder[9][20]
?
Buffalo, African (for American buffalo, see Bison)calfcow, heiferbullherd[9][11][15]
troop[9]
gang[9][11][15]
obstinancy[9][11][15]
?
Butterflycaterpillar
larva
pupa
chrysalis
??flight[15]
flutter[9]
rabble[15]
pieridine
pierine
lepidopteran
C
Camelcalfcowbullcaravan[9]
flock[9]
herd
train[9]
camelid
cameline
Capybarapup????
Cariboucalf??herdrangiferine
Cassowaryhatchling
chick
??N/Aratite
Catkitten
kit
molly
queen
pussy
tom
gib (castrated male)[21]
clowder[2][9]
cluster[9]
clutter[22]
glaring[2][9]
pounce[9]
kindle (kittens)[23]
litter (kittens)
feline
Caterpillar???army[9][24]?
Cattle[note 3]calf[25]cow[26]bullherd[9]
drove[9]
yoke (oxen)
team (oxen)
bovine[note 4]
taurine (male)
vaccine (female)
vituline (young)
beef
veal
Chamoiscalfdoebullherdrupicaprine
Cheetahcub??coalition (male)[27]?
Chickenchickhen
pullet
rooster
cock
cockerel
capon (castrated male)
flock
brood[9]
peep (chicks)[9]
clutch (eggs)
gallinepoultry
Chimpanzeeinfantempressblackbackpanine
Chinchillakitvelvet
sow
boar
bull
chinchilline
Choughchick??chattering[2][14][28]
clattering[2][14][29]
corvine
Clamlarva???
Cobra???quiver[30]elapid
Cockroachnymph??intrusion[30]blattid
Codcodling??school
gadoid
gadine
Cormorantchick
shaglet
??gulp[30]
flight
Coyotepup
puppy
cub
whelp
bitchdogpackcanine
CrabN/Ahen
jenny
cock
jimmy
cancrine
Cranechick
colt[31]
??herd
sedge[11]
sege[32]
siege[33]
alectorine
Crocodilehatchlingcowbullbask[9]
congregation
float[9]
nest
crocodilian
Crow???murder[2][9]corvine
Curlew???herd[2][14]?
D
Deercalf[12]
fawn
doe
hind
cow[12]
buck
stag
bull[12]
hart (red deer)
bunch[34]
herd[34]
mob[34]
rangale[34]
cervine
elaphine
venison
humble (organ meat)
Dinosaurhatchling
juvenile
cowbullherd (herbivores)
pack (carnivores)
dinosaurian
Dogpup[5]
puppy
whelp[35]
bitch
dam
dog
stud
sire
pack (wild)[11][34]
kennel[34]
mute[11]
litter (young)[36]
cowardice (curs)[11][37]
comedy (boxers)[38][39]
cry (hounds)[40]
canine
Dogfish???troop[34]?capeshark (USA)
rock salmon (UK)
flake (UK, AUS)
huss (UK)
rigg (UK)
kahada (CAN)[41]
Dolphincalf
pup
cowbullschool[34]
pod
herd
team[34]
delphine
Donkey - See Ass
Dotterel???trip[2][11]?
Dovechickhencockarc[9]
cote
dole[2][34]
dule[9][34]
flight[2][9][34]
piteousness[2][34]
pitying[9]
columbine
Dragonflynymphqueenking
drake
cluster
flight
anisopteran
Duck
Also see Mallard
ducklingduck
hen
drakeOn land
flock
herd
badling[11]
brace[11]
safe[2]
sord[34]
sore[34]
waddling[34]

On water
bunch[2][34]
paddling[2][34]
raft[2][34]

In flight
skein[34]
string[34]
team[11][34]
anatine
fuliguline
poultry
Dugongcalfcowbullherddugongine
Dunlinchick??fling[2]?
E
Eagleeaglet
fledgling
N/AN/Aconvocation[9][11]aquiline
Echidnapuggle
(in common use, but not scientifically endorsed)
??tachyglossine
Eelleptocephalus (larva)
elver (juvenile)
N/AN/Abed[9]
swarm[9]
anguilline
Elandcalfcowbullherd?
