List of animal names

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Mother sea otter with sleeping pup, Morro Bay, California

Many animals, particularly domesticated, have been given specific names for males, females, young, and groups.

It is thought[by whom?] that many of the bizarre words used for collective groupings of animals were first published in 1486 in The Book of Saint Albans, in an essay on hunting attributed to Dame Juliana Berners.

Most terms used here may be found in common dictionaries and general information web sites.[1][2][3]

Generic terms[edit]

The terms in this table apply to many or all taxa in a particular biological family, class, or clade.

AnimalYoungFemaleMaleCollective nounCollateral adjectiveTrivial name
Aveschickhencockflockavianbird
Bovidaecalfcow (bred), heifer (not bred)bull, steer (castrated)herdbovinecattle; cows
Canidaepuppy, pup[4]bitchdogpackcaninedog
Equidaecolt (male), filly (female), foaljenny (asses), mare (other equids)jack (asses), stallion (other equids), gelding (castrated horse)herdequinehorse
Felidaekitten, cubqueentomclowderfelinecat
Osteichthyesfry, fingerling??school, shoalpiscine, ichthyicbony fish

Terms by species or taxon[edit]

AnimalYoungFemaleMaleCollective nounCollateral adjectiveCulinary noun for meat
Aardvarkcubsowboarorycteropodian
AlbatrosschickN/AN/Aflock[5]
rookery[6]
gam (when searching for mates)[7]
?
Alligatorhatchlingcowbullcongregation[8]eusuchian
Alpacacria??herdcamelid
Antlarva
pupa
queen
worker
gyne
dronearmy[9]
bike[9]
colony[9][10]
nest[8]
swarm[9]
formic
myrmecine
AnteaterpupsowboarN/A?
Antelopecalf[11]doebuckherd[9][12]
cluster[9][12]
tribe[9][12]
alcelaphine
bubaline
antilopine
ApeinfantN/AN/Ashrewdness[13][1][8][12]
troop[8][9][12]
simian
Armadillopup
baby
sowboarN/Acingulatan
Ass/Donkeyfoaljennyjackherd[9]
coffle[9][12]
drove[8][9][12]
pace[9][10][12]
asinine
BabooninfantN/A?flange[14][note 1]
tribe[citation needed]
troop[1][8][14]
?
Badgercub
kit
sowboarcete[1][8][10][14]
clan[citation needed]
colony[14]
company[citation needed]
musteline
Barracuda???school[15]percesocine
BatpupN/AN/Acloud[14][16]
colony[10][14]
flock[17]
pteropine
noctillionine
Bearcub[18]sowboarsleuth[8][10][14]
sloth[8][10][14]
ursine
Beaverkit
kitten
pup
N/AN/Afamily[8]
colony[8][14]
Beelarva
pupa
queen
worker [note 2]
dronecast (a second swarm)[14]
cluster (of workers around the queen)[14]
colony[14]
drift[1][14]
erst[1][14]
grist[8][14]
hive[1][8][14]
nest[8]
rabble[14]
stand[14]
swarm[1][8][14]
apic
apian
apiarian
Bisoncalfcowbullherdbovine
bubaline
Boar (wild pig)
Also see Pig
piglet
farrow
shoat/shote (just weaned)
??herd[14]
singular[8][14]
sounder[8]
?
Buffalo, African (for American buffalo, see Bisoncalfcow, heiferbullherd[8][10][14]
troop[8]
gang[8][10][14]
obstinancy[8][10][14]
?
GalagoinfantN/AN/Agathering[citation needed]
plot[citation needed]
galagine
Butterflycaterpillar
larva
pupa
chrysalis
??flight[14]
flutter[8]
rabble[14]
pieridine
pierine
lepidopteran
Camelcalfcowbullcaravan[8]
flock[8]
herd
train[8]
camelid
cameline
Cariboucalf??herdrangiferine
Catkitten
kit
molly
queen
pussy
tom
gib (castrated male)[19]
clowder[1][8]
cluster[8]
clutter[20]
glaring[1][8]
pounce[8]
kindle (kittens)[21]
litter (kittens)
feline
Caterpillar???army[8]?
Cattle[note 3]calf[22]cow[23]bullherd[8]
drove[8]
mob[citation needed]
team (Oxen)
bovine[note 4]
taurine (male)
vaccine (female)
vituline (young)
beef
veal
Chamoiscalfdoebullherdrupicaprine
