List of Texas hurricanes (1980–present)

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Aerial view of damaged coastal property on the Bolivar Peninsula.
Damaged property caused by Hurricane Ike

From 1980 to the present, at least 69 tropical or subtropical cyclones affected the U.S. state of Texas. According to David Roth of the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, a tropical cyclone makes landfall along the coastline about three times every four years, and on any 50 mi (85 km) segment of the coastline a hurricane makes landfall about once every six years.[1]

The most active month is September, with 21 total storms, while no recorded storms have affected Texas during the months of December through May. While the most intense storm in terms of barometric pressure is Hurricane Allen in 1980, Hurricane Ike in 2008 caused the most fatalities and damages, with $19.3 billion in damages and 84 deaths.[nb 1] The first storm to impact the state during the period is also Hurricane Allen in August 1980, with the most recent being Tropical Storm Don in 2011. In terms of wind speed, Hurricane Gilbert is the strongest storm to affect the state, producing maximum sustained winds equivalent to Category 4 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.[1]

During the 1980s, multiple tropical cyclones affected the state, of which six made landfall as hurricanes; three made landfall as major hurricanes.[1][nb 2] Hurricane Alicia is the most destructive hurricane of the decade, severely impacting the Greater Houston area. All three major hurricanes that impacted Texas during the 1980s were later retired by the World Meteorological Organization.[3] In contrast to the 1980s, during the 1990s, only one tropical cyclone, Hurricane Bret, made landfall on the Texas coast.[4] In the next decade five hurricanes would make landfall on Texas.[1] Hurricane Ike, the costliest hurricane to impact Texas, makes landfall during the decade. Other notable systems include Tropical Storm Allison and Hurricane Rita. In the 2010s, only one hurricane, Hurricane Alex, has affected Texas so far.

Contents

1980–1984

Infrared image of Hurricane Allen as it was just east of the Texas–Mexico border. While it has many banding features, it does not have an eye.
Hurricane Allen (1980) near landfall
Infrared image of Hurricane Alicia as it makes landfall on the Texas coast. It has a pronounced, albeit small eye feature.
Hurricane Alicia (1983) at landfall

1985–1989

Satellite image of a tropical cyclone in the Western Caribbean Sea. It covers a large area and has a pinhole eye.
Hurricane Gilbert at peak intensity

1990–1994

Satellite image of a tropical cyclone in the northeast Pacific ocean. The hurricane has a ragged eye.
Hurricane Lester (1992) off Baja California

1995–1999

2000–2004

Aerial helicopter image of flooding in an urban area at the confluence of two bayous. The water level nearly reaches treetops.
Flooding in Houston caused by Tropical Storm Allison (2001)

2005–2009

Image of an uprooted tree located between a house and a road
Damage from Hurricane Humberto (2007)
Satellite image of a large tropical cyclone which has a developing eye feature
Hurricane Ike (2008) in the Gulf of Mexico

2010–present

Satellite image of a tropical cyclone well inland. The storm is still very organized and has banding features.
Tropical Storm Hermine (2010) over Texas

Monthly statistics

Number of recorded storms affecting Texas
MonthNumber of storms
June
7
July
7
August
18
September
22
October
13
November
2

Deadly storms

The following is a list of hurricanes with known deaths in the state.

