List of Scream characters

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
The four central cast members of the Scream films. From top-left to bottom-right: Neve Campbell, Courteney Cox, David Arquette, and Jamie Kennedy

Wes Craven's Scream series features a large cast of characters created primarily by Kevin Williamson with contributions from Craven and Ehren Kruger. The series focuses on the character of Sidney Prescott (Neve Campbell) and a succession of murderers who adopt a ghost-like disguise, dubbed Ghostface, to taunt and attempt to kill her. The series comprises four films: Scream (1996), Scream 2 (1997), Scream 3 (2000) and Scream 4 (2011).

Sidney is accompanied in each film by news reporter Gale Weathers (Courteney Cox) and town Deputy Sheriff Dewey Riley (David Arquette). Sidney is initially hostile to Gale, because Gale has written a book about the murder of Sidney's mother, but they grow closer in each successive film as they survive Ghostface's murder attempts. In Scream 2 Gale and Dewey initiate a relationship, which leads to a marriage proposal at the end of Scream 3. In Scream 4, eleven years later, Sidney has written a self-help book about her experiences, while Dewey has become a Sheriff and is in a strained marriage with Gale, who is struggling to write a new novel.

Each film provides a motive and grounds for suspicion for several characters, concealing the identity of the true killer or killers until the finale, in which their identities and motivations are revealed. In Scream the fictional town of Woodsboro is besieged by a masked killer who focuses on Sidney, revealed in the finale as Sidney's boyfriend Billy Loomis (Skeet Ulrich), aided by his friend Stu Macher (Matthew Lillard). Billy admits to being responsible for the murder of Sidney's mother Maureen Prescott, to take revenge for an affair Maureen had with Billy's father that caused his mother to "abandon" him. In Scream 2 copycat killers again stalk Sidney and her friends, before being revealed as Sidney's friend Mickey (Timothy Olyphant) and Billy Loomis' mother (Laurie Metcalf). In Scream 3 another killer hunts Sidney, claiming to have knowledge of Sidney's tragic past, prior to the events of the original film. The killer is revealed to be Roman Bridger (Scott Foley), Sidney's half-brother, who wants revenge for his rejection and abandonment by their mother. Roman is found to be responsible for convincing Billy to kill Maureen before the events of Scream, setting in motion the events that occur in each successive film. In Scream 4 a killer appears when Sidney returns to Woodsboro on the fifteenth anniversary of the original killings. This killer is revealed to be Sidney's cousin Jill Roberts (Emma Roberts), with horror film fan Charlie Walker (Rory Culkin) as her accomplice.

The Scream series has received several awards, including a Saturn Award for Best Actress and an MTV Movie Award for Best Performance for Neve Campbell and a Saturn Award for Best Horror Film for Scream.

Scream[edit]

Scream is the first film in the Scream series. One year prior to the events of the film, Maureen Prescott is brutally murdered, apparently by Cotton Weary. During the film, the fictional town of Woodsboro is again attacked by a murderer, who particularly targets Sidney Prescott, Maureen's daughter. Deputy Sheriff Dewey Riley investigates the murders, while news reporter Gale Weathers follows the story. Sidney, her boyfriend Billy Loomis and their friends Tatum Riley, Stu Macher and Randy Meeks try to survive the attacks. The killer is revealed as both Billy and Stu, who admit to having killed Maureen and framed Cotton for the act. Sidney then kills them both.

Billy Loomis[edit]

Billy Loomis is a Woodsboro teenager, the boyfriend of Sidney Prescott and an avid fan of horror films. Following a series of murders, Billy becomes a suspect when he is found at Sidney's house with a cellphone shortly after she is taunted on the phone and attacked by a masked killer. Evidence is discovered that points to other characters, and Billy is removed as a suspect. During a party at Stu Macher's home, Billy and Sidney are reconciled and have sex, before Billy is stabbed by Ghostface. Feigning injury, Billy tries to help Sidney, but obtains a gun, reveals himself as the killer and shoots Randy Meeks. Stu confesses to being Billy's accomplice, and the pair admit to having murdered Sidney's mother, Maureen Prescott, one year previously, after she had had an affair with Billy's father, causing Billy's mother to "abandon" him. With help from Gale, Sidney manages to kill both Billy and Stu.[1]

