List of Turkic dynasties and countries

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The following is an incomplete list of historical dynasties which had Turkic origins or the country they ruled were Turkic-speaking. The list also includes modern countries with significant Turkic populations or with an official Turkic language. The Turkic peoples have established at least 116 states, khaganates, beyliks, emirate, empires, atabegs, hordes, nomadic empires and sultanates in history up to today.[1]

Map of Turkic countries.svg

Current states[edit]

Current independent states[edit]

NameYears
Turkey Turkey192386.2% Turkish, Demographics of Turkey.
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan199191.6% Azerbaijani, 0.29% Tatar.[2]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan199163.1% Kazakh, 2.9% Uzbek, 1.4% Uyghur, 1.3% Tatar, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijani, 0.1% Kyrgyz.[3]
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan199170.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghur, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakh, 0.6% Tatar, 0.3% Azerbaijani.[4]
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan199175.6% Turkmen, 9.2% Uzbek, 2.0% Kazakh, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatar[5]
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan199171.4% Uzbek, 4.1% Kazakh, 2.4% Tatar, 2.1% Karakalpak, 1% Crimean Tatar, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmen, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijani, 0.2% Uyghur, 0.2% Bashkir.[6]

De facto state[edit]

This republic is recognized only by Turkey and the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan.

NameYears
Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus[7]198367.54% Turkish Cypriot, 32.45% Turkish[citation needed]

Federal subjects of Russia[edit]

Name
 Bashkortostan2010 – 29.5% Baskir, 25.4% Tatar, 2.7% Chuvash
 Chuvashia2010 – 67.7% Chuvash, 2.8% Tatar
 Tatarstan2010 – 53.2% Tatar, 3.1% Chuvash
 Tuva2010 – 82% Tuvan, 0.4% Khakas
Sakha Republic Yakutiya2010 – 49.9% Yakuts, 0.2% Dolgans, 0.9% Tatars
Name
 Altai Republic2010 – 34.5% Altay, 6.2% Kazakhs
 Karachay-Cherkessia2010 – 41.0% Karachay, 3.3% Nogai
 Khakassia2010 – 12.1% Khakas
 Kabardino-Balkaria2010 – 11.5% Balkar

Autonomous regions[edit]

Name
Gagauzia Gagauzia in Moldova2004 – 82.1% Gagauz.[8]
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Crimea in Ukraine12% Crimean Tatar[9]
Xinjiang Xinjiang in China2000 – 45.21% Uyghur, 6.74% Kazakh, 0.86% Kyrgyz, 0.066% Uzbek, 0.024% Chinese Tatar[10]
Karakalpakstan Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan36% Uzbek, 32% Karakalpak, 25% Kazakh[citation needed]
Azerbaijan Nakhchivan in Azerbaijan99% Azerbaijani[citation needed]
Xunhua Xunhua Salar Autonomous County in China2000 – 61.14% Salar[11]

Historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties and dynasties with Turkic origin[edit]

Historical confederation of tribes[edit]

Tiele (鐵勒)DinglingYenisei Kirghiz
OnogursAshina (clan)Toquz Oghuz
KarluksChigilYagmaBasmylUtigursKutrigurs
OghuzSabirsBulgarsShatuoKanglyKipchaksCumans

Turkic dynasties[edit]