Cheetahcub??coalition (male)[24]?
Chickenchickhen
pullet
rooster
cock
cockerel
capon (castrated male)
flock
brood[8]
peep (chicks)[8]
clutch (eggs)
gallinepoultry
Chimpanzeeinfantempressblackbacktroop[citation needed]
group[citation needed]
harem[citation needed]
panine
Chinchillakitvelvet
sow
boar
bull
herd[citation needed]
colony[citation needed]
chinchilline
Choughchick??chattering[13][1][25]
clattering[13][1][26]
corvine
Clamlarva??bed[citation needed]?
Cobra???quiver[27]elapid
Cockroachnymph??intrusion[27]blattid
Codcodling
sprat[citation needed]
??school
gadoid
gadine
Cormorantchick
shaglet
??gulp[27]
flight
Coyotecub
pup
whelp
bitchdogpack
train[citation needed]
band[citation needed]
canine
CrabN/Ahen
jenny
cock
jimmy
cast[citation needed]
consortium[citation needed]
cancrine
Cranechick
colt[28]
??herd
sedge[citation needed]
siege[citation needed]
alectorine
Crocodilehatchlingcowbullbask[8]
congregation
float[8]
nest
crocodilian
Crow???horde[citation needed]
hover[citation needed]
murder[1][8]
corvine
Curlew???herd[13][1]?
Deercalf[11]
fawn
doe
hind
cow[11]
buck
stag
bull[11]
hart (red deer)
bunch[29]
herd[29]
mob[29]
rangale[29]
clash[citation needed]
gang[citation needed]
leash[citation needed]
(buck) brace[citation needed]
(roe) bevy[citation needed]
cervine
elaphine
venison
humble (organ meat)
Dinosaurhatchling
juvenile
cowbullherd (herbivores)
pack (carnivores)
dinosaurian
Dogpup[4]
puppy
whelp[30]
bitch
dam
dog
stud
sire
pack (wild)[29][31]
kennel[29]
legion[citation needed]
mute[32]
litter (young)[33]
cowardice (curs)[34] [35]
comedy (boxers)[36][37]
cry (hounds)[38]
canine
Dogfish???troop[29]?capeshark (USA)
rock salmon (UK)
flake (UK, AUS)
huss (UK)
rigg (UK)
kahada (CAN)[39]
Dolphincalf
pup
cowbullschool[29]
pod
herd
team[29]
alliance (male)[citation needed]
party (female)[citation needed]
delphine
Donkey - See Ass?????
Dotterel???trip[1][10]?
Dovechickhencockarc[8]
bevy[citation needed]
cote
dole[1][29]
dule[8][29]
flight[1][8][29]
paddling[citation needed]
piteousness[1][29]
pitying[8]
columbine
Dragonflynymphqueenking
drake
cluster
flight
anisopteran
Duck
Also see Mallard
ducklingduck
hen
drakeOn land
flock
herd
badling[10]
brace[10]
safe[1]
sord[29]
sore[29]
waddling[29]

On water
bunch[1][29]
paddling[1][29]
raft[1][29]

In flight
skein[29]
string[29]
team[10][29]
anatine
fuliguline
poultry
Dugongcalfcowbullherddugongine
Dunlinchick??fling[1]?
Eagleeaglet
fledgling
N/AN/Aconvocation[8][10]aquiline
Echidnapuggle
(in common use, but not scientifically endorsed)
??tachyglossine
Eelleptocephalus (larva)
elver (juvenile)
N/AN/Aarray[citation needed]
bed[citation needed]
cell[citation needed]
fry[citation needed]
pipe[citation needed]
swarm[citation needed]
anguilline
Elandcalfcowbullherd?
Elephantcalf[22]cow[23]bull[40]herd
memory[citation needed]
parade[citation needed]
elephantine
proboscine
proboscidean
Elephant sealcalfcowbullherd
pack
arrangement[citation needed]
miroungan
Elk (wapiti)calf[11]cow[11]bull[11]gang[citation needed]
herd[citation needed]
cervinevenison
Emuchick
hatchling
??mob[citation needed]?
Falconeyass/eyasfalcontiercel
tercel
terzel
cast[citation needed]acciptrine
Ferretkitjillhobbusyness[13]
business[8][10]
cast[citation needed]
fesnyng[citation needed]
fesynes[citation needed]
musteline
Finchchickhencockcharm[citation needed]
quiver
fringilline
Fishfry
fingerling
??draft[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
run
school
shoal

