List of Texas Revolution battles

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"Multiple battles of the Texas Revolution took place between October 2, 1835 and April 21, 1836. The Texas Revolution was fought between Mexico and rebellious colonists in Mexican Texas. All of these battles were fought within the territory of Texas.

In early 1835, Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna began centralizing power and operating as a dictator. Federalists throughout the country revolted; in Texas, an armed uprising began on October 2 when settlers refused to return a small cannon to Mexican troops. This Battle of Gonzales ended with Mexican troops retreating to San Antonio de Bexar (now the U.S. city of San Antonio, Texas) empty-handed. Emboldened by their victory, the Texians formed a volunteer army. A small force of Texians travelled down the Texas coastline, defeating Mexican troops at Goliad and at Fort Lipantitlán. The majority of Texian troops followed General Stephen F. Austin to Bexar, where they initiated a siege of the Mexican garrison. After victories in several skirmishes, including the Battle of Concepción and the Grass Fight, Texians attacked Bexar. After several days of fighting, the Siege of Bexar ended with the surrender of Mexican general Martin Perfecto de Cos. With the parole of Cos's troops back to Mexico in mid-December, no Mexican forces remained in Texas.

Many Texians believed the war was now over, and the majority of the settlers returned to their homes. The remaining troops were garrisoned at the Alamo Mission in Bexar and at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad. In early January, a large number of the remaining soldiers, most of them adventurers recently arrived from the United States, began clamoring to invade Mexico. Colonel Frank W. Johnson and Dr. James Grant began preparing to attack Matamoros.

Even before Cos's defeat, Santa Anna had been making plans to retake Texas. In January, he led the Army of Operations in Texas towards the rebellious territory. At the Rio Grande, the army separated; Santa Anna led the bulk of the troops toward Bexar, where he laid siege to the Alamo. The remaining troops, under General Jose de Urrea, traveled up the coastline, quickly defeating Johnson and Grant at the battles of San Patricio and Agua Dulce. News of these first Mexican victories cheered the Mexican force gathered at Bexar. On March 6, Santa Anna ordered an assault on the Alamo; all but a few of the defenders were killed. News of the Texian defeat and approach of the Mexican army terrified the settlers; in an event later known as the Runaway Scrape, settlers, the Texas government, and the remnants of the Texian army under the command of Sam Houston fled east, away from the oncoming army. Houston ordered Colonel James Fannin to abandon Goliad and join his retreat. Fannin delayed his departure and sent a quarter of his troops to help the settlers at Refugio evacuate. Centralist forces in the area were stronger than the Texians expected at Refugio and subsequently defeated them. After receiving word of the defeat, Fannin finally began his retreat, but his men were quickly overtaken and surrounded by Mexican soldiers. Fannin surrendered after the Battle of Coleto. He and his 300 men were taken prisoner and days later executed in the Goliad Massacre.

The only remaining Texian troops were those retreating with Houston. After learning that Santa Anna had again divided his forces, Houston ordered an attack on April 21, 1836. Crying "Remember the Alamo" and "Remember Goliad", the Texians showed little mercy during the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was captured the following day and ordered his army to return to Mexico, ending the Texas Revolution.

