List of Vice Presidents of the United States

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Number of vice presidents
by party affiliation
Republican20
Democratic18
Democratic-Republican6
Whig2
Federalist1

There have been 47 vice presidents of the United States, from John Adams to Joe Biden. Originally, the Vice President was the person who received the second most votes for President in the Electoral College. However, in the election of 1800, a tie in the electoral college between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr led to the selection of the President by the House of Representatives. To prevent such an event from happening again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution, creating the current system where electors cast a separate ballot for the vice presidency.[1]

The Vice President has few powers or duties explicitly provided for in the Constitution. The Vice President's primary function is to succeed to the presidency if the President dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office. Nine vice presidents have ascended to the presidency in this way: eight through the president's death, and one, Gerald Ford, through the president's resignation. In addition, the Vice President serves as the President of the Senate and may choose to cast a tie-breaking vote on decisions made by the Senate. Vice presidents have exercised this latter power to varying extents over the years.[1] The vice presidency was described by former VP John Nance Garner in 1960 as "not worth a bucket of warm piss".[2]

Prior to passage of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, a vacancy in the office of the Vice President could not be filled until the next election. Such vacancies were common; sixteen occurred before the 25th Amendment was ratified–as a result of seven deaths, one resignation (John C. Calhoun, who resigned to enter Congress), and eight cases in which the vice president succeeded to the presidency. This amendment allowed for a vacancy to be filled with appointment by the President and confirmation by both chambers of the U.S. Congress. Since the Amendment's passage, two vice presidents have been appointed through this process, Gerald Ford of Michigan in 1973 and Nelson Rockefeller of New York in 1974.[1] The office has been vacant for 13,800 days since the beginning of the United States federal government, or for approximately 37 years and 10 months.[citation needed]

The vice presidents have been elected from 21 states. More than half of them have come from just five states, New York (11), Indiana (5), Massachusetts (4), Kentucky (3), and Texas (3). Most vice presidents have been in their 50s or 60s and had political experience prior to assuming the office.[1]The youngest person to become Vice President was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age.

List of Vice Presidents[edit]

Parties

      Democratic       Democratic-Republican       Federalist       Republican       Whig