When caught
catch
drought[citation needed]
haul
piscine
Flamingo???stand[citation needed]
flamboyance[citation needed]
phoenicopterine
Flymaggot??business[citation needed]
cloud[citation needed]
swarm
dipterous
Foxcub[18]
kit
pup[4]
vixentod
dog
reynard
earth[citation needed]
lead[citation needed]
leash[8][10]
skulk[8][10]
troop[citation needed]
vulpine
Frogpolliwog
tadpole
froglet
--army[citation needed]
colony[citation needed]
knot[citation needed]
bundle[citation needed]
ranine
Gaurcalfcowbullherdbovine
gaurine
garabeef
Gazellecalf[11]cow[11]bull[11]herdgazelline
Gerbilpupdoebuckhordecricetine
Giant Pandacubsowboarsleuth[41]ailuropodine
Giraffecalfcowbullherd
corps
tower[42]
giraffine
Gnatlarva??cloud[8][10]
horde[8][10]
swarm[8]
?
Gnucalfcowbullherd
implausibility[citation needed]
Goatkidnanny
doe
doeling
billy
buck
buckling
[note 5]
drove[citation needed]
flock[citation needed]
herd
mob
tribe[citation needed]
trip[citation needed]
caprine
hircine
chevon
cabrito
mutton
GoosegoslinggooseganderOn land
corps[citation needed]
flock
gaggle
herd