Key
(M) – Mexican victory
(T) – Texian victory
BattleLocationDate(s)Engagement remarksVictor
Battle of GonzalesGonzalesOctober 2, 1835This battle resulted in the first casualties of the Texas Revolution. One Mexican soldier killedT
Battle of GoliadGoliadOctober 10, 1835Texians captured Presidio La Bahia, blocking the Mexican Army in Texas from accessing the primary Texas port of Copano.[1] One Texian was wounded,[2] and estimates of Mexican casualties range from one to three soldiers killed and from three to seven wounded.[3][4]T
Battle of LipantitlánSan PatricioNovember 4–5, 1835Texians captured and destroyed Fort Lipantitlán.[5][6] Most of the Mexican soldiers retreated to Matamoros. One Texian was wounded, and 3–5 Mexican soldiers were killed, with an additional 14–17 Mexican soldiers wounded.[7]T
Battle of ConcepciónSan Antonio de BexarOctober 28, 1835In the last offensive ordered by General Martin Perfecto de Cos during the Texas Revolution, Mexican soldiers surprised a Texian force camped near Mission Concepción.[8] The Texians repulsed several attacks with what historian Alwyn Barr described as "able leadership, a strong position, and greater firepower".[9] One Texian was injured, and Richard Andrews became the first Texian soldier to die in battle.[9] Between 14 and 76 Mexican soldiers were killed.[9][10] Historian Stephen Hardin believes that "the relative ease of the victory at Concepción instilled in the Texians a reliance on their long rifles and a contempt for their enemies",[11] which may have led to the later Texian defeat at Coleto.[12]T
Grass FightSan Antonio de BexarNovember 26, 1835Texans attack a large Mexican army pack train. 4 Texans wounded and 17 Mexican casualties. Resulted in the capture of horses and hay (grass).T
Siege of BexarSan Antonio de BexarOctober 12 – December 11, 1835After a six-week siege, Texans attacked Bexar and fought from house to house for five days. After Cos surrendered, all Mexican troops in Texas were forced to retreat beyond the Rio Grande, leaving the Texans in military control. 150 Mexicans killed or wounded and 35 Texians killed or wounded.T
Battle of San PatricioSan PatricioFebruary 27, 1836This was the first battle of the Goliad Campaign. The Johnson-Grant venture, the first battle of the Texas Revolution in which the Mexican Army was the victor. From the Johnson forces, 20 Texans killed, 32 captured and 1 Mexican loss, 4 wounded. Johnson and 4 others escaped after capture and proceeded to Goliad. Johnson would survive the Texas Revolution.M
Battle of Agua DulceAgua DulceMarch 2, 1836Second battle of the Goliad Campaign. Of 27 men of the Grant and Morris forces from the Johnson-Grant venture-12/15 killed; 6 captured and imprisoned at Matamoros; Six escaped, of whom five were killed at Goliad MassacreM
Battle of the AlamoSan Antonio de BexarFebruary 23 –
March 6, 1836
Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna personally oversaw the siege of the Alamo and the subsequent battle, where almost all 189-250 Texan defenders were killed. 600 Mexicans killed or wounded. Anger over Santa Anna's lack of mercy led many Texian settlers to join the Texan Army. (This battle is considered one of the most famous battles in American history and is the inspiration for dozens of movies and books)M
Battle of RefugioRefugioMarch 14, 1836Third battle of the Goliad Campaign. Texans inflicted heavy casualties, but split their forces and retreated, ending in capture. About 50 Texans killed and 98 captured with some later executions, 29 spared as laborers, survivors sent to Goliad and possibly 80-100 Mexican casualties with 50 wounded.M
Battle of Coletooutside GoliadMarch 19–20, 1836Final battle of the Goliad Campaign. In an attempt to rendezvous with other Texian forces, the southernmost wing of Texian army brazenly departs their heavily fortified location in the midst of oppositional forces. A battle ensues with 10 Texans killed, 60 wounded and 200 Mexicans killed or wounded. After the second day of fighting, a Texian surrender is agreed upon. Approximately 342 of the captured Texans were not pardoned but were executed on March 27 in the Goliad Massacre with 20 spared and 28 escaped. Anger over Santa Anna's lack of mercy led many future Texan settlers to join the Texan Army.M
Battle of San Jacintonear modern La Porte, TexasApril 21, 1836After an 18-minute battle, Texans routed Santa Anna's forces, eventually taking Santa Anna prisoner. This was the last battle of the Texas Revolution. 630 Mexicans killed, 208 wounded, 730 captured and 9 Texians killed, 30 wounded.T

See also

Battle of Gonzales was the first battle followed by Expelling Mexico which was followed by the Siege of San Antonio followed by the Fall of San Antonio followed by the Massacre at Goliad followed by the Runaway Scrape which was followed by the last battle which was the Battle of San Jacinto.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hardin (1994), pp. 17, 19.
  2. ^ Huson (1974), p. 13.
  3. ^ Roell, Craig H., Goliad Campaign of 1835, Handbook of Texas, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/GG/qdg1.html, retrieved 2008-07-14 
  4. ^ Scott (2000), p. 20.
  5. ^ Hardin (1994), p. 44.
  6. ^ Groneman (1998), p. 36.
  7. ^ Hardin (1994), pp. 46–7.
  8. ^ Barr (1990), pp. 24, 27.
  9. ^ a b c Bar (1990), p. 26.
  10. ^ Hardin (1994), p. 34.
  11. ^ Hardin (1994), p. 35.
  12. ^ Barr (1990), p. 60.

.Timeline of the Texas Revolution

References