In Scream 2, Billy's mother seeks revenge on Sidney for Billy's death.[2] In Scream 3 Roman Bridger, reveals that he provided the evidence of his father's affair to Billy and gave him advice on how to kill Maureen.[3]

In "Stab", the fictional film within a film based on the murders, Billy is portrayed by Luke Wilson.[2] The character is parodied in the film Scary Movie as Bobby Prinze, portrayed by Jon Abrahams.[4]

Kevin Patrick Walls and Justin Whalin were final contenders for the role of Billy Loomis before it was won by Skeet Ulrich. Walls was instead cast in the minor role of Steve Orth.[5][6]

Casey Becker[edit]

Barrymore was nominated for a Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role in Scream.[7]

Casey Becker is a Woodsboro teenager and the former girlfriend of Stu Macher. After receiving a taunting and threatening phone call, she is ordered to answer horror film trivia questions to save the life of her boyfriend, Steve. When she answers incorrectly, Steve is murdered and she is asked another question to save her own life. When she refuses to answer, Ghostface chases her down and kills her, leaving her hanged from a tree and disemboweled.[1] In "Stab", the fictional film within a film based on the murders, Casey is played by Heather Graham.[2]

Barrymore was already a successful actress when she appeared in Scream, at a time when casting a big name for a horror film was uncommon. She was originally signed to play the role of Sidney after reading the script and approaching the production team herself, but her schedule eventually meant that she no longer had time to fill the role, and she volunteered for the smaller part of Casey Becker.[8] Like her co-stars Neve Campbell and Courteney Cox, her appearance is credited by Craven for raising the profile of the film and helping to attract a larger female audience.[9]

Several scenes leading to Casey's eventual death gave rise to disputes between Craven and the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), the film rating board, who raised concerns over the violence and intensity of the scene. When she is initially stabbed in the chest by Ghostface, Craven insisted that he had only been able to make one successful take of the scene, so that no substitution was possible; he was, in fact, lying. The scene in which her corpse is hung from a tree and disemboweled was heavily edited: Craven was forced to remove all still shots of the body, and the scene itself was sped up to reduce its time on screen.[6]

Cotton Weary[edit]

Cotton Weary was the original suspect in the rape and murder of Maureen Prescott, Sidney's mother. He was identified by Sidney, who found her mother's body after seeing someone she believed to be Cotton leaving her home. In Scream it is revealed that Maureen was having an affair with Cotton before she was murdered by Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, who then planted evidence to frame Cotton.[1] In Scream 2 Cotton attempts to gain fame from his incarceration and exoneration for Maureen's murder, traveling to Windsor College to convince Sidney to agree to an interview. He later saves Sidney when she is about to be murdered by Mrs. Loomis, one of the Ghostface killers in Scream 2.[2]

In Scream 3 Cotton has become famous for his exploits, hosting his own talk show. He and his girlfriend Christine are attacked by the latest Ghostface, who demands to know the whereabouts of Sidney Prescott after she goes into hiding. When Cotton refuses to tell, Ghostface kills him.[3]

In the original Scream 2 script, Cotton was captured by the real Ghostface killers, Derek, Hallie and Mrs. Loomis. After Mrs. Loomis kills Derek and Hallie, she intends to frame Cotton for the recent murder spree, but he attacks and stabs her to death. He then tries to take revenge on Sidney for his false imprisonment, noting that the evidence points to him being an innocent victim. He and Sidney stab each other, but their fates have not been revealed.[10] Following the leak of the script on the Internet, extensive rewrites were undertaken, changing this plot.[11]

Dewey Riley[edit]