NameYearsCapitalmap
Wei (Dingling)388–392Huatai
Gok1.png Turkic Khaganate (Göktürks)552–744Ordu BaliqGökturksAD551-572.png
Xueyantuo628–646
Kangar union659–750located in Ulutau mountainsAD 659KangarUnion.png
Türgesh699–766BalasagunTransoxiana 8th century.svg
Kimeks743–1220Khagan-Kimek ImekiaҚимақтар.png
Uyghur Khganate Flag.jpg Uyghur Khaganate744–848Ordu BaliqEast-Hem 800ad.jpg
Oghuz Yabgu State750–1055YangikentAD 750OguzYabgu.png
Karluk Yabgu State756-940Suyab later Balasagun
Kara-Khanid Khanate840–1212Balasagun, Kashgar, SamarkandKaraKhanidAD1000.png
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom848–1036Dunhuang
Kingdom of Qocho856-1335Gaochang, Beshbalik
Pechenegs860–1091Khazarfall1.png
CumaniaCoA.png Cumania[12][13]900–1220State of Cuman-Kipchak (13.) tr.png
Anatolian Beyliks10th–16th centurymanyAnadolu Beylikleri.png
Ahmadilis1122–1209Maragha
Eldiguzidsca.1135–1225Nakhchivan and Hamadan
Salghurids1148–1282Fars
Khanates of the Caucasus13th–19th centurymanyGüney Kafkasya 1801-1878.svg
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde1240s–1502Sarai BatuGoldenHorde1300.png
Ottoman flag.svg Ottoman Empire1299-1923Söğüt 1299–1335, Bursa 1335–1413, Adrianople 1413–1453, Constantinople 1453–1922OttomanEmpireIn1683.png
Sufids1361–1379
Jagoldai15th-16th centuryLob Карта татарских княжеств XV в.svg
Gerae-tamga.png Giray dynasty1427–1783
Shaybanids1428–1599
Flag of the Kazan Khanate.svg Kazan Khanate1438–1552KazanKazanKhanate1500.png
Crimean Khanate1441–1783BakhchisarayCrimean Khanate 1600.gif
Nogai Horde1440s–1634Saray-JükNogay Horde.svg
Qasim Khanate1452–1681KasimovQasim scheme.svg
Kazakh Khanate.svg Kazakh Khanate1456–1847TurkistanКазахское ханство1520.png
Great Horde1466–1502Wielka Orda.svg
Astrakhan Khanate1466–1556XacitarxanAstrakhan Khanate map.svg
Siberia Khanate1490–1598Tyumen until 1493, Sibir from 1493
Khanate of Bukhara1500–1785BukharaBukhara1600.png
Bandera de Khiva 1917-1920.svg Khanate of Khiva1511–1920KhivaХивинское ханство.png
Yarkent Khanate1514–1677Yarkent
Budzhak Horde17th century–18th centuryBudjakUkraine-Budzhak.png
Bandera de Kokand.svg Khanate of Kokand1709–1876KokandKokand1850.png
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Emirate of Bukhara1785–1920BukharaBukhara1850.png
Bukey Horde1801-1845

Europe[edit]

NameYearsCapitalMap
Khazar Empire6th–11th centuryBalanjar 650-720 ca.,Samandar (city) 720s-750,Atil 750-ca.965-969Chasaren.jpg
Avar Khaganate567–804SzegedHistorical map of the Balkans around 582-612 AD.jpg
The Monogram of Kubrat.png Great Bulgaria632–668Phanagoria 632–665Pontic steppe region around 650 AD.png
First Bulgarian Empire Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization; Slavic post-Christianization681–1018Pliska 681–893,Preslav 893–972,Skopje 972–992,Ohrid 992–1018First Bulgarian Empire Xc.png
Volga Bulgaria7th century–1240sBolghar,BilärVolgaBulgaria1200.png
Arms, House of Basarab.png House of Basarab in Wallachia1310–1627

China[edit]

NameYearsCapitalMap
Later Tang in China founded by Shato923–936Daming 923,Luoyang 923–936
Later Jin in China founded by Shato936–947Taiyuan 936, Luoyang 937, Kaifeng 937-947
Later Han in China founded by Shato947–951Kaifeng
Northern Han in China founded by Shato951–979Taiyuan
Kumul Khanate1696–1930Kumul, XinjiangChina Xinjiang Hami.svg

Middle East[edit]

NameYearsCapitalMap
Tulunids868–905al-Qatta'iTulunid Emirate 868 - 905 (AD).PNG
Ikhshidid Dynasty935–969Ikhshidid Dynasty 935 - 969 (AD).PNG
Burid Dynasty1104–1154DamascusNear East 1135.svg
Zengid Dynasty1127–1250AleppoZengid dynasty, 1127 - 1183.PNG
Rasulids1228–1455
Bahri dynasty1250–1389Bahri Dynasty 1250 - 1382 (AD).PNG
Mameluke Flag.svg Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)1250–1517CairoMamluks1279.png

North Africa[edit]