Elephantcalf[25]cow[26]bull[42]herd
memory[9]
elephantine
proboscine
proboscidean
Elephant sealcalfcowbullherd
pack
miroungan
Elk (wapiti)calf[12]cow[12]bull[12]gang[9]
herd[9]
cervinevenison
Emuchick
hatchling
??mob[9]?
F
Falconeyass/eyasfalcontiercel
tercel
terzel
acciptrine
Ferretkitjillhobbusyness[14]
business[9][11]
musteline
Finchchickhencockfringilline
Fishfry
fingerling
??piscine
Flamingo???phoenicopterine
Flymaggot??swarmdipterous
Foxcub[19]
kit
pup[5]
vixentod
dog
reynard
leash[9][11]
skulk[9][11]
vulpine
Frogpolliwog
tadpole
froglet
--ranine
G
Gaurcalfcowbullherdbovine
gaurine
garabeef
Gazellecalf[12]cow[12]bull[12]herdgazelline
Gerbilpupdoebuckhordecricetine
Giant Pandacubsowboarsleuth[43]ailuropodine
Giraffecalfcowbullherd
corps
tower[44]
giraffine
Gnatlarva??cloud[9][11]
horde[9][11]
swarm[9]
?
Gnucalfcowbullherd
implausibility[45]
Goatkidnanny
doe
doeling
billy
buck
buckling
[note 5]
herdcaprinechevon
cabrito
mutton
GoosegoslinggooseganderOn land
flock
gaggle
herd

In flight
skein[2]
team[2]
wedge[2]
anatine
anserine
poultry
Goldfinch???cardueline
Goldfish????
GorillainfantN/Ablackback
silverback
troop
band
whoop
simian
Goshawk???flight[14]?
Grasshoppernymph??cloud
swarm
caeliferian
Grouse???tetraonine
Guanacochulengo???camelid
Guinea fowlkeethencockrasp[46]
flock[47]
numidinepoultry
Guinea pigpupsowboarherd?cuy
Gullchick
hencockcolony
flock
larine
H
Hamsterpupdoebuckhordecricetid
Hareleveretdoe
jill
buck
jack
band
down[48]
drove[48]
flick[48]
husk[48]
leverine
leporine
Hawkeyashentiercelcast[49][note 6]
aerie[49][note 7]
staff[49][note 8]
leash[49][note 9]
flight[49][note 10]
flock[49]

Migrating in large groups kettle[9][49]
boil[11][49]
cauldron[49]
accipitrine
falconine
Hedgehoghoglet
piglet
pup
sowboararray[48]erinaceine
Heronchickhencockflight[48]
sedge[9][11][48]
sege[32][48]
siege[9][11][33][48]
ardeidine
Herring???army[11][48]
glean[48]
shoal[48]
clupeidean
Hippopotamuscalfcowbullbloat[9][11][48]
herd[48]
thunder[30]
hippopotamine
Hornetlarvae
pupae
queendronenest[11]
swarm
vespine
Horsefoal
colt (male)
filly (female)
gelding (castrated male)
mare
dam
stallion
stud
stable[9]
stud[11]
harras[11]
herd (wild horses)[9]
band (wild horses)[9]
team (work horses)[9][11]
rag (colts)[11]
string (ponies)[11]
field (racehorses)
equine
Humanbaby
child
girl
boy
womanmangroup
family
band
crowd
clan
tribe
humanlong pig[50]
(See cannibalism)
Hummingbirdchickhencocktrochiline
trochilidine
Hyenacub
pup
whelp
bitchdogcackle[9][11]hyenine
I
Ibexkidnannybilly??
Ibischick???threskiornithine
J
Jackalpup??pack?
Jaguarcub??prowl[51]
leap[51]
?
