List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union

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This is a list of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union. Although the first 13 states can be considered to have been members of the United States from the date of the Declaration of Independence – July 4, 1776 – or from the date on which they ratified the Articles of Confederation, they are presented here as being "admitted" on the date each ratified the present United States Constitution; most other such lists, including the 50 State Quarters program, do the same.

The admission dates for later states were set by either the act of admission or a later resolution issued under that act, except for Ohio, whose date of admission was determined by act of Congress in 1953 as March 1, 1803, when its legislature first met because of a clerical error of omission—the original act omitted setting a date that the act took effect.[note 1]

This list does not account for the secession of 11 states during the American Civil War to form the Confederate States of America, the subsequent restoration of those states to representation in Congress (sometimes called "readmission") between 1866 and 1870, or the end of Reconstruction in those states. Since their secession was declared illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Texas v. White, the Supreme Court, a branch of the federal government, does not give legal recognition to their having left the Union. The list also does not account for secessionist governments formed in two other states, as their Unionist governments generally remained in control.

Map[edit]

The order in which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the union
U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
  1776–1790
  1791–1799
  1800–1819
  1820–1839
  1840–1859
  1860–1879
  1880–1899
  1900–1912
  1959

Table[edit]

Ratifications of the Constitution by the thirteen original states[edit]

The Constitution went into effect upon ratification by nine of the thirteen states. The status of the first eight as members of the federal Union in the form established by the Constitution did not exist until the ninth state, New Hampshire, ratified the Constitution in June 1788. None of the first thirteen states became states upon ratifying the Constitution, since all were already states before that.

#StateDate of ratificationPreceding entity
!C 1DelawareDelawareDecember 7, 1787[1]Lower Counties on Delaware (prior to becoming a sovereign state within the United States of America)[2]
!B9993068528194 2PennsylvaniaPennsylvaniaDecember 12, 1787[3]Province of Pennsylvania[4]
!B9989013877113 3New JerseyNew JerseyDecember 18, 1787[5]Province of New Jersey (prior to becoming a sovereign state within the United States of America)
!B9986137056388 4Georgia (U.S. state)GeorgiaJanuary 2, 1788[6]Province of Georgia
!B9983905620875 5ConnecticutConnecticutJanuary 9, 1788[7]Connecticut Colony[8]
!B9982082405307 6MassachusettsMassachusettsFebruary 6, 1788Province of Massachusetts Bay
!B9980540898509 7MarylandMarylandApril 28, 1788Province of Maryland
!B9979205584583 8South CarolinaSouth CarolinaMay 23, 1788Province of South Carolina
!B9978027754226 9New HampshireNew HampshireJune 21, 1788Province of New Hampshire
!B9976974149070 10VirginiaVirginiaJune 25, 1788Virginia Colony
!B9976021047272 11New YorkNew YorkJuly 26, 1788Province of New York
!B9975150933502 12North CarolinaNorth CarolinaNovember 21, 1789Province of North Carolina
!B9974350506425 13Rhode IslandRhode IslandMay 29, 1790Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Admissions of new states beyond the thirteen original states[edit]