In flight
skein[1]
team[1]
wedge[1]
anatine
anserine
poultry
Goldfinch???charm[citation needed]cardueline
Goldfish???glint[citation needed]
troubling[citation needed]
?
GorillainfantN/Ablackback
silverback
troop
band
whoop
simian
Goshawk???flight[13]?
Grasshoppernymph??cloud
swarm
caeliferian
Grouse???covey[citation needed]tetraonine
Guanacochulengo???camelid
Guinea fowlkeethencockconfusion[citation needed]
Rasp
flock[43]
numidinepoultry
Guinea pigpupsowboarherd?cui
Gullchick
hencockcolony
flock
larine
Hamsterpupdoebuckhordecricetid
Hareleveretdoe
jill
buck
jack
band
down[44]
drove[44]
flick[44]
husk[44]
leverine
leporine
Hawkeyashentiercelboil[8][10]
cast[8][10]
kettle[8][10] [note 6]
accipitrine
falconine
Hedgehoghoglet
piglet
pup
sowboararray[44]erinaceine
Heronchickhencockflight[44]
sedge[8][10][44]
sege[44]
siege[8][10][44]
ardeidine
Herring???army[10][44]
glean[44]
shoal[44]
clupeidean
Hippopotamuscalfcowbullbloat[8][10][44]
herd[44]
thunder[27]
hippopotamine
Hornetlarvae
pupae
queendronenest[10]
swarm
vespine
Horsefoal
colt (male)
filly (female)
gelding (castrated male)
mare
dam
stallion
stud
stable[8]
stud[10]
harras[10]
herd (wild horses)[8]
band (wild horses)[8]
team (work horses)[8][10]
rag (colts)[10]
string (ponies)[10]
field (racehorses),
ramada (group of horses owned by a single cowboy)
equine
Humanbaby
child
girl
boy
womanmangroup
family
band
crowd
clan
tribe
humanlong pig[45]
(See cannibalism)
Hummingbirdchickhencockcharm[citation needed]trochiline
trochilidine
Hyenacub
pup
whelp
bitchdogclan[citation needed]
cackle[8][10]
hyenine
Jackalpup??pack?
Jaguarcub??prowl[46]
leap[47]
?
Jay???band[citation needed]
party[citation needed]
scold[citation needed]
corvine
Jay, Bluechickhencockcharmcorvine
Jellyfishplanula
polyp
ephyra[48]
sowboarbloom
fluther[1]
smack[1][10]
smuth[6]
scyphozoan
Kangaroojoeyflyer
doe
jill
roo
boomer
buck
jack
court
herd
mob[citation needed]
troop[citation needed]
macropodine
Koalajoeydoebuckcolony[citation needed]
phascolarctine
Komodo dragonhatchling
chick
calf
cow
hen
bull
cock
bank[citation needed]varanine
Koupreycalfcowbullherdsauveline
bovine
Kuducalfcowbullherdtragelaphine
Lapwingchick??deceit[13][10]
desert[1]
vanelline
Larkchickhencockexaltation[13][1]alaudine
Lemurinfant??congress[citation needed]
conspiracy[citation needed]
plot[citation needed]
lemurine
Leopardcubleopardessleopardleap[1][8][10]
lepe[1]
pardine
Lioncub[18]lionesslionpride
sawt
troop[citation needed]
leonine
Llamacriahembramachoherd
flock
camelid
Lobster?hen[2]cock[2]pod[49]homarine
LocustnymphN/AN/Acloud
host
plague[citation needed]
swarm
caelifera
Lorisinfantcolony[50]lorisine[51]
LousenymphN/AN/Acolony
pediculine
Lyrebirdchickhencockmusket[citation needed]menurine
Magpiechickhencockflock
charm[citation needed]
gulp[citation needed]
murder[citation needed]
tiding[citation needed]
tittering[citation needed]
tribe[citation needed]
garruline
Mallard
Also see Duck
ducklinghengreenhead[52]flush[citation needed]
lute[citation needed]
puddling[citation needed]
anatinepoultry
Manateecalfcowbullherdmanatine
sirenian
Marten???richness[citation needed]?
MeerkatpupN/AN/Aclan[citation needed]
gang[citation needed]
mob[citation needed]
?
Minkcub
kit
sowboar?musteline
Molepupsowboarcompany[citation needed]
labour[citation needed]
movement[citation needed]
talpine
MonkeyinfantN/AN/Atribe[citation needed]
troop[1]
simian
Moosecalf[11]cow[11]bull[11][40]herdcervinevenison
Mousekitten
pup

