List of United States hurricanes

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Continental United States hurricane strikes 1950-2007

The list of United States hurricanes includes all tropical cyclones officially recorded to have produced sustained winds of greater than 74 mph (118 km/h) in the United States, which is the minimum threshold for hurricane intensity. The list, which is sorted by U.S. state, begins in 1851 with the start of the official Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT), as provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division; the data from 1941 to 1979 is subject to change, due to the lack of official wind speed estimates during the time period. Since 1851, a total of 289 North Atlantic hurricanes produced hurricane-force winds in 19 states along the Atlantic coast. Some of these storms may not have made a direct landfall (i.e. remained just offshore) while producing hurricane-force winds on land; some of them may have weakened to a tropical storm or became extratropical before landfall but produced hurricane conditions on land while still a hurricane and some of them made landfall in an adjacent state but produced hurricane conditions over multiple states.

Additionally, three Pacific hurricanes struck Hawaii, and one Pacific tropical cyclone brought hurricane force winds to California. The tables list hurricanes by category on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, based on winds that occurred in each state.

Statistics[edit]

AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDelawareMarylandNew HampshireNew JerseyMassachusettsConnecticutWest VirginiaVermontRhode IslandMap of USA with state names.svg
About this image
Map of the United States; click on individual states to be directed to its article,
or click on some coastal states to be directed to a list of tropical cyclones in those locations

A total of 289 Atlantic tropical cyclones have produced hurricane-force winds in every state along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, as well as Pennsylvania. Florida was affected by 116 hurricanes, which was more than any other state; Texas ranked second. Hurricane Donna affected a total of eight states—more than any other hurricane.[1]

The earliest time in the year for a hurricane to strike the nation was June 9, which was set by Hurricane Alma in 1966. The earliest major hurricane to strike the nation occurred in 1934, when an unnamed tropical cyclone made landfall on June 16. The latest in the year for a hurricane to strike the nation was December 1, which was set by a hurricane in 1925. The latest in the year for a major hurricane to strike the nation was from the Tampa Bay Hurricane of 1921, which moved ashore on October 25.[1]

The 1880s were the most active decade for the United States, with a total of 25 hurricanes affecting the nation. By contrast, the least active decade was the 1970s, with a total of only 12 hurricanes affecting the American coastline. A total of 31 seasons on record passed without an Atlantic hurricane affecting the country—the most recent of which was the 2010 season. Seven Atlantic hurricanes affected the country in the 1886 season, which was the year with the most United States hurricanes.[1]

Impact[edit]

The Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 was the most intense hurricane to make landfall on the country, having struck the Florida Keys with a pressure of 892 mbar. It was one of only three hurricanes to move ashore as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; the others were Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane Andrew in 1992, which had a landfalling pressure of 909 mbar and 922 mbar, respectively. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was the third most intense hurricane to strike the country with a pressure of 920 mbar, though its winds were not as strong as Andrew.[2]

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 was the deadliest hurricane in the history of the United States, killing at least 8,000 people. The 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane caused at least 2,500 casualties, and in 2005, Hurricane Katrina killed about 1,500 people. In the 1893 season, two hurricanes each caused over 1,000 deaths.[2]

Accounting for inflation, nine Atlantic hurricanes caused a damage total of over $10 billion (2006 USD), including three from the 2005 season. The costliest was Hurricane Katrina, with damage amounting to $84.6 billion, though in normalized dollars it may only be second to the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926. Of the thirty costliest United States hurricanes, ten were after the year 2000.[2]

A 2010 study published in Natural Hazards Review, a journal of the American Society of Civil Engineers, “Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United State: 1900-2005” (PDF), analyzed storm-related property damage figures from 1900 through 2005 adjusted (“normalized”) for inflation, wealth and population factors over time. The study found that: 1) Using normalized figures, hurricane-related damages steadily increased from 1900 to 2005; 2) Based on the adjusted data, Hurricane Katrina is the second-most destructive storm in U.S. history. The top-ranking storm in terms of property damage is the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926, with losses between $140–157 billion in 2005 dollars; 3) While 1996-2005 was the second-most costly period for storm-related damages, the preceding periods of 1976-1985 and 1986-1995 were “anomalously benign,” accounting for only 10% of all storm damage reported since 1900; 4) Approximately 85% of all storm-related damages occur in the months of August (35%) and September (50%).[3]