NameYearsCapitalMap
Tunisia Royal Coat of Arms.PNG Husainid Dynasty1705–1957Tunis

Indian subcontinent[edit]

NameYearsCapitalMap
Mamluk Dynasty1206–1290DelhiMamluk dynasty 1206 - 1290 ad.GIF
Khilji Dynasty1290–1320DelhiKhilji dynasty 1290 - 1320 ad.PNG
Tughlaq Dynasty1320–1414DelhiTughlaq dynasty 1321 - 1398 ad.PNG
Arghun dynasty15th century to the early 16th century
Bidar Sultanate1489–1619
Adil Shahi dynasty1490–1686BijapurBijapur-sultanate-map.svg
QutbshahiFlag.PNG Qutb Shahi Dynasty1518–1687Golconda / Hyderabad
Flag of the Mughal Empire (triangular).svg Mughal Empire Built and ruled by the Baburid dynasty of Turkic origin, with the adoption of the Persian language in later periods.[14][15][16][17][18]1526–1857Agra 1526–1571, Fatehpur Sikri 1571–1585, Lahore 1585–1598, Agra 1598–1648, Shahjahanabad/Delhi 1648–1857The Mughal Empire.jpg
Tarkhan Dynasty1554–1591Sindh
Hyderabad Coat of Arms.jpg Asaf Jahi Dynasty1724–1948Hyderabad

Persianate or Turko-Persian states[edit]

Some Turko-Persian states were founded in Greater Iran.[19]

NameYearsCapitalMap
Ghaznavid Empire ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin[20][21]962–1186Ghazna 977–1163, Lahore 1163–1186Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG
Seljuqs Eagle.svg Great Seljuk Empire ruled by a predominantly Persian-speaking clan[22] of originally Oghuz Turkic descent. The majority of the population was Iranian)[20][23][24][25]1037–1194Nishapur 1037–1043, Rey 1043–1051, Isfahan 1051–1118, Hamadan Western capital 1118–1194, Merv Eastern capital (1118–1153)Seljuk Empire locator map.svg
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm1077–1307İznik , Iconium (Konya)Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate.JPG
Khwarezmian Empire ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.[26]1077–1231/1256Gurganj 1077–1212, Samarkand 1212–1220, Ghazna 1220–1221, Tabriz 1225–1231Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Timurid Dynasty Persianized1370–1506Samarkand 1370–1505, Herat 1505–1507Das Reich Timur-i Lenks (1365-1405).GIF
KarakoyunluFlag.png Kara Koyunlu1375–1468TabrizQara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468.png
AkkoyunluFlag.png Aq Qoyunlu1378–1501Diyarbakır : 1453 – 1471, Tabriz :1468 – January 6, 1478Aq Qoyunlu.png

Iranian dynasties that have Turkic origins[edit]

NameYearsCapitalMap
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Dynasty Iranian dynasty[27][28][29][30] of Turkic origin.1501–1736Tabriz 1501–1555, Qazvin 1555–1598, Isfahan 1598–1736The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I.png
Nader Shah Flag.svg Afsharid Dynasty Iranian dynasty[31] of Turkic origin.1736–1796MashhadAfsharidEmpireIran.png
Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg Qajar Dynasty A Persianized Iranian dynasty[32] of originally Turkic Oghuz descent[33] which ruled Persia.1785–1925TehranMap Iran 1900-en.png

Former Republics[edit]

NameYearsMapCapital
Provisional Government of Western Thrace1913Provisional Government of Western Thrace.pngKomotini
Crimean People's Republic1917–1918Bakhchysarai
Idel-Ural State1917–1918
Alash Orda1917–1920Semey
Republic of Aras1918–1919Nakhchivan
Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus1918–1919Kars
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic1918–19201ST AZ REP.GIFGanja until Sep 1918, Baku
Azadistan1920Tabriz
People's Republic of Tannu Tuva1921–1944Tuwakarte2.pngKyzyl
First East Turkestan Republic1933–1934First ETR in China.svgKashgar
Hatay State1938–1939French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon map en.svgAntakya
East Turkistan Republic1944–1949Second ETR in China.svgGhulja
Azerbaijan People's Government1945–1946Republic of mahabad and south azerbaijan 1945 1946.pngTabriz
Turkish Federated State of Cyprus1975–1983NCyprus location.svgNicosia