As pet food
pinky/fuzzy/crawler/hopper[53]
doebuckcolony
harvest
horde
mischief[citation needed]
nest
murine
Mosquitonymph
wriggler
tumbler
N/AN/Ascourge[citation needed]
swarm
cloud
aedine
anopheline
Mulefoalmolly
john
barren[citation needed]
pack[citation needed]
span[citation needed]
?
Narwhalcalf--blessing[citation needed]-
Newteft[54]---pleurodeline
Nightingalechickhencockflock
route[citation needed]
watch[citation needed]
philomelian
Octopusfry??consortium[55]octopodine
Okapicalfcowbullherdokapine
Opossumjoeyjilljackpasseldidelphine
Oryxcalf????
Ostrichhatchling
chick
hencockflock
troop
ratite
struthious
Otterpup
whelp
sowboarromp[citation needed]
bevy[citation needed]
family[citation needed]
raft[citation needed]
musteline
lutrine
Owlfledgling
owlet
?parliament[8]
stare[citation needed]
strigine
Oxcalfcowbull
steer
herd
yoke
team
drove[citation needed]
bovine
Oysterspat??bed[citation needed]
cast[citation needed]
hive[citation needed]
ostracinemeat
Panthercubpantheress??pantherine
Parrotchickhencockcompany[citation needed]
flock
pandemonium[citation needed]
psittacine
Partridgechickhen
chantelle
cockbevy[citation needed]
covey[citation needed]
perdicine
Peafowlchick
peachick
peahenpeacockparty[citation needed]
muster[citation needed]
pride[citation needed]
pavoninepoultry
Pelicanchick
nestling
??pod[8]pelecanine
Penguinchick
nestling
??rookery[citation needed]
huddle[citation needed]
waddle
(on land) colony
(in water) raft[56]
spheniscine
Pheasantchickhencocknest[citation needed]
nye[citation needed]
(brood) nide[citation needed]
(take-off) bouquet[citation needed]
(in flight) Guff
phasianine
Pig
Also see Boar
piglet
farrow
shoat/shote (just weaned)
barrow (castrated male)[57]
gilt (young female that has not given birth)[58]
sowboardrift[8][10]
drove[8][10]
team (hogs)[citation needed]
passel (hogs)[citation needed]
parcel (hogs)[citation needed]
litter (piglets)
porcine
suilline
pork
ham
bacon
Pigeonsquab
squeaker
hencockflight[citation needed]
flock
pullastrinesquab
Pony- See Horse?????
Porcupinepupsowboarprickle[citation needed]hystricine
Porpoisecalfcowbullcrowd[citation needed]
herd[citation needed]
pod
school
shoal
phocoenine
Prairie Dogpupsowboarcoterie[citation needed]
town[citation needed]
?
Quailchickhencockbevy[citation needed]
covey[citation needed]
?
Queleachickhencockflock
queline
Rabbitbunny
kit
kitten
nestling
doe
jill
buck
jack
colony[citation needed]
bevy[citation needed]
bury[citation needed]
drove[citation needed]
trace[citation needed]
leash[citation needed]
trip[citation needed]
(domestic) herd[citation needed]
(hare) down[citation needed]
husk[citation needed]
(young) litter
nest
leporine
Raccooncub
kit
sowboarnursery[citation needed]
gaze[citation needed]
procyonine
Railchickreeveruff?ralline
Ram
Also see Sheep
lambeweramflockarietine
ovine
lamb
mutton
Ratcalf[citation needed]
kitten[citation needed]
nestling[citation needed]
pup[4]
doe
cow
buck
bull
colony
horde
mischief[citation needed]
plague[citation needed]
swarm[citation needed]
murine
Ravenchickhencockunkindnesscorvine
Red deercalfhindstagherd?venison
Red pandacubsowboarpackailuirine
Reindeer (caribou)calfcowbullherdrangiferine
Rhinoceroscalfcowbullcrash[citation needed]
herd
ceratorhine
Rook???building[1]
clamor[citation needed]
parliament[1][59]
?
Ruff???hill[citation needed]?
Salamandertadpole
salamanderling[citation needed]
sowboarmaelstrom[citation needed]
band[citation needed]
congress[citation needed]
caudatan
Salmon?hencockrun[citation needed]salmonine
Sand Dollarlarva pluteus (free swimming stage)
juvenile (young urchin)
???clypeasteroid
Sandpiper???fling[citation needed]scolopacine
Sardine???family[citation needed]?
Scorpion???bed[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
?
Sea lionpup
calf
cowbullpod[citation needed]
colony[citation needed]
herd
rookery[citation needed]
team[citation needed]
otarine
Sea Urchinlarva pluteus (free swimming stage)
juvenile (young urchin)
????
Seahorseseafoalseamareseastallionshoalhippocampal
Sealpup[4]cowbullharem[citation needed]
herd
pod[citation needed]
rookery[citation needed]
phocine
Sharkcub[18]?bullschool
shiver[citation needed]
selachianflake (AUS)
Sheep
Also see Ram
lamb
lambkin
cosset
ewe
dam
ram[note 5]
buck
down[citation needed]
drift
drove
mob
flock
fold
herd
trip[citation needed]
ovinelamb
mutton
hoggett
Shrewshrewletsowboarcolony
drove
soricine
Shrimp
Skunkkitsowboar[2]surfeitmephitine
Snailhood[citation needed]
rout[citation needed]
walk[citation needed]
gastropodianescargot
Snakesnakelet
hatchling (a newly hatched snake)
neonate(newborn)
N/AN/Anest[citation needed]
bed[citation needed]
den[citation needed]
knot[citation needed]
anguine
elapine
serpentine
viperine
ophidian
Spiderspiderling??cluster[citation needed]
clutter[citation needed]
arachnine
arachnoid
Squidchickhencockaudience[citation needed]tethidinecalamari
Squirrelpup
kit
kitten
doebuckdray[citation needed]
scurry[27]
sciurine
Starling???chattering[8][25]
murmuration[13][1][8][10]
sturnine
Stingray???fever[citation needed]myliobatoid
Stinkbugnymph??intrusion[citation needed]pentatomidae
Stork???muster[citation needed]
mustering[citation needed]
ciconine
Swallow???flight[citation needed]
gulp[citation needed]
hirundinine
Swancygnet
flapper
pencobbank[citation needed]
bevy[citation needed]
flock
game[citation needed]
herd[citation needed]
team[citation needed]