States bordering the Atlantic Ocean[edit]

Alabama[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed3August 261852Unnamed2October 181916
Unnamed1September 291917Unnamed3August 211926
Unnamed1[notes 1]August 311856Unnamed1September 11932
Unnamed1September 161859Baker1August 311950
Unnamed2August 121860Eloise1[notes 1]September 231975
Unnamed1September 161860Frederic3September 131979
Unnamed1July 301870Elena3September 21985
Unnamed1[notes 1]September 101882Opal1[notes 1]October 41995
Unnamed2October 31893Danny1July 191997
Unnamed1August 151901Ivan3September 162004
Unnamed2September 271906Dennis1[notes 1]July 102005
Unnamed1September 141912Katrina1August 292005
Unnamed2July 51916
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Connecticut[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1September 161858Carol3August 311954
Unnamed1September 81869Donna2September 121960
Unnamed1August 241893Agnes1June 221972
Unnamed1October 101894Gloria2September 271985
Unnamed3September 211938Bob2August 191991
Unnamed3September 151944
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Delaware[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1October 231878
Unnamed1September 161903
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Florida[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed3August 231851Unnamed3October 251921
Unnamed1August 261852Unnamed1September 151924
Unnamed1September 121852Unnamed1October 211924
Unnamed2October 91852Unnamed2July 271926
Unnamed1September 81854Unnamed4September 181926
Unnamed2August 311856Unnamed1[notes 2]October 211926
Unnamed1September 161859Unnamed2August 81928
Unnamed1October 281859Unnamed4September 171928
Unnamed1[notes 2]August 161861Unnamed3September 281929
Unnamed2October 231865Unnamed1September 11932
Unnamed1October 61867Unnamed1July 301933
Unnamed1[notes 2]October 91870Unnamed3September 41933
Unnamed1October 201870Unnamed5September 31935
Unnamed3August 161871Unnamed2November 41935
Unnamed2August 251871Unnamed2July 311936
Unnamed1September 61871Unnamed1August 111939
Unnamed1September 191873Unnamed2October 61941
Unnamed3October 71873Unnamed3October 191944
Unnamed1September 281874Unnamed1June 241945
Unnamed2October 201876Unnamed3September 151945
Unnamed1September 191877Annie1October 81946
Unnamed3October4September 1
Unnamed2September 1020091October 111947
Unnamed2August 291880Unnamed3September 211948
Unnamed1October 81880Unnamed2October 51948
Unnamed3September 101882Unnamed3August 261949
Unnamed1October 111882Easy3September 51950
Unnamed1August 241885King3October 181950
Unnamed2June 211886Florence1September 261953
Unnamed2June 301886Flossy1September 241956
Unnamed1July 181886Donna4September 101960
Unnamed1July 271887Cleo2August 271964
Unnamed3August 161888Dora2September 101964
Unnamed2October 111888Isbell2October 141964
Unnamed1August 241891Betsy3September 81965
Unnamed1August 271893Alma2June 91966
Unnamed2September 251894Inez1October 81966
Unnamed3October 91894Gladys2October 191968
Unnamed2July 71896Agnes1June 191972
Unnamed3September 291896Eloise3September 231975
Unnamed1August 31898David2September 31979
Unnamed2October 21898Elena3September 11985
Unnamed2August 11899Kate2November 211985
Unnamed1August 111903Floyd1October 121987
Unnamed1October 171904Andrew5August 241992
Unnamed1June 161906Erin2August 31995
Unnamed2September 271906Opal3October 41995
Unnamed3October 181906Earl1September 31998
Unnamed3October 111909Georges2September 251998
Unnamed2October 181910Irene1[notes 3]October 151999
Unnamed1August 111911Charley4August 132004
Unnamed1September 141912Frances2September 52004
Unnamed1August 11915Ivan3September 162004
Unnamed1September 41915Jeanne3September 262004
Unnamed2July 51916Dennis3July 102005
Unnamed2October 181916Katrina1August 252005
Unnamed3September 291917Rita1[notes 2]September 202005
Unnamed4September 101919Wilma3October 242005