Hurricanes causing known deaths in Texas
NameYearNumber of deathsNotes
Ike200884[1]
Rita200559[1]
Allison200123[86]
Alicia198313[1]
Charley199813[70]
Erin20079[110]
Allen19807[1]
Eight19815[12]
Norma19815[14]
Hermine20105[128]
Bonnie19864[1]
Bret19994[80]
Allison19893[51]
Jerry19893[1]
Chantal19892[1]
Danielle19801[8]
Arlene19931[60]
Claudette20031[93]
Humberto20071[113]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ All damage totals are in the value of the USD during the storm's year of existence.
  2. ^ A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (PDF). Texas Hurricane History. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/research/txhur.pdf. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  2. ^ Chris Landsea; Neal Dorst (ed.) (June 2, 2011). "A: Basic Definitions". Hurricane Research Division: Frequently Asked Questions (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. A3) What is a super-typhoon? What is a major hurricane ? What is an intense hurricane ?. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/tcfaqA.html. Retrieved December 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ National Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclone Naming History and Retired Names". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutnames_history.shtml#retired. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  4. ^ Berger, Eric; Houston Chronicle Publishing Company Division; Hearst Newspapers Partnership, L.P. (September 9, 2007). "Texas spins the wheel in hurricane roulette / After a lull that began in 1989, the law of averages is not considered favorable for state". The Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl/2007_4420912/texas-spins-the-wheel-in-hurricane-roulette-after.html. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c National Hurricane Center (1980). Hurricane Allen (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1980-prelim/allen/. Retrieved May 19, 2006. 
  6. ^ Albert Ramon; KVUE Television, Inc., (May 13, 2011). "Remembering the 1980 tornado". http://www.kvue.com/news/Remembering-the-1980-tornado-121788579.html. Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  7. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/danielle1980.html. 
  8. ^ a b National Hurricane Center (1980). Tropical Storm Danielle (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1980-prelim/danielle/. Retrieved January 14, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Tropical Storm Danielle Strikes Texas". Indiana Gazette. Associated Press (Houston, Texas): p. 4. September 6, 1980. http://newspaperarchive.com/indiana-gazette/1980-09-06/page-4. Retrieved July 3, 2012. 
  10. ^ Pessilier, Joseph M; National Hurricane Center (1980). Hurricane Jeanne (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1980-prelim/jeanne/prelim02.gif. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Summary of Significant Floods in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1970 Through 1989". United States Geological Survey. http://ks.water.usgs.gov/pubs/reports/wsp.2502.sum80.html. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Pattan, John; Slade Jr, Raymond M. "Major and Catastrophic Storms and Floods in Texas". United States Geological Survey. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr03-193/cd_files/USGS_Storms/patton.htm. Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  13. ^ Federal Emergency Management Agency. "Significant Flood Events as of May 31, 2012". United States Department of Homeland Security. http://www.fema.gov/policy-claim-statistics-flood-insurance/policy-claim-statistics-flood-insurance/policy-claim-13-9. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Norma (1981) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/norma1981.html. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Storm Swamps Central Texas". Times Daily (Fort Worth, Texas). October 14, 1981. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=vBssAAAAIBAJ&sjid=-MgEAAAAIBAJ&pg=1454,3203916&dq=hurricane+norma&hl=en. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  16. ^ Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas Weather Forecast Office. "Hurricanes and Tropical Storms That Have Affected North Texas From 1874 to 2009". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/fwd/?n=texashurricane. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Clark, Gilbert B; National Hurricane Center (1982). Tropical Storm Chris (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1982-prelim/chris/. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Roth, David M.; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall for the Gulf Coast". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/tcgulfcoast.html. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c National Hurricane Center (1983). Hurricane Alicia (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/alicia/. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  20. ^ "Hurricane Alicia Heads for Texas". The Gainsville Sun. Associated Press (Miami, Florida): p. 1. August 17, 1983. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Aa4RAAAAIBAJ&sjid=3OkDAAAAIBAJ&pg=4903,320820&dq=hurricane+alicia+oil&hl=en. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Hurricane extracts 'billion-dollar' toll". Eugene Register-Guard. United Press International (Galveston, Texas): p. 1. August 18, 1983. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=-A1WAAAAIBAJ&sjid=OeIDAAAAIBAJ&pg=4928,4012339&dq=hurricane+alicia+power+outages&hl=en. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  22. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Alicia (1983) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/alicia1983.html. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  23. ^ National Hurricane Center (1983). Hurricane Barry (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/barry/. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  24. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Tico (1983) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/tico1983.html. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  25. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service; National Climatic Data Center (October 1983). "Storm Data – 1983" (PDF). Storm Data 25 (10): 20. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/orders/IPS-9B6AA486-FFD9-4140-AE7F-11ABA6627CDA.pdf. Retrieved July 23, 2012. 
  26. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service; National Climatic Data Center (September 1984). "Storm Data – 1984" (PDF). Storm Data 26 (9): 20. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/orders/IPS-4CC90875-4A15-4D31-9146-0FCCE32DC817.pdf. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  27. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Waldo 1985 Rainfall Totals "Hurricane Waldo (1985) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/waldo1985.html Waldo 1985 Rainfall Totals. Retrieved January 25, 2008. 
  28. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Juan (1985) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/juan1985.html. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  29. ^ Clark, Gilbert B; National Hurricane Center (1985). Hurricane Juan (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1985-prelim/juan/prelim03.gif. Retrieved January 25, 2008. 
  30. ^ a b United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service; National Climatic Data Center (October 1985). "Storm Data" (PDF). Storm Data 27 (10): 28. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/orders/IPS-D4BFED19-84C5-47A6-AB7A-47C05267A1AC.pdf. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  31. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Bonnie (1986) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/bonnie1986.html. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  32. ^ Gerrish, Harold P; National Hurricane Center (1986). Hurricane Bonnie (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1986-prelim/bonnie/. Retrieved January 25, 2008. 
  33. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Tropical Depression Four (1986) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/td4of1986.html. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  34. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Newton (1986) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/newton1986.html. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  35. ^ Gunther, E B; Cross, R L (1987). "Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1986". Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 115 (10): 2507. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<2507:ENPTCO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0493%281987%29115%3C2507%3AENPTCO%3E2.0.CO%3B2. 
  36. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Paine (1986) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/paine1986.html. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  37. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Roslyn (1986) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/roslyn1986.html. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  38. ^ "Rain spreads across South; Northeast chills". The Bryan Times. United Press International. October 24, 1986. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Bx4LAAAAIBAJ&sjid=TFIDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3483,2057313&dq=roslyn+texas&hl=en. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  39. ^ Case, Robert A; Gerrish, Harold P. "Annual Summary Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1987" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society). http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1987.pdf. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  40. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Unnamed Tropical Storm — August 8–17, 1987 Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/unnamed1987.html. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  41. ^ Lawrence, Miles B; Gross, James M; National Hurricane Center (1989). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1988". Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 117 (10): 2248. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2248:AHSO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. 
  42. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (2006). "Tropical Storm Beryl (1988) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/beryl1988.html. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
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  45. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Tropical Depression 10 (1988)". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/td10of1988.html. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  46. ^ a b c United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service; National Climatic Data Center (October 1985). "Storm Data" (PDF). Storm Data (United States Department of Commerce) 30 (9): 27. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/orders/IPS-CDF15260-83A6-4F83-A57E-DCFF795FBAC7.pdf. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  47. ^ Clark, Gilbert B.; National Hurricane Center. Hurricane Gilbert (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1988-prelim/gilbert/. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  48. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Gilbert (1988) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/gilbert1988.html. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  49. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Tropical Storm Allison (1989) Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/allison1989.html. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  50. ^ National Hurricane Center (1989). Tropical Storm Allison (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/allison/. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
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  53. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Chantal (1989)". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/chantal1989.html. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  54. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Raymond Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/raymond1989.html. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  55. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Jerry Rainfall Totals". Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/jerry1989.html. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
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