In flight
flight[citation needed]
wedge[citation needed]
cygnine
Tapircalfcowbullherd
measure[citation needed]
tapirine
Tarsierinfantdoebuckherd
plot[citation needed]
troop[citation needed]
tarsiine
Termitelarvacowbullbrood[citation needed]
colony
nest
swarm
isopteran
Tigercub[18]
whelp
tigresstigerambush[8]
streak[27]
tigrine
Toadtadpole
toadlet
N/AN/Aknot[8][10]
nest[citation needed]
lump[citation needed]}
ranine
batrachian
Troutfingerlinghencockhover[citation needed]?
Turkeypoulthentom
gobbler
stag
jake (immature)
rafter[citation needed]
gang[citation needed]
posse[citation needed]
?poultry
TurtlehatchlingN/AN/Abale[citation needed]
dule[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
turn[citation needed]
chelonian
Vicuñacalfcowbullposse
herd
cameline
Viper???generation[citation needed]
nest[citation needed]
viperine
Vulture???venue[citation needed]?
Wallabyjoeyjilljackmob?
Walruscalfcowbullherd
flock
pod[citation needed]
wealth
odobenine
Wasplarvaqueen
worker
droneswarm
hive
colony
nest
vespine
Water buffalocalfcowbullpotcarabeef
Weaselpup
kit
bitch
doe
jill
buck
dog
hub
jack
gang[12]
sneak[12]
musteline
Whalecalf[22]cow[23]bullgam[citation needed]
herd
mob[citation needed]
pod
school
cetacean
cetaceous
blubber
Wolfcub
pup[4]
whelp
bitch
she-wolf
dogpack
route[citation needed]
lupine
Wolverinekit
whelp
angelinewolverinepack
gang[citation needed]
mob[citation needed]
musteline
Wombatjoeyjilljackmob[citation needed]?
Woodcock???fall[citation needed]?
Woodpeckerchick??descent[citation needed]picine
Wormwormlet??bed[citation needed]
clat[citation needed]
clew[citation needed]
helminthic
vermian
Wrenchickcowbullherd[citation needed]
cabinet[citation needed]
troglodytine
Yakcalfcowbullherd?
Zebracolt
foal
marestallionherd[8][60]
cohort[60]
zeal[8][60]
zebrine
hippotigrine

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The term "flange" was originally used to denote a group of baboons in a Not the Nine O'Clock News comedy sketch entitled "Gerald the Intelligent Gorilla" where it was used for comic effect. It has since been used in the scientific literature for a collection of baboons.
  2. ^ A worker bee is a sexually undeveloped female.
  3. ^ Castrated male cattle are steers in the United States, or bullocks in the United Kingdom. A young cow that has not given birth is a heifer. See Cattle for more names. Cows is often used informally to refer to cattle in general.
  4. ^ Bovine refers to all species of genus Bos.
  5. ^ a b A castrated male sheep or goat is a wether. See sheep for more names.
  6. ^ a "kettle" or "boil" is a group of hawks swirling and cris-crossing in a thermal air current, see "A Kettle of Hawks"