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Georgia[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1[notes 1]August 241851Unnamed1[notes 1]October 91894
Unnamed1[notes 1]October 101852Unnamed2September 291896
Unnamed1October 211853Unnamed1August 311898
Unnamed3September 81854Unnamed4October 21898
Unnamed1[notes 1]August 311856Unnamed1August 281911
Unnamed1[notes 1]October 31877Unnamed1September 181928
Unnamed1September 111878"Labor Day"1[notes 1]September 51935
Unnamed2August 281881Unnamed1August 111940
Unnamed1August 251885Unnamed2October 151947
Unnamed1[notes 1]June 211886David2September 41979
Unnamed1[notes 1]June 301886Kate1[notes 1]November 221985
Unnamed3August 281893
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Louisiana[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed2August 251852Unnamed3August 261926
Unnamed3September 161855Unnamed2June 161934
Unnamed4August 111856Unnamed1August 151938
Unnamed3August 111860Unnamed2August 71940
Unnamed2September 151860Unnamed3September 191947
Unnamed2October 21860Unnamed1September 41948
Unnamed2September 131865Flossy2September 241956
Unnamed2October 41867Audrey4June 271957
Unnamed1September 51869Hilda3October 31964
Unnamed1September 181877Betsy3September 101965
Unnamed2August 231879Camille5August 171969
Unnamed3September 11879Edith2September 161971
Unnamed2June 141886Carmen3September 81974
Unnamed3October 121886Babe1September 51977
Unnamed1October 191887Bob1September 111979
Unnamed2August 191888Danny1August 151985
Unnamed1September 231889Juan1October 281985
Unnamed2September 71893Florence1September 101988
Unnamed4October 21893Andrew3August 261992
Unnamed1September 121897Danny1July 181997
Unnamed1August 141901Lili1October 32002
Unnamed1September 271906Cindy1July 62005
Unnamed3September 201909Katrina3August 292005
Unnamed1August 171915Rita3September 242005
Unnamed3September 291915Humberto1September 132007
Unnamed2September 291917Gustav2September 12008
Unnamed3August 71918Ike1September 132008
Unnamed2September 211920Isaac1August 282012
Unnamed1October 161923
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Maine[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed2October 41869Donna1September 131960
Carol1[notes 4]September 71953Gerda1September 101969
Edna1September 111954Gloria1September 271985
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Maryland[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1October 231878
Unnamed1August 231933
Hazel2October 151954
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Massachusetts[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1September 161858Unnamed3September 211938
Unnamed3September 81869Unnamed2September 151944
Unnamed1October 41869Edna3September 111954
Unnamed1August 191879Donna1September 121960
Unnamed1September 101896Bob2August 191991
Unnamed1August 261924
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Mississippi[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed3August 261852Unnamed3July 61916
Unnamed3August 161855Unnamed1October 161923
Unnamed3August 121860Unnamed1September 211926
Unnamed2September 151860Unnamed3September 191947
Unnamed1[notes 1]August 201888Ethel1September 151960
Unnamed2October 21893Camille5August 151969
Unnamed1August 151901Frederic3September 131979
Unnamed2September 271906Elena3September 21985
Unnamed2September 211909Georges2September 291998
Unnamed2September 291915Katrina3August 292005
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New Hampshire[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Donna1September 131960
Gloria2September 271985
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New Jersey[edit]

Although Hurricane Sandy struck the state in October 2012 and produced hurricane force winds, it became an extratropical cyclone before landfall or producing any hurricane-strength winds.[5]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1October 231869
Unnamed1September 161903
Unnamed1September 81934
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