Jay???party[11]
scold[11]
corvine
Jay, Bluechickhencockcharmcorvine
Jellyfishplanula
polyp
ephyra[52]
sowboarbloom
fluther[2]
smack[2][11]
smuth[7]
scyphozoan
K
Kangaroojoeyflyer
doe
jill
roo
boomer
buck
jack
court
herd
troop[11]
macropodine
Kingfisherchick???Alcedine
Koalajoeydoebuckphascolarctine
Komodo dragonhatchling
chick
calf
cow
hen
bull
cock
varanine
Kookaburachick???Halcyonine
Koupreycalfcowbullherdsauveline
bovine
Kuducalfcowbullherdtragelaphine
L
Lapwingchick??deceit[11][14]
desert[2]
vanelline
Larkchickhencockexaltation[2][14]alaudine
Lemurinfant??lemurine
Leopardcubleopardessleopardleap[2][9][11]
lepe[2]
pardine
Lioncub[19]lionesslionpride
sawt
leonine
Llamacria??herd
flock
camelid
Lobster?hen[3]cock[3]pod[citation needed]homarine
LocustnymphN/AN/Acloud
host
swarm
caelifera
Lorisinfantcolony[53]lorisine[54]
LousenymphN/AN/Acolony
pediculine
Lyrebirdchickhencockmenurine
M
Magpiechickhencockflockgarruline
Mallard
Also see Duck
ducklinghengreenhead[55]anatinepoultry
Manateecalfcowbullherdmanatine
sirenian
MandrillinfantN/AN/Ahordesimian
Mantisnymph????
Marten????
MeerkatpupN/AN/A?
Minkcub
kit
sowboar?musteline
Molepupsowboartalpine
Mongoosepup???herpestine
MonkeyinfantN/AN/Atroop[2]simian
Moosecalf[12]cow[12]bull[12][42]herdcervinevenison
Mousekitten
pup

As pet food
pinky/fuzzy/crawler/hopper[56]
doebuckcolony
nest
murine
Mosquitonymph
wriggler
tumbler
N/AN/Aswarm
cloud
aedine
anopheline
Mulefoalmolly
john
?
N
Narwhalcalf---
Newteft[57]---pleurodeline
Nightingalechickhencockflock
philomelian
O
Octopusfry??consortium[58]octopodine
Okapicalfcowbullherdokapine
Opossumjoeyjilljackpasseldidelphine
Oryxcalf????
Ostrichhatchling
chick
hencockflock
troop
ratite
struthious
Otterpup
whelp
sowboarmusteline
lutrine
Owlfledgling
owlet
?parliament[9]
strigine
Oysterspat??ostracinemeat
P
Panthercubpantheress??pantherine
Parrotchickhencockflockpsittacine
Partridgechickhen
chantelle
cockperdicine
Peafowlchick
peachick
peahenpeacockpavoninepoultry
Pelicanchick
nestling
??pod[9]pelecanine
Penguinchick
nestling
??waddle (on land)[59][60]
raft (in water)[59]
rookery[59]
colony[59]
huddle[59]
spheniscine
Pheasantchickhencockflock, bevyphasianine
Pig
Also see Boar
piglet
farrow
shoat/shote (just weaned)
barrow (castrated male)[61]
gilt (young female that has not given birth)[62]
sowboardrift[9][11][63]
drove[9][11]
litter (piglets)
porcine
suilline
pork
ham
bacon
Pigeonsquab
squeaker
hencockflockpullastrinesquab
Polar Bearcubsowboaraurora[64]
celebration[64]
pack[64]
ursine
Pony- See Horse
Porcupinepupsowboarhystricine
Porpoisecalfcowbullpod
school
shoal
phocoenine
Prairie Dogpupsowboartowncynomurine
Q
Quailchickhencockbevygalliformine
Queleachickhencockflock
queline
Quetzalnestling??flocktrogonine
R
Rabbitbunny
kit
kitten
nestling
doe
jill
buck
jack
(young) litter
nest
leporine
Raccooncub
kit
sowboarprocyonine
Railchickreeveruff?ralline
Ram
Also see Sheep
lambeweramflockarietine
ovine
lamb
mutton
Ratdoe
cow
buck
bull
colony
horde
murine
Ravenchickhencockunkindnesscorvine
Red deercalfhindstag
hart
herd?venison
Red pandacubsowboarpackailuirine
Reindeer (caribou)calfcowbullherdrangiferine
Rhinoceroscalfcowbullherdceratorhine
Rook???building[2]
parliament[2][65]
?