Arquette as his character Dewey Riley on the set of Scream 4

Dwight "Dewey" Riley is the deputy sheriff of Woodsboro, the brother of Tatum Riley and friend of Sidney Prescott. After a series of murders, he helps lead the investigation, while pursuing a romance with Gale Weathers. He is stabbed by Ghostface during the finale of Scream, but survives.[1] Dewey returns in Scream 2, suffering from a limp and weakened arm caused by nerve damage as a result of his stabbing. He travels to Windsor College to help Sidney after a series of copycat Ghostface murders. He is attacked and stabbed repeatedly by the current Ghostface but again survives.[2] In Scream 3 he aids an investigation into a new Ghostface, later revealed to be Roman Bridger. Dewey shoots Roman in the head, killing him. In the aftermath he asks Gale to marry him, and she accepts.[3] In Scream 4 Dewey has married Gale and returned with her to Woodsboro, becoming the new Sheriff. After a new series of Ghostface murders on the anniversary of Billy's and Stu's spree, Dewey again investigates. By now his relationship with Gale is strained, but, after Gale is badly injured by Ghostface, they resolve their differences.[12]

Dewey had been intended to die in the finale of Scream.[13] However, Craven filmed an additional scene, in which Dewey survives and is placed in an ambulance, in case test audiences reacted positively to the character. When they did, this scene was added to the film.[6]

Arquette was originally brought in to audition for the role of Billy Loomis in Scream, but preferred the character of Dewey and requested to audition for that instead. Despite resistance from the production team, who were concerned that the role was described as "hunky", rather than the younger, goofier approach of Arquette, Craven appreciated the idea and cast him in the role.[14]

In "Stab", the fictional film within a film based on the Ghostface murders, and again in "Stab 3", Dewey is portrayed by David Schwimmer[2] and fictional actor Tom Prinze respectively.[3]

Gale Weathers[edit]

Cox was starring in the sitcom Friends when she took on the role of Gale Weathers.

Gale Weathers is a news reporter for the fictional news show "Top Story". Prior to the events of the films, she was involved in coverage of the murder of Maureen Prescott and the resulting trial of Cotton Weary, during which she criticized the testimony of Sidney Prescott. In Scream she returns to Woodsboro to cover the current murder spree. During the finale of the film, her cameraman, Kenny, is murdered, and she is left for dead after a car crash. She is later revealed to be alive and witnesses the confession of Billy Loomis and Stu Macher to their role in the killings. She helps Sidney defeat Billy and, after the events of the film, writes a new book about the Ghostface murders.[1] In Scream 2 she travels to Windsor College to cover the current murder spree. She witnesses the apparent death of Dewey before she herself is shot by Mickey, one of the killers. She survives and helps Sidney to kill Mickey.[2] In Scream 3 she is shown to have written another book, this time about the Windsor College killings. She travels to Hollywood to aid the investigation of a new series of murders there. At the end of the film, Dewey asks Gale to marry him, and she accepts.[3] In Scream 4, Gale has married Dewey, becoming Gale Weathers-Riley, but their relationship is strained. She has written a series of novels about fictional Ghostface murders; these have been turned into new films in the fictional "Stab" series. She attempts to reignite her journalistic career by investigating the new murders, but is attacked and badly wounded by the new Ghostface. She survives and resolves her differences with Dewey.[12]

In the fictional "Stab" series of films within a film, Gale is portrayed by fictional actress Jennifer Jolie.[3]

Courteney Cox was starring in the NBC sitcom Friends when she was cast in Scream, marking a new trend: casting established and popular actors and actresses in horror films. Craven opined that her presence, like Neve Campbell's, helped raise the profile of Scream and attract a large female audience.[9] Brooke Shields and Janeane Garofalo were the original choices for the role of Gale. Cox was not even considered at first, as it was not believed that she could play Gale's selfish, abusive and aggressive character after playing the softer, nicer role of Monica Geller in Friends.[15] Cox, however, was eager to play a "bitch" character, specifically to contrast with her Friends character, and repeatedly lobbied the production team until she won the role.[14]

Ghostface[edit]