New York[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1September 161858Carol3August 311954
Unnamed1September 81869Donna2September 121960
Unnamed1August 241893Agnes1June 221972
Unnamed1October 101894Belle1August 101976
Unnamed1September 81934Gloria3September 271985
Unnamed3September 211938Bob2August 191991
Unnamed3September 151944Sandy1[notes 5]October 292012
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

North Carolina[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1September 131857Unnamed1August 11944
Unnamed1September 271861Unnamed2[notes 2]September 141944
Unnamed1November 21861Unnamed1August 241949
Unnamed1September 241874Barbara1August 141953
Unnamed1September 171876Carol2August 311954
Unnamed2October 231878Hazel4October 151954
Unnamed3August 181879Connie3August 121955
Unnamed1September 91880Diane1August 171955
Unnamed2September 91881Ione3September 191955
Unnamed2September 111883Helene3[notes 2]September 271958
Unnamed2September 251885Donna3September 121960
Unnamed1[notes 2]August 201887Ginger1September 301971
Unnamed1[notes 1]August 281893Diana2September 131984
Unnamed1October 131893Gloria3September 271985
Unnamed1[notes 1]September 291896Charley1August 171986
Unnamed3August 181899Hugo1[notes 1]September 221989
Unnamed2October 311899Emily3[notes 2]August 311993
Unnamed1July 111901Bertha2July 121996
Unnamed1September 171906Fran3September 61996
Unnamed1July 311908Bonnie2August 271998
Unnamed1September 31913Floyd2September 161999
Unnamed1August 241918Irene2[notes 2]October 181999
Unnamed1[notes 2]August 261924Isabel2September 182003
Unnamed1August 231933Alex1[notes 2]August 32004
Unnamed2[notes 2]September 161933Charley1August 142004
Unnamed1[notes 2]September 91934Ophelia1[notes 2]September 142005
Unnamed1September 181936Irene1August 272011
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT[4]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Though not directly bordering the Atlantic Ocean, the Gale of 1878 produced hurricane force winds in the state, the only tropical cyclone on record to do so.[1] Furthermore, Hurricane Agnes (1972) had a severe impact on the state. Although it had been only a Category 1 storm, and had weakened to a tropical depression by the time it reached Pennsylvania, Hurricane Agnes nevertheless caused severe flooding, as well as enormous economic damage.

Rhode Island[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1September 161858Unnamed3September 151944
Unnamed1September 81869Carol3August 311954
Unnamed1October 101894Donna2September 121960
Unnamed1September 101896Bob2August 191991
Unnamed3September 211938
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

South Carolina[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed2September 81854Unnamed2August 281911
Unnamed1June 221867Unnamed1October 81913
Unnamed1September 281874Unnamed2July 141916
Unnamed1September 121878Unnamed1September 181928
Unnamed1August 281881Unnamed2August 111940
Unnamed1September 111883Unnamed2October 151947
Unnamed3August 251885Able1August 311952
Unnamed3August 281893Hazel4October 151954
Unnamed3October 131893Cindy1July 91959
Unnamed1September 271894Gracie3September 291959
Unnamed1September 291896David2September 41979
Unnamed1August 311898Bob1July 251985
Unnamed2October 311899Hugo4September 221989
Unnamed1September 141904Charley1August 142004
Unnamed1September 171906Gaston1August 292004
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Texas[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1June 251851Unnamed4August 141932
Unnamed1June 261854Unnamed2[notes 4]August 71933
Unnamed2September 181854Unnamed3September 51933
Unnamed1September 131865Unnamed2July 251934
Unnamed2July 151866Unnamed1June 271936
Unnamed1October 21867Unnamed2August 81940
Unnamed2August 171869Unnamed3September 231941
Unnamed3September 161875Unnamed1August 211942
Unnamed2August 231879Unnamed3August 301942
Unnamed3[notes 4]August 131880Unnamed2July 271943
Unnamed2June 141886Unnamed2August 271945
Unnamed4August 201886Unnamed1August 241947
Unnamed1[notes 4]September 231886Unnamed2October 41949
Unnamed2October 121886Audrey4June 271957
Unnamed2September 211887Debra1July 251959
Unnamed1June 171888Carla4September 111961
Unnamed1July 51891Cindy1September 171963
Unnamed1[notes 4]August 301895Beulah3September 201967
Unnamed1September 131897Celia3August 31970
Unnamed4September 91900Fern1September 101971
Unnamed2June 291909Allen3August 101980
Unnamed3July 211909Alicia3August 181983
Unnamed1[notes 4]August 271909Bonnie1June 281986
Unnamed2September 141910Chantal1August 11989
Unnamed2October 161912Jerry1October 161989
Unnamed1June 271913Bret3August 231999
Unnamed4August 171915Claudette1July 152003
Unnamed4August 181916Rita2September 242005
Unnamed1August 71918Humberto1September 132007
Unnamed3September 141919Dolly1July 232008
Unnamed1June 221921Ike2September 132008
Unnamed1June 281929
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