S
Salamandercaudatan
salamandrine
Salmonparr[66]hencocksalmonine
Sand Dollarlarva pluteus (free swimming stage)
juvenile (young urchin)
???clypeasteroid
Sandpiper???scolopacine
Sardine????
Scorpion????
Sea lionpup
calf
cowbullotarine
Sea Urchinlarva pluteus (free swimming stage)
juvenile (young urchin)
????
Seahorseseafoalseamareseastallionshoalhippocampal
Sealpup[5]cowbullphocine
Sharkcub[19]
pup[67]
?bullselachianflake (AUS)
Sheep
Also see Ram
lamb
lambkin
cosset
ewe
dam
ram[note 5]
buck
flock
fold
herd
ovinelamb
mutton
hoggett
Shrewshrewletsowboarcolony
drove
soricine
Skunkkitsowboar[3]surfeitmephitine
Snailrout[68]gastropodianescargot
Snakesnakelet
hatchling (a newly hatched snake)
neonate (newborn)
N/AN/Aanguine
elapine
serpentine
viperine
ophidian
Sparrowchick??flockpasserine
Spiderspiderling??arachnine
arachnoid
Spoonbillchick???plataleine
Squidchickhencocksquadcalamari
Squirrelpup
kit
kitten
doebuckscurry[30]sciurine
Starling???chattering[9][28]
murmuration[2][9][11][14]
sturnine
Stingray???myliobatoid
Stinkbugnymph??pentatomidae
Stork???ciconine
Swallow???hirundinine
Swancygnet
flapper
pencobflockcygnine
T
Tapircalfcowbullherd
tapirine
Tarsierinfantdoebuckherd
tarsiine
Termitelarvacowbullcolony
nest
swarm
isopteran
Tigercub[19]
whelp
tigresstigerambush[9]
streak[30]
tigrine
Toadtadpole
toadlet
N/AN/Aknot[9][11]ranine
batrachian
Troutfingerlinghencock?
Turkeypoulthentom
gobbler
stag
jake (immature)
rafter[69][70]:235
?poultry
TurtlehatchlingN/AN/Abale[71]chelonian
U
V
Vicuñacalfcowbullposse
herd
cameline
Viper???viperine
Vulture???vulturine
W
Wallabyjoeyjilljackmob?
Walruscalfcowbullherd
flock
odobenine
Wasplarvaqueen
worker
droneswarm
hive
colony
nest
vespine
Water buffalocalfcowbullpotcarabeef
Weaselpup
kit
bitch
doe
jill
buck
dog
hub
jack
gang[13]
sneak[13]
musteline
Whalecalf[25]cow[26]bullpod
school
cetacean
cetaceous
blubber
Wildcatdestruction
Wolfpup[5]
puppy
cub
whelp
bitch
she-wolf
dogpack
lupine
canine
Wolverinekit
whelp
angelinewolverinepack
musteline
Wombatjoeyjilljack?
Woodcock????
Woodpeckerchick??picine
Wormwormlet??helminthic
vermian
Wrenchickcowbulltroglodytine
X
Y
Yakcalfcowbullherd?
Z
Zebracolt
foal
marestallionherd[9][72]
cohort[72]
dazzle [73]
zeal[9][72]
zebrine
hippotigrine

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The term "flange" was originally used to denote a group of baboons in a Not the Nine O'Clock News comedy sketch entitled "Gerald the Intelligent Gorilla" where it was used for comic effect. It has since been used in the scientific literature for a collection of baboons.
  2. ^ A worker bee is a sexually undeveloped female.