Ghostface is a fictional identity, created in Scream by Billy Loomis and Stu Macher to conduct a murder spree in the town of Woodsboro. The costume they use is a generic Halloween costume, officially called "Father Death", that allows anyone to adopt the identity and makes the killers difficult to identify.[1] The killers taunt their victims on the phone before attacking, using a voice changer to disguise their true identity. While in costume, the character is voiced by voice actor Roger L. Jackson. The Ghostface identity is adopted by other killers after the death of Billy and Stu. In Scream 2 it is taken by Billy's mother and her accomplice, Mickey. In Scream 3 it is taken by Sidney's half-brother, Roman Bridger. In Scream 4, on the anniversary of Billy and Stu's murder spree, a new Ghostface emerges, revealed to be Sidney's cousin Jill Roberts and her friend Charlie Walker. In the finale of each film, the current Ghostface killers confront Sidney and explain their motivation for stalking her.[1][2][3][12]

Jackson, who voices Ghostface in all the Scream films, was chosen for the part after weeks of local casting in Santa Rosa, California. He was intended only as a temporary voice, to be replaced in the post production phase of the film with a dubbed voice,[15][16] but his contribution was retained because Craven felt he imbued the voice with a truly evil malevolence.[17] He and the casts of the films were intentionally prevented from meeting for most if not all of each film's production, to discourage the cast from putting a face to the voice, and to make him seem more menacing when interacting with the characters on the phone.[6][8]

Kenny[edit]

Kenny is Gale Weathers' cameraman on the fictional news show "Top Story". In Scream Kenny accompanies Gale as she reports on the series of murders in Woodsboro. After seeing on a hidden camera that Randy Meeks is about to be murdered, he leaves his van to help, and his throat is slit by Ghostface.[1]

Kenny's neck being slashed was one of the several scenes that had to be toned down by Craven at the behest of the MPAA in order to avoid the restrictive NC-17 rating. The scene was shortened because the MPAA felt that Kenny's expression after his throat was cut was too disturbing.[6]

Maureen Prescott[edit]

Maureen Prescott is the mother of Sidney Prescott and wife of Neil Prescott. She is murdered before the events of the Scream films. She conducted several extra-marital affairs, including those with Cotton Weary and Hank Loomis, the father of Billy Loomis. Cotton was arrested and convicted of her murder. In Scream a killer taunts Sidney on the phone about her mother's murder; this killer is later identified as Sidney's boyfriend Billy Loomis and his friend Stu. Billy reveals that it was he and Stu who murdered Maureen and framed Cotton for it.[1] In Scream 3 the current Ghostface uses Maureen's synthesized voice and image to taunt Sidney and lure her out of hiding. The killer is unveiled as Roman Bridger, who reveals that he is Maureen's son and Sidney's half-brother. For a two-year period in her youth, before she met Sidney's father, Maureen had traveled to Hollywood to become an actress under the pseudonym Rina Reynolds. During this time she was gang-raped and became pregnant with Roman, whom she gave up for adoption. When the adult Roman found her, she denied she had been Rina and rejected him. Roman then proceeded to film her affairs and showed the footage to Billy before convincing him to kill Maureen, starting the chain of events that occur throughout the Scream films.[3] Scream 4 introduces Maureen's sister Kate Roberts and her niece Jill Roberts.[12]

Neil Prescott[edit]

Neil Prescott is the father of Sidney Prescott and widower of Maureen Prescott. In Scream he leaves Woodsboro on business and later disappears without trace, raising suspicions that he may be the perpetrator of a series of murders in the town. It is revealed in the finale that he was kidnapped by the real killers, Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, who intended to frame him for their crimes. Neil is saved by his daughter.[1] He appears briefly in Scream 3, commenting on Sidney's withdrawal from her friends and life.[3]

Principal Himbry[edit]

Principal Himbry is the principal of Woodsboro High School, attended by Sidney Prescott and her friends. While in his office, he is attacked by Ghostface and stabbed repeatedly before dying.[1]

Scream producer Bob Weinstein had Himbry's death added to the movie after he realized that the film had "30 pages of script" without a death occurring.[6] By chance, this gave writer Kevin Williamson a reason for the teenagers to leave Stu Macher's party during the film's finale, a plot point Williamson had been struggling to formulate.[6] The language used by Himbry and his aggressive actions towards the students were among several reasons why the film's production was forced to leave Santa Rosa High School: the school board found the film's content unacceptable and did not want it filmed there.[8]

Randy Meeks[edit]

Jamie Kennedy appears in the first three Scream films.