Virginia[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYearNameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Unnamed1September 171876Unnamed1August 231933
Unnamed1October 231878Unnamed1[notes 2]September 161933
Unnamed2August 181879Unnamed1September 181936
Unnamed1[notes 1]October 131893Unnamed2[notes 2]September 141944
Unnamed1September 291894Connie1August 121955
Unnamed1[notes 1]September 301896Isabel1September 182003
Source: Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012[1]

States bordering the Pacific Ocean[edit]

Southwestern United States[edit]

The 1858 San Diego Hurricane is the only Pacific tropical cyclone known to have produced hurricane-force winds in California; it affected San Diego on October 2, 1858, though its center remained just offshore. In the 20th century, only four tropical cyclones produced tropical storm force winds in the southwestern United States: a tropical storm in September 1939 in California, Hurricane Joanne in October 1972 in Arizona, Hurricane Kathleen in September 1976 in Arizona and California, and Hurricane Nora in September 1997 in Arizona.[6]

Hawaii[edit]

NameSaffir-Simpson
Category
Date of closest approachYear
Dot1August 71959
Iwa1November 241982
Iniki4September 111992
Source: 1959 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[7]
1982 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[8]
1992 Central Pacific Hurricane Season[9]

Climatological statistics[edit]

PeriodNumber of recorded storms
affecting United States
1850s17
1860s15
1870s19
1880s25
1890s20
1900–190917
1910s21
1920s15
1930s18
1940s23
1950s20
1960s15
1970s12
1980s17
1990s15
2000–200919
2010s3

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Hurricane conditions in this state were limited to inland areas.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p This hurricane did not made landfall, but produced hurricane conditions over the state indicated.
  3. ^ This storm weakened to a tropical storm before landfall, but produced hurricane conditions in the state indicated ahead of landfall.
  4. ^ a b c d e f This hurricane made landfall in an adjacent country (Canada or Mexico) but produced hurricane conditions in the state indicated.
  5. ^ This storm became extratropical before landfall, but produced hurricane conditions over the state indicated while still a tropical cyclone.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Hurricane Research Division (2012). "Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2012". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  2. ^ a b c Eric S. Blake, Edward N. Rappaport, Christopher W. Landsea (2007). "The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2006" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-05-05. 
  3. ^ "Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United States: 1900–2005". Journalist's Resource.org. 
  4. ^ a b c d Hurricane Research Division (2008). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  5. ^ Eric S. Blake, et al. (2013-02-12) (PDF). Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL182012_Sandy.pdf. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  6. ^ Michael Chenoweth and Chris Landsea (2004). "The San Diego Hurricane of October 2, 1858". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  7. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. "1959 Central Pacific Hurricane Season". Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  8. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. "1982 Central Pacific Hurricane Season". Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  9. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Season. "1992 Central Pacific Hurricane Season". Retrieved 2008-01-26. 

External links[edit]