No.Vice PresidentStateTime in officePartyTerm
(Election)
President served underMost recent prior office
1John AdamsJohn Adams
(1735–1826)
[3][4]
MassachusettsApril 21, 1789[n 1]March 4, 1797Independent1.
(1789)
WashingtonEnvoy to France
Minister to Great Britain
Minister to the Netherlands[n 2]
Federalist2.
(1792)
2Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[6][7]
VirginiaMarch 4, 1797March 4, 1801Democratic-
Republican
3.
(1796)
J. AdamsEnvoy to France
U.S. Secretary of State
3Aaron BurrAaron Burr
(1756–1836)
[8][9]
New YorkMarch 4, 1801March 4, 1805Democratic-
Republican
4.
(1800)
JeffersonU.S. Senator
4George ClintonGeorge Clinton
(1739–1812)
[10][11]
New YorkMarch 4, 1805April 20, 1812
(Died)
Democratic-
Republican
5.
(1804)
Governor of New York
6.
(1808)
Madison
1Vacancy by deathApril 20, 1812March 4, 1813
5Elbridge GerryElbridge Gerry
(1744–1814)
[12][13]
MassachusettsMarch 4, 1813November 23, 1814
(Died)
Democratic-
Republican
7.
(1812)
U.S. Representative
Governor of Massachusetts
2Vacancy by deathNovember 23, 1814March 4, 1817
6Daniel TompkinsDaniel D. Tompkins
(1774–1825)
[14][15]
New YorkMarch 4, 1817March 4, 1825Democratic-
Republican
8.
(1816)
MonroeGovernor of New York
9.
(1820)
7John C. CalhounJohn C. Calhoun
(1782–1850)
[16][17]
South CarolinaMarch 4, 1825December 28, 1832
(Resigned)
Democratic-
Republican
10.
(1824)
J. Q. AdamsU.S. Representative
Secretary of War
Democratic11.
(1828)
Jackson
3Vacancy by resignationDecember 28, 1832March 4, 1833
8Martin Van BurenMartin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[18][19]
New YorkMarch 4, 1833March 4, 1837Democratic12.
(1832)
U.S. Senator
Governor of New York
U.S. Secretary of State
Minister to Great Britain
9Richard Mentor JohnsonRichard Mentor Johnson
(1780–1850)
[20][21]
KentuckyMarch 4, 1837March 4, 1841Democratic13.
(1836)
Van BurenU.S. Senator
10John TylerJohn Tyler
(1790–1862)
[22][23]
VirginiaMarch 4, 1841April 4, 1841
(Ascended)
Whig14.
(1840)
W. H. HarrisonU.S. Representative
Governor of Virginia
U.S. Senator
President pro tempore of the Senate
4Vacancy by ascensionApril 4, 1841March 4, 1845Tyler
11George M. DallasGeorge M. Dallas
(1792–1864)
[24][25]
PennsylvaniaMarch 4, 1845March 4, 1849Democratic15.
(1844)
PolkMinister to Great Britain
Minister to Russia
U.S. Senator
12Millard FillmoreMillard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
[26][27]
New YorkMarch 4, 1849July 9, 1850
(Ascended)
Whig16.
(1848)
TaylorU.S. Representative
5Vacancy by ascensionJuly 9, 1850March 4, 1853Fillmore
13William R. KingWilliam R. King
(1786–1853)
[28][29]
AlabamaMarch 4, 1853[n 3]April 18, 1853
(Died)
Democratic17.
(1852)
PierceU.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
President pro tempore of the Senate
Minister to France
6Vacancy by deathApril 18, 1853March 4, 1857
14John C. BreckinridgeJohn C. Breckinridge
(1821–1875)
[30][31]
KentuckyMarch 4, 1857March 4, 1861Democratic18.
(1856)
BuchananU.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
15Hannibal HamlinHannibal Hamlin
(1809–1891)
[32][33]
MaineMarch 4, 1861March 4, 1865Republican19.
(1860)
LincolnU.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
Governor of Maine
16Andrew JohnsonAndrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
[34][35]
TennesseeMarch 4, 1865April 15, 1865
(Ascended)
Democratic20.
(1864)
U.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
Governor of Tennessee
7Vacancy by ascensionApril 15, 1865March 4, 1869A. Johnson
17Schuyler ColfaxSchuyler Colfax
(1823–1885)
[36][37]
IndianaMarch 4, 1869March 4, 1873Republican21.
(1868)
GrantU.S. Representative
Speaker of the House
18Henry WilsonHenry Wilson
(1812–1875)
[38][39]
MassachusettsMarch 4, 1873November 22, 1875
(Died)
Republican22.
(1872)
U.S. Senator
8Vacancy by deathNovember 22, 1875March 4, 1877
19William A. WheelerWilliam A. Wheeler
(1819–1887)
[40][41]
New YorkMarch 4, 1877March 4, 1881Republican23.
(1876)
HayesU.S. Representative
20Chester A. ArthurChester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
[42][43]
New YorkMarch 4, 1881September 19, 1881
(Ascended)
Republican24.
(1880)
GarfieldChairman of the New York Republican Party[n 4]
9Vacancy by ascensionSeptember 19, 1881March 4, 1885Arthur
21Thomas HendricksThomas A. Hendricks
(1819–1885)
[44][45]
IndianaMarch 4, 1885November 25, 1885
(Died)
Democratic25.
(1884)
ClevelandU.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
Governor of Indiana
10Vacancy by deathNovember 25, 1885March 4, 1889
22Levi MortonLevi P. Morton
(1824–1920)
[46][47]
New YorkMarch 4, 1889March 4, 1893Republican26.
(1888)
B. HarrisonU.S. Representative