Soviet Republics[edit]

NameYearsMapCapital
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic1920–1924SovietCentralAsia1922.svgKhiva
Bukhara People's Soviet Republic1920–1924SovietCentralAsia1922.svgBukhara
Azerbaijan SSR1920–1991Soviet Union - Azerbaijan.svgBaku
Uzbek SSR1924–1991Soviet Union - Uzbekistan.svgSamarkand 1924–1930, Tashkent 1930–1991
Turkmen SSR1924–1991Soviet Union - Turkmenistan.svgAshgabat
Kazakh SSR1936–1991Soviet Union - Kazakhstan.svgAlmaty
Kyrgyz SSR1936–1991Soviet Union - Kyrgyzstan.svgBishkek

Autonomous Soviet Republics[edit]

NameYearsMapCapital
Turkestan ASSR1918–1924SovietCentralAsia1922.svgTashkent
Bashkir ASSR1919–1990Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Р.С.Ф.С.Р. - Авт. Башкирская С.С.Р..jpgUfa
Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic1920–1925Orenburg
Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic1920–1990Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Р.С.Ф.С.Р. - Авт. Татарская С.С.Р..jpgKazan
Yakut ASSR1922–1991Yakutsk
Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic1921-1924Map of Mountain ASSR.pngVladikavkaz
Nakhchyvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic1921–1990265nakhichevan-assr.gifNakhichevan
Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic1925–1936Карта КАССР.pngAlmaty
Chuvash ASSR1925–1992Cheboksary
Karakalpak ASSR1932–1992Nukus
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic1936–1991Russia - Kabardino-Balkar Republic (2008-01).svgNalchik
Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic1944–1957
Crimean ASSR1945–1991Simferopol
Tuvan ASSR1961–1992Tuwakarte2.png
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic1990-1992Map of Russia - Altai Republic (2008-03).svgGorno-Altaysk

Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union[edit]

NameYearsMapCapital
Chuvash Autonomous Oblast1920–1925Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Р.С.Ф.С.Р. - Авт. Чувашская С.С.Р..jpgCheboksary
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast1921–1936Nalchik
Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast1922-1926
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast1922-1991
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast1923-1991Location Nagorno-Karabakh2.pngStepanakert
Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast1924–1936Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Киргизская А.С.С.Р..jpgBishkek
Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast1925–1932To‘rtko‘l
Karachay Autonomous Oblast1926-1957
Khakassian Autonomous Oblast1930-1992
Tuvan Autonomous Oblast1944–1961Uryankhay-Tuva AO.png

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Çeçen, Anıl. Tarihte Türk Devletleri (in Turkish). Milliyet Kültür Yayınevi. p. 5. 
  2. ^ Demographics of Azerbaijan.
  3. ^ Demographics of Kazakhstan.
  4. ^ Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
  5. ^ Demographics of Turkmenistan
  6. ^ Demographics of Uzbekistan
  7. ^ Recognized only by Turkey and the Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in | Azerbaijan, see Cyprus dispute.
  8. ^ Gagauzia
  9. ^ According to the constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as published in Russian by its Verkhovna Rada, Russian and Crimean Tatar languages enjoy a "protected" (Russian – обеспечивается ... защита) status; every citizen is entitled, at his request (Russian ходатайство), to receive government documents, such as "Passport, Birth certificate and others" in Crimean Tatar. Конституция Автономной Республики Крым
  10. ^ Xinjiang
  11. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xunhua_Salar_Autonomous_County Xunhua Salar Autonomous County
  12. ^ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
  13. ^ Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
  14. ^ Thackston 1996
  15. ^ Findley 2005
  16. ^ Saunders 1970, p.177
  17. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  18. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  19. ^ Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  20. ^ a b M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  21. ^ Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
  22. ^ Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
  23. ^ K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
  24. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  25. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  26. ^ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  27. ^ Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
  28. ^ Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
  29. ^ Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
  30. ^ Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
  31. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/afsharids-dynasty
  32. ^ Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
  33. ^ Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217

Further reading[edit]