  3. ^ Castrated male cattle are steers in the United States, or bullocks in the United Kingdom. Oxen are draft animals that are (if male) usually castrated but not necessarily. A young cow that has not given birth is a heifer. See Cattle for more names. Cows is often used informally to refer to cattle in general.
  4. ^ Bovine refers to all species of genus Bos.
  5. ^ a b A castrated male sheep or goat is a wether. See sheep for more names.
  6. ^ The term "cast" is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only two "hawks of the tower" but in modern usage does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint. Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.
  7. ^ The term "aerie" is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only two "hawks of the tower" but in modern usage does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint. "Aerie" also refers to hawks and other birds of prey nesting high on a mountain top. Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.
  8. ^ The term "staff" is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only three "hawks of the tower" but in modern usage does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint. Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.
  9. ^ The term "leash" is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only three "hawks of the tower" but in modern usage does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint. Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.
  10. ^ The term "flight" is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only "hawks of the wrist" to include goshawks and sparrowhawks. Hawks of the wrist are true hawks in the genus Accipiter.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Woop Studios; Jay Sacher (2013), A Compendium of Collective Nouns: From an Armory of Aardvarks to a Zeal of Zebras, Chronicle Books, p. 9, ISBN 978-1-4521-2952-5 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "What do you call a group of ...?". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Dictionary.com Animal Names". 
  4. ^ "Merriam Webster Dictionary". 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Pup"
  6. ^ National Geographic Animals: Albatross http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/albatross/
  7. ^ a b Ivan G. Sparkes, Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms ().
  8. ^ Riddell, Te Aorere. Toroa: The Royal Albatross. Huia, 2003. 11. Print.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv "San Diego Zoo". archived copy of Animal group names. Zoological Society of San Diego. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "AskOxford: A". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of.....?". U.S. Geological Survey Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Deer of the world: their evolution, behaviour, and ecology By Valerius Geist, 1998, ISBN 0-8117-0496-3
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Beat about the Bush: Mammals, by Trevor Carnaby, published by Jacana Media, January 1, 2008, page 362. ISBN 978-1-77009-240-2.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Berners, Dame Juliana (1881 reproduction) [First published 1486]. The Boke of Saint Albans. Introduction by William Blades. London: Elliot Stock. Retrieved 2011-05-27.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "AskOxford: B". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  16. ^ Thomson, Donald A. (2000). "school+of+barracuda" Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez : the rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California (Rev. ed., 1st University of Texas Press ed. ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-292-78155-9. 
  17. ^ Campbell, Charles A.R. (2002). "cloud+of+bats" Bats, mosquitoes and dollars. Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-89875-932-7. 
  18. ^ Brown, Michael J. (1997). "flock+of+bats" Durio, a bibliographic review. New Delhi, India: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Office for South Asia. p. 62. ISBN 978-92-9043-318-7. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "Cub"
  20. ^ a b c Hurst, Richard E. (2014). "Porcine Precision: A Sounder of Swine". Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  21. ^ Gib Definition 2
  22. ^ "AskOxford: C". Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  23. ^ Definition of kindle by the Free Online Dictionary
  24. ^ Hurst, Richard E. (2014). "Suburban Pests & Biblical Plagues: An Army of Caterpillars". Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  25. ^ a b c "Calf"
  26. ^ a b c "Cow"
  27. ^ Caro, T.M. (1994). Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains : group living in an asocial species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-226-09434-2. 
  28. ^ a b Definition of Chattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  29. ^ Definition of Clattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  30. ^ a b c d e f Universe in Your Pocket by Joel Levy, published by Barnes & Noble, Inc.