Randy Meeks is a Woodsboro teenager. He is a friend of Sidney Prescott, for whom he has romantic feelings, and is an avid fan of horror movies. He uses his knowledge of horror film plots and clichés to define the series of murders that occur in Scream, Scream 2 and Scream 3. In Scream he is shot by Billy Loomis but survives.[1] In Scream 2 he attends the fictional Windsor College with Sidney, studying film. When a new series of murders begins, Randy taunts the killer over the phone, mocking Billy Loomis' own killings in the previous film. During this call, the killer dragged him into a van and killed him. It is later revealed that Mrs. Loomis, Billy's mother, killed Randy out of anger at his insults to her son.[2] Randy appears posthumously in Scream 3 in a recorded video, in which he explains to Sidney the "rules" concerning the latest killer.[3]

In the published screenplay for Scream, an alternate ending had Randy (rather than Sidney) kill Billy before asking Sidney out on a date.[13] Before a script leak forced the rewriting of parts of the Scream 2 screenplay, Randy was to be Gale Weathers' cameraman rather than a student as shown in the finished film. His death, however, remained the same.[11] Craven and Ehren Kruger considered bringing Randy back in Scream 3, revealing him to have survived his attack in Scream 2 but abandoned the idea as too unrealistic.[16]

Casting for Randy was contested between Kennedy and Breckin Meyer. The production team favored Kennedy, as they believed he had certain qualities that made him more suitable than Meyer for the role.[15] Kennedy, however, had had no major roles prior to Scream, and Dimension Films, the studio producing the films, was eager to have a more prominent actor in the production alongside the other well-known stars such as Barrymore and Cox.[15] The production team itself, however, was adamant that Kennedy was the best choice and fought successfully to keep him in.[8]

Sidney Prescott[edit]

Neve Campbell (pictured) won the Saturn Award for Best Actress for her role in Scream.[18]

Sidney Prescott is a Woodsboro teenager. In Scream, a year after the murder of her mother Maureen, she is stalked by a killer, later revealed to be her boyfriend Billy Loomis and his friend Stu Macher. These two prove to have been Maureen's murderers, Billy being motivated by Maureen's affair with his father, which caused his mother to leave home. Sidney kills both of them in self-defense.[1] In Scream 2, while attending college, she again becomes the target of a masked killer, this time her boyfriend's friend Mickey and the mother of Billy Loomis, seeking revenge for the death of her son. Once more Sidney manages to survive the attempts on her life.[2] During Scream 3 she is drawn to Hollywood by yet another killer. She discovers that this one is her half-brother Roman Bridger, who wants to kill her out of anger at his abandonment by Maureen.[3] In Scream 4 she returns to Woodsboro to promote her new self-help book about overcoming the tragedies of her life, but is targeted once again by a new Ghostface.[12]

In the fictional films within a film "Stab" and "Stab 2", based on the murders, Sidney is portrayed by Tori Spelling as herself.[2] In Stab 3 she is portrayed by fictional actress Angelina Tyler, played by Emily Mortimer.[3]

Neve Campbell won the Saturn Award for Best Actress in 1997 for her role as Sidney Prescott in Scream[18] and the MTV Movie Award for Best Female Performance in 1998 for her role in Scream 2.[19] When she was cast in Scream, Campbell was starring in the television drama series Party of Five. It was previously unheard of to cast an established television actress in a horror film, but, following the success of this casting and that of Courteney Cox, the practice became common in many later horror films. Craven opined that their presence helped raise the profile of Scream and attract a large female audience.[9]

Steve Orth[edit]