Minister to France
Governor of New York
23Adlai E. StevensonAdlai Stevenson I
(1835–1914)
[48][49]
IllinoisMarch 4, 1893March 4, 1897Democratic27.
(1892)
ClevelandU.S. Representative
24Garret HobartGarret Hobart
(1844–1899)
[50][51]
New JerseyMarch 4, 1897November 21, 1899
(Died)
Republican28.
(1896)
McKinleyPresident of the New Jersey Senate
11Vacancy by deathNovember 21, 1899March 4, 1901
25Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
[52][53]
New YorkMarch 4, 1901September 14, 1901
(Ascended)
Republican29.
(1900)
Governor of New York
12Vacancy by ascensionSeptember 14, 1901March 4, 1905T. Roosevelt
26Charles W. FairbanksCharles W. Fairbanks
(1852–1918)
[54][55]
IndianaMarch 4, 1905March 4, 1909Republican30.
(1904)
U.S. Senator
27James S. ShermanJames S. Sherman
(1855–1912)
[56][57]
New YorkMarch 4, 1909October 30, 1912
(Died)
Republican31.
(1908)
TaftU.S. Representative
13Vacancy by deathOctober 30, 1912March 4, 1913
28Thomas R. MarshallThomas R. Marshall
(1854–1925)
[58][59]
IndianaMarch 4, 1913March 4, 1921Democratic32.
(1912)
WilsonGovernor of Indiana
33.
(1916)
29Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
[60][61]
MassachusettsMarch 4, 1921August 2, 1923
(Ascended)
Republican34.
(1920)
HardingGovernor of Massachusetts
14Vacancy by ascensionAugust 2, 1923March 4, 1925Coolidge
30Charles G. DawesCharles G. Dawes
(1865–1951)
[62][63]
IllinoisMarch 4, 1925March 4, 1929Republican35.
(1924)
Director of the Bureau of the Budget[n 5]
31Charles CurtisCharles Curtis
(1860–1936)
[64][65]
KansasMarch 4, 1929March 4, 1933Republican36.
(1928)
HooverU.S. Senator
President pro tempore of the Senate
Senate Majority Leader
32John Nance GarnerJohn Nance Garner
(1868–1967)
[66][67]
TexasMarch 4, 1933January 20, 1941Democratic37.
(1932)
F. D. RooseveltU.S. Representative
Speaker of the House
38.
(1936)
33Henry A. WallaceHenry A. Wallace
(1888–1965)
[68][69]
IowaJanuary 20, 1941January 20, 1945Democratic39.
(1940)
Secretary of Agriculture
34Harry S. TrumanHarry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
[70][71]
MissouriJanuary 20, 1945April 12, 1945
(Ascended)
Democratic40.
(1944)
U.S. Senator
15Vacancy by ascensionApril 12, 1945January 20, 1949Truman
35Alben BarkleyAlben W. Barkley
(1877–1956)
[72][73]
KentuckyJanuary 20, 1949January 20, 1953Democratic41.
(1948)
U.S. Senator
Senate Democratic Leader
36Richard NixonRichard Nixon
(1913–1994)
[74][75]
CaliforniaJanuary 20, 1953January 20, 1961Republican42.
(1952)
EisenhowerU.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
43.
(1956)
37Lyndon B. JohnsonLyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
[76][77]
TexasJanuary 20, 1961November 22, 1963
(Ascended)
Democratic44.
(1960)
KennedyU.S. Senator
Senate Democratic Leader
16Vacancy by ascensionNovember 22, 1963January 20, 1965L. B. Johnson
38Hubert H. HumphreyHubert Humphrey
(1911–1978)
[78][79]
MinnesotaJanuary 20, 1965January 20, 1969Democratic45.
(1964)
U.S. Senator
Senate Majority Whip
39Spiro T. AgnewSpiro Agnew
(1918–1996)
[80][81]
MarylandJanuary 20, 1969October 10, 1973
(Resigned)
Republican46.
(1968)
NixonGovernor of Maryland
47.
(1972)
17Vacancy by resignationOctober 10, 1973December 6, 1973
40Gerald FordGerald Ford
(1913–2006)
[82][83]
MichiganDecember 6, 1973[n 6]
August 9, 1974
(Ascended)
RepublicanU.S. Representative
House Minority Leader
18Vacancy by ascensionAugust 9, 1974December 19, 1974Ford
41Nelson RockefellerNelson Rockefeller
(1908–1979)
[84][85]
New YorkDecember 19, 1974[n 6]January 20, 1977RepublicanGovernor of New York
42Walter MondaleWalter Mondale
(b. 1928)
[86][87]
MinnesotaJanuary 20, 1977January 20, 1981Democratic48.
(1976)
CarterU.S. Senator
43George Herbert Walker BushGeorge H. W. Bush[n 7]
(b. 1924)
[89][90]
TexasJanuary 20, 1981January 20, 1989Republican49.
(1980)
ReaganU.S. Representative
Ambassador to the United Nations
Chief of the Liaison Office to China
Director of Central Intelligence
50.
(1984)
44Dan QuayleDan Quayle
(b. 1947)
[91][92]
IndianaJanuary 20, 1989January 20, 1993Republican51.
(1988)
G.H.W. BushU.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
45Al GoreAl Gore
(b. 1948)
[93][94]
TennesseeJanuary 20, 1993January 20, 2001Democratic52.
(1992)
ClintonU.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
53.
(1996)
46"Dick" CheneyDick Cheney[n 8]
(b. 1941)
[97][98]
Wyoming
[n 9]
January 20, 2001January 20, 2009Republican54.
(2000)
G. W. BushWhite House Chief of Staff
U.S. Representative
House Minority Whip
Secretary of Defense
55.
(2004)
47Joe BidenJoe Biden
(b. 1942)
[100]
DelawareJanuary 20, 2009IncumbentDemocratic56.
(2008)
ObamaUS Senator
57.
(2012)