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d "Dictionary.com Animal Names". 
  3. ^ "Merriam Webster Dictionary". 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Pup"
  5. ^ National Geographic Animals: Albatross http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/albatross/
  6. ^ a b Ivan G. Sparkes, Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms ().
  7. ^ Riddell, Te Aorere. Toroa: The Royal Albatross. Huia, 2003. 11. Print.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br "Animal group names". SanDiegoZoo.org. Zoological Society of San Diego. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "AskOxford: A". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an "Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of.....?". U.S. Geological Survey Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Deer of the world: their evolution, behaviour, and ecology By Valerius Geist, 1998, ISBN 0-8117-0496-3
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Beat about the Bush: Mammals, by Trevor Carnaby, published by Jacana Media, January 1, 2008, page 362. ISBN 978-1-77009-240-2.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Berners, Dame Juliana (1881 reproduction) [First published 1486]. The Boke of Saint Albans. Introduction by William Blades. London: Elliot Stock. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
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  15. ^ Thomson, Donald A. (2000). "school+of+barracuda" Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez : the rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California (Rev. ed., 1st University of Texas Press ed. ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-292-78155-9. 
  16. ^ Campbell, Charles A.R. (2002). "cloud+of+bats" Bats, mosquitoes and dollars. Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-89875-932-7. 
  17. ^ Brown, Michael J. (1997). "flock+of+bats" Durio, a bibliographic review. New Delhi, India: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Office for South Asia. p. 62. ISBN 978-92-9043-318-7. 
  18. ^ a b c d e "Cub"
  19. ^ Gib Definition 2
  20. ^ "AskOxford: C". Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  21. ^ Definition of kindle by the Free Online Dictionary
  22. ^ a b c "Calf"
  23. ^ a b c "Cow"
  24. ^ Caro, T.M. (1994). Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains : group living in an asocial species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-226-09434-2. 
  25. ^ a b Definition of Chattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  26. ^ Definition of Clattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  27. ^ a b c d e f Universe in Your Pocket by Joel Levy, published by Barnes & Noble, Inc.
  28. ^ Gray, p. 594
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "AskOxford: D". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  30. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/whelp
  31. ^ http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/about/faqs/animals/names.htm
  32. ^ http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/about/faqs/animals/names.htm
  33. ^ http://www.akc.org/enewsletter/akc_breeder/2009/fall/handbook.cfm
  34. ^ http://www.metaphordogs.org/Dogs/entries/coward.html
  35. ^ http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/about/faqs/animals/names.htm
  36. ^ http://www.akc.org/breeds/boxer/index.cfm
  37. ^ http://www.the-puppy-dog-place.com/boxer.html
  38. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cry
  39. ^ "Shark utilization, marketing and trade". fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
  40. ^ a b "Bull"
  41. ^ Munroe, Susan (2013). "Giant Pandas at the Toronto Zoo". Canada Onlibe. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  42. ^ Handley, Julia (2010). "tower+of+giraffes" Little things.. [S.l.]: Authorhouse. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4520-6170-2. 
  43. ^ Mobley, Jason A. (2009). "guinea+fowl"+flock Birds of the world. New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-7614-7775-4. 
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  45. ^ King, Alanna, ed. (1987). Robert Louis Stevenson in the South Seas. London: Luzac Paragon House. 
  46. ^ http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-a-group-of-jaguars-called
  47. ^ http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-a-group-of-jaguars-called
  48. ^ International Wildlife Encyclopedia By Robert Burton, 2002, vol. 8, ISBN 0-7614-7266-5, p. 1322
  49. ^ http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_group_of_lobsters_called
  50. ^ Bradley Trevor Greive, Mitsuaki Iwago (2003). Priceless : the vanishing beauty of a fragile planet. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel Pub. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7407-2695-8. 
  51. ^ McArdle,, John E. (1981). Functional morphology of the hip and thigh of the lorisiformes. Basel, München [usw.]: Karger. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-8055-1767-6. 
  52. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company, [1]
  53. ^ See Mouse#As food
  54. ^ Brockes, J. & A. Kumar. 2005. Newts. Current Biology. 15(2):R4244) pmid=15668151 url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982204010322
  55. ^ http://quizzes.ask.com/What_is_a_group_of_octopuses_called
  56. ^ New Zealand Penguins - Frequently Asked Questions
  57. ^ Barrow Definition 3
  58. ^ Gilt Definition 2
  59. ^ Lilford, F.L.S. 1894-5. Notes on the Ornithology of Northhamptonshire and Neighborhood for 1893. Journal of the Northamptonshire Natural History Society. Vol 8 p54.
  60. ^ a b c "AskOxford: Z". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 

Further reading[edit]