Steven "Steve" Orth is a Woodsboro teenager and the boyfriend of Casey Becker. He is captured and held hostage by Ghostface, who keeps him bound to a chair outside Casey's home. Casey is made to answer horror-film trivia questions to save his life. When she gets a question wrong, Steve is disemboweled and dies.[1]

Walls auditioned for the part of Billy Loomis, but took the smaller role of Steve when Ulrich was cast as Billy.[6]

Stu Macher[edit]

Stuart "Stu" Macher is a Woodsboro teenager, the boyfriend of Tatum Riley and friend of Billy Loomis. Following a series of murders in the town, starting with the killing of Stu's ex-girlfriend Casey Becker, school is suspended. Stu hosts a party at his house to celebrate. At the party, Ghostface murders Tatum. Stu is revealed to be Ghostface, and Billy his accomplice. Stu cites peer pressure as his motivation. Stu tries to kill Sidney, but she drops a television on his head, electrocuting him.[1]

Matthew Lillard has an uncredited cameo at a sorority party in Scream 2.[20] He revealed in a 2009 interview that Stu was originally intended to be the killer in Scream 3, having survived his apparent death. From prison he was to orchestrate new Ghostface attacks on high school students, ultimately targeting Sidney.[21][22] Following the Columbine High School massacre, which took place shortly before production began, this plot was abandoned and the script was rewritten without Stu to avoid presenting violence and murder in a high school setting.[8] Many of Lillard's notable and humorous lines in the film were improvised.[6] He was cast by chance, after accompanying his girlfriend of the time to a separate audition in the facility where Scream auditions were also taking place. Scream casting director Lisa Beach saw Lillard and, believing he had the characteristics required of the character, asked him to audition.[15]

Tatum Riley[edit]

Tatum Riley was one of McGowan's earliest starring roles.

Tatum Riley is a Woodsboro teenager, the best friend of Sidney Prescott, the girlfriend of Stu Macher and the sister of town Deputy Dewey Riley. After a series of murders begin in the town, Tatum attempts to protect Sidney from the ensuing media attention, since the killings occurred on the anniversary of the brutal murder of Sidney's mother. Tatum's boyfriend Stu hosts a house party, during which the killer strikes, attacking her in the garage. She tries to escape through a cat door fitted to the automatic garage door, but becomes trapped, and the killer raises the door. Tatum's neck is crushed between the rising door and the top of its frame, killing her.[1]

Tatum's death, like those of Casey Becker and Kenny, caused conflict between director Craven and the MPAA film rating board. Craven was ultimately forced to reduce any lingering shots of her body, necessitating a quick visual cutaway once she dies.[6] Actresses Melinda Clarke and Rebecca Gayheart also auditioned for the role. McGowan was cast as Tatum because the production team felt she best embodied the "spunky" nature of the character.[15]

Scream 2[edit]

Scream 2 is the second film in the Scream series and is set two years after the Woodsboro murder spree. Sidney Prescott and Randy Meeks now attend the fictional Windsor College as students. "Stab", a film based on the Woodsboro murders, has just been released, and a copycat murder spree begins during its premiere. The new Ghostface attacks Sidney and her friends, killing Randy and wounding Dewey Riley, before being revealed as Sidney's classmate Mickey and Mrs. Loomis, the mother of Scream killer Billy Loomis.

Cici Cooper[edit]

Sarah Michelle Gellar.

Casey "Cici" Cooper is a student at Windsor College. While alone in her sorority house, Cici is attacked by Ghostface. She runs upstairs pursued by the killer, who throws her through a glass door on to a balcony and stabs her twice in the back before picking her up and throwing her over the balcony to her death. From her murder and the preceding murders of Phil Stevens and Maureen Evans, Gale Weathers and Dewey Riley deduce that the new killer is choosing targets with names similar to those of the victims of the original Ghostface killers, Billy Loomis and Stu Macher.[2]

Sarah Michelle Gellar admitted in interviews that she signed on to Scream 2 without having read the script, on the basis of the success of the first film.[14]

Debbie Salt (Mrs. Loomis)[edit]

Metcalf had just finished her run in the hit sitcom Roseanne when she starred in Scream 2, continuing the trend started in Scream of casting popular and established actresses.