Living former vice presidents[edit]

As of January 2014, there are five living former vice presidents of the United States. The most recent death of a former vice president was that of Gerald Ford (1973–1974) (also 38th President of the United States), on December 26, 2006.

Vice PresidentTerm of officeDate of birth
Walter Mondale1977–1981(1928-01-05) January 5, 1928 (age 86)
George H. W. Bush1981–1989(1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 89)
Dan Quayle1989–1993(1947-02-04) February 4, 1947 (age 66)
Al Gore1993–2001(1948-03-31) March 31, 1948 (age 65)
Dick Cheney2001–2009(1941-01-30) January 30, 1941 (age 73)

Vice presidents who became presidents[edit]

A timeline graph of Presidents with a highlighting of those who had been Vice Presidents. A gray arrow points to those who became president without having been elected as president. The double arrow indicates Ford becoming president without having been elected as vice president also. (See source image for more info.)

There have been 14 vice presidents who have become President of the United States.

Of the 8 vice presidents who ascended to the presidency after their predecessor's death, only 4 were subsequently elected in their own right: Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, and Lyndon B. Johnson.

Only 3 vice presidents have been elected once, and then defeated in reelection: John Adams, Martin Van Buren, and George H.W. Bush.

Only 2 vice presidents have ever been elected and reelected: Thomas Jefferson and Richard Nixon (between these two, only Jefferson served two full terms).

Richard Nixon is the only one on this list who was not serving as vice president when he was elected.

Gerald Ford was the only vice president who became president by ascension, secured his party's renomination, and then lost in the general election.

Vice presidents who later served in other offices[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

Miscellaneous information about age difference between vice-presidents and their presidents:[101]

  1. Almost half of vice presidents (22 out of 46) were older than their presidents. Of those older VPs who later became president, none began their presidency by election, and only one of them, Lyndon B. Johnson, was later elected.
  2. Incumbent (47th) vice president Joe Biden is also older than president Barack Obama, and he is the oldest vice-president compared to his president (18 years, 8 months, 15 days).
  3. The biggest age difference between a president and a vice president was between president James Buchanan, and VP John C. Breckinridge (Breckinridge is younger by 29 years, 8 months, 29 days). This also makes Breckinridge the youngest VP compared to his president.
  4. The least age difference between a president and a vice president was between president Abraham Lincoln, and VP Andrew Johnson (Johnson is older by 45 days).
  5. John C. Breckinridge (at 36) and Richard Nixon (at 39) are the youngest men elected vice president. Nixon, however, entered the office of Vice President at 40 years of age, 11 days after his birthday.

Miscellaneous information about election and tenure of office.

  1. Al Gore (1993–2001) and Dick Cheney (2001–2009), are the first consecutive vice presidents to serve two full terms.
  2. Gore (1992, 1996), Cheney (2000, 2004) and Joe Biden (2008, 2012) are the first three consecutive vice presidents to be elected to two terms.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Arriving in New York City before President-elect George Washington, Adams was sworn as Vice President nine days before the President.[5]
  2. ^ Adams held those two diplomatic posts at the same time.
  3. ^ The only Vice President to be sworn in outside of the United States of America (in Havana, Cuba), with special dispensation from Congress
  4. ^ Arthur had never held a public office other than Collector of the Port of New York in his lifetime.
  5. ^ Dawes was an experienced economist whose first elected office was Vice President.
  6. ^ a b Office of Vice President filled under provisions of 25th Amendment.
  7. ^ Served as Acting President under section 3 of the 25th Amendment on July 13, 1985, from 11:28 a.m. until 7:22 p.m.[88]
  8. ^ Served as Acting President under section 3 of the 25th Amendment on two separate occasions: on June 29, 2002, from 7:09 a.m. to 9:24 a.m,[95] and on July 21, 2007, from 7:16 a.m. to 9:21 a.m.[96]
  9. ^ A resident of Texas just prior to his nomination for Vice President, Mr. Cheney changed his voter registration back to Wyoming, where he had served in Congress, to avoid violating the 12th Amendment, which would have prevented the Texas Presidential Electors from casting their electoral votes for both Bush and Dick Cheney[99]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney (June 28, 2007). "The imperial vice presidency". Salon.com. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
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  78. ^ "Hubert Humphrey". United States Senate. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
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  81. ^ "Agnew, Spiro Theodore". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  82. ^ "Gerald Ford". United States Senate. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  83. ^ "Gord, Gerald Rudolph, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  84. ^ "Nelson Rockefeller". United States Senate. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  85. ^ "Rockefeller, Nelson Aldrich". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
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  90. ^ "Bush, George Herbert Walker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  91. ^ "Dan Quayle". United States Senate. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  92. ^ "Quayle, James Danforth". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  93. ^ "Albert Gore". United States Senate. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
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  101. ^ Calculations made by contributor depending primarily on lists shown in Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, Barnes and Noble, 2003.

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