  31. ^ Gray, p. 594
  32. ^ a b Definition of Sege by the Free Online Dictionary
  33. ^ a b Definition of Siege by the Free Online Dictionary
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "AskOxford: D". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  35. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/whelp
  36. ^ http://www.akc.org/enewsletter/akc_breeder/2009/fall/handbook.cfm
  37. ^ http://www.metaphordogs.org/Dogs/entries/coward.html
  38. ^ http://www.akc.org/breeds/boxer/index.cfm
  39. ^ http://www.the-puppy-dog-place.com/boxer.html
  40. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cry
  41. ^ "Shark utilization, marketing and trade". fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
  42. ^ a b "Bull"
  43. ^ Munroe, Susan (2013). "Giant Pandas at the Toronto Zoo". Canada Onlibe. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  44. ^ Handley, Julia (2010). "tower+of+giraffes" Little things.. [S.l.]: Authorhouse. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4520-6170-2. 
  45. ^ Hurst, Richard E. (2014). "Whence the Wildebeest: An Implausibility of Gnus". Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
  46. ^ Lynn-Allen, Lieut.-Colonel B. G. (1951). Shot-gun and Sunlight - The Game Birds of East Africa. London: Batchworth Press. 
  47. ^ Mobley, Jason A. (2009). "guinea+fowl"+flock Birds of the world. New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-7614-7775-4. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "AskOxford: H". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hurst, Richard E. (2014). "Cast and Let Fly: A Kettle of Hawks". Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  50. ^ King, Alanna, ed. (1987). Robert Louis Stevenson in the South Seas. London: Luzac Paragon House. 
  51. ^ a b http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-a-group-of-jaguars-called
  52. ^ International Wildlife Encyclopedia By Robert Burton, 2002, vol. 8, ISBN 0-7614-7266-5, p. 1322
  53. ^ Bradley Trevor Greive, Mitsuaki Iwago (2003). Priceless : the vanishing beauty of a fragile planet. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel Pub. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7407-2695-8. 
  54. ^ McArdle,, John E. (1981). Functional morphology of the hip and thigh of the lorisiformes. Basel, München [usw.]: Karger. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-8055-1767-6. 
  55. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company, [1]
  56. ^ See Mouse#As food
  57. ^ Brockes, J. & A. Kumar. 2005. Newts. Current Biology. 15(2):R4244 pmid=15668151 url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982204010322
  58. ^ http://quizzes.ask.com/What_is_a_group_of_octopuses_called
  59. ^ a b c d e Hurst, Richard E. (2014). "International Bureaucrats Agree: A Waddle of Penguins". Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  60. ^ New Zealand Penguins - Frequently Asked Questions
  61. ^ Barrow Definition 3
  62. ^ Gilt Definition 2
  63. ^ Stephanie Strom (January 20, 2014). "Demand Grows for Hogs That Are Raised Humanely Outdoors". New York Times. 
  64. ^ a b c Hurst, Richard E. (2014). "Goddess of the Dawn: An Aurora of Polar Bears". Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  65. ^ Lilford, F.L.S. 1894-5. Notes on the Ornithology of Northhamptonshire and Neighborhood for 1893. Journal of the Northamptonshire Natural History Society. Vol 8 p54.
  66. ^ Definition of Parr by the Free Online Dictionary
  67. ^ Florida Museum of Natural History. "Shark Biology". Retrieved 25 Jan 2014. 
  68. ^ Simpson, J. A. (1996). The Compact Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford UK: Clarendon Press. p. 1620. ISBN 0-19-861258-3. 
  69. ^ Bartlett's Roget's Thesaurus (2003), ISBN 0316735876, ISBN 9780316735872, "Collective Names for Creatures", p. 90 (accessed 3 March 2014)
  70. ^ John G. Robertson (1991). Robertson's Words for a Modern Age: A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements, Senior Scribe Publications ISBN 0963091905, ISBN 9780963091901, Appendix M: Group Names, pp. 231-236 (accessed 3 March 2014). Page 231 states that "The nomenclature in italics were considered the proper terms for groups of beasts, fish, fowls, insects or whatever was designated and 'codified in the fifteenth century'.... [However, regarding non-italicized terms,] Many of the words in the following list have no authoritative basis and have been created to express possible names for the groups represented."
  71. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bale
  72. ^ a b c "AskOxford: Z". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  73. ^ The dictionary definition of dazzle at Wiktionary

Further reading[edit]