#StateDate of admissionPreceding entity
!B9973609426703 14VermontVermontMarch 4, 1791Republic of Vermont (formed upon land claimed by both New York and New Hampshire). Unlike most later instances, this was not really a separate entity; see below.
!B9972919497988 15KentuckyKentuckyJune 1, 1792Part of Virginia, seceded with the approval of the Virginia General Assembly
!B9972274112777 16TennesseeTennesseeJune 1, 1796Southwest Territory
!B9971667866559 17OhioOhioMarch 1, 1803[note 1]Northwest Territory
!B9971096282421 18LouisianaLouisianaApril 30, 1812Territory of Orleans
!B9970555610208 19IndianaIndianaDecember 11, 1816Indiana Territory
!B9970042677264 20MississippiMississippiDecember 10, 1817Mississippi Territory
!B9969554775622 21IllinoisIllinoisDecember 3, 1818Illinois Territory
!B9969089575466 22AlabamaAlabamaDecember 14, 1819Alabama Territory
!B9968645057840 23MaineMaineMarch 15, 1820Part of Massachusetts, seceded with the approval of the Massachusetts General Court)
!B9968219461696 24MissouriMissouriAugust 10, 1821Missouri Territory (initially organized as the Louisiana Territory)
!B9967811241751 25ArkansasArkansasJune 15, 1836Arkansas Territory (initially organized as the Territory of Arkansaw)
!B9967419034619 26MichiganMichiganJanuary 26, 1837Michigan Territory
!B9967041631339 27FloridaFloridaMarch 3, 1845Florida Territory
!B9966677954898 28TexasTexasDecember 29, 1845Republic of Texas (granted statehood simultaneously with annexation)
!B9966327041700 29IowaIowaDecember 28, 1846Iowa Territory
!B9965988026183 30WisconsinWisconsinMay 29, 1848Wisconsin Territory
!B9965660127955 31CaliforniaCaliforniaSeptember 9, 1850California Military District[note 2]
!B9965342640972 32MinnesotaMinnesotaMay 11, 1858Minnesota Territory
!B9965034924385 33OregonOregonFebruary 14, 1859Oregon Territory
!B9964736394753 34KansasKansasJanuary 29, 1861Kansas Territory
!B9964446519385 35West VirginiaWest VirginiaJune 20, 1863Part of Virginia, seceded with the approval of the pro-Union Virginia government, but without the approval of the Virginia government in rebellion
!B9964164810615 36NevadaNevadaOctober 31, 1864Nevada Territory
!B9963890820873 37NebraskaNebraskaMarch 1, 1867Nebraska Territory
!B9963624138402 38ColoradoColoradoAugust 1, 1876Colorado Territory
!B9963364383538 39North DakotaNorth DakotaNovember 2, 1889[note 3]Dakota Territory
!B9963111205458 40South DakotaSouth DakotaNovember 2, 1889[note 3]Dakota Territory
!B9962864279332 41MontanaMontanaNovember 8, 1889Montana Territory
!B9962623303817 42Washington (state)WashingtonNovember 11, 1889Washington Territory
!B9962387998843 43IdahoIdahoJuly 3, 1890Idaho Territory
!B9962158103660 44WyomingWyomingJuly 10, 1890Wyoming Territory
!B9961933375102 45UtahUtahJanuary 4, 1896Utah Territory
!B9961713586035 46OklahomaOklahomaNovember 16, 1907Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory
!B9961498523982 47New MexicoNew MexicoJanuary 6, 1912New Mexico Territory
!B9961287989890 48ArizonaArizonaFebruary 14, 1912Arizona Territory
!B9961081797018 49AlaskaAlaskaJanuary 3, 1959Territory of Alaska
!B9960879769945 50HawaiiHawaiiAugust 21, 1959Territory of Hawaii

When a state is formed within a territory and encompasses less than the whole territory, then the state is a new entity. When a whole territory becomes a state, the state is a new entity whose constitution, governor, legislature, are distinct from those of the territory that preceded it. However, the state of Vermont simply continued to exist as a state under the same state constitution that it had already, with the same governor and legislators continuing their terms of office. Rather than being a new entity, it was a state whose status changed to one that was admitted to the Union.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Congress recognized the state of Ohio on February 19, 1803 ("An act to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States, within the state of Ohio", Seventh Congress, Session II, Chapter VII), but no formal date of statehood was set by the act of admission or a later resolution, as occurred with all other new states. On August 7, 1953, Congress passed a law retroactively setting the date of Ohio's statehood at March 1, 1803, the date when Ohio's first legislature convened.
  2. ^ Although the Republic of California, also known as the Bear Flag Republic, was declared on June 14, 1846 by Anglo-American settlers in Sonoma, that lasted only for 26 days, and never achieved internal or external recognition.
  3. ^ a b The actual statehood proclamations for North and South Dakota were intentionally shuffled so it is unknown which state was admitted first. President Benjamin Harrison always refused to tell the order in which he had signed the two statehood bills. However, North Dakota's proclamation was published first in the "Statutes at Large", since it is first in alphabetical order.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Dec 7, 1787: Delaware ratifies the Constitution". The History Channel. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  2. ^ "State of Delaware (A brief history)". The State of Delaware. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  3. ^ "Today in History: December 12". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania-1681". Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  5. ^ "New Jersey's Ratification". U.S. Constitution Online. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  6. ^ United States Census Office. "Dates of Statehood for 50 U.S. States". Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  7. ^ "Connecticut State Quarter". Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  8. ^ "About Connecticut". Retrieved 19 April 2012. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]