Debbie Salt is a local news reporter covering the series of murders at Windsor College. In the finale she is revealed to be Mrs. Loomis, Billy's mother, and the copycat Ghostface alongside her accomplice Mickey. Before the events of Scream, she leaves her home after learning of her husband's affair with Sidney's mother Maureen, abandoning Billy and so providing his motivation for his killing spree in Scream. After Billy's death Mrs. Loomis undertakes a physical makeover, losing weight to change her appearance. She then recruits Mickey from a website devoted to serial killers, to enact a plan for revenge against Sidney. She ultimately betrays Mickey and shoots him, claiming to have indulged his desire for fame to gain his help, while she really intends to kill Sidney and then disappear without trace. Cotton Weary intervenes and manages to save Sidney's life by shooting Mrs. Loomis through the throat, killing her.[2]

In the original Scream 2 script, Mrs. Loomis worked with Hallie and Derek, not Mickey, though she still killed her allies. She intended to frame Cotton Weary for the murders, but he managed to stab and kill her.[10] After the script leaked on to the Internet, it underwent rewrites that removed this ending.[11]

Derek[edit]

Derek is a student at Windsor College, a friend of Mickey and boyfriend of Sidney Prescott. After publicly declaring his love for Sidney, he is captured by his fellow frat brothers and restrained as a prank. During the finale, as Sidney is escaping Ghostface, she finds Derek still restrained and tries to untie him before the killer arrives. Ghostface reveals himself as Mickey and accuses Derek of being his accomplice, causing Sidney to hesitate in freeing him. After Derek threatens Mickey, Mickey shoots him through the heart, killing him.[2]

In the original Scream 2 screenplay, Derek was one of the killers working with Mrs. Loomis and Hallie. Derek and Hallie, who were also secret lovers, shared the motivation of gaining fame for the murders when they were caught, but were both killed by Mrs. Loomis to preserve her anonymity.[10] After the script was leaked on the Internet, it underwent rewrites, removing this ending.[11]

Hallie[edit]

Hallie is a student at Windsor College and the best friend of Sidney Prescott. When Sidney is taken into protective custody, Hallie accompanies her, but Ghostface attacks the car in which they are traveling and murders the policemen guarding them. Ghostface hijacks their car, but crashes, rendering himself unconscious and allowing Sidney and Hallie to escape. When Sidney returns to the vehicle to discover the killer's identity, she finds him missing from the car. Ghostface leaps out at Hallie as she waits nearby for Sidney, and stabs her to death.[2]

In the original Scream 2 screenplay, Hallie was one of the killers, working with Mrs. Loomis and Derek. She and Derek, who were also secret lovers, shared the motivation of gaining fame for the murders when they were caught, but were both killed by Mrs. Loomis to preserve her anonymity.[10] After the script was leaked on the Internet, it underwent rewrites, removing this ending.[11]

Joel[edit]

Joel is Gale Weathers' new cameraman. After reading Gale's book about the murders that occur in Scream, he becomes reluctant to stay and film at Windsor College. He leaves after finding the corpse of Randy Meeks,[2] and returns only at the end of the movie when the killings have ceased.

In the original Scream 2 screenplay, Joel had a larger role as a member of Sidney Prescott's group of friends. His corpse was found during the film's finale. After this script was leaked on the Internet, it underwent rewrites, changing the role of several characters and making Joel a cameraman.[11]

Maureen Evans and Phil Stevens[edit]

Maureen Evans and her boyfriend Phil Stevens are students at Windsor College. They attend a sneak preview of the film "Stab", during which Phil goes to the bathroom and hears strange whimpering from the next stall. He presses his ear against the divider to listen closer, but a blade is forced through the divider, stabbing Phil in the ear and killing him. The killer, wearing a Ghostface costume, returns to the screening and sits beside Maureen, before mortally stabbing her. The audience believe her to be part of a publicity stunt, until she falls dead in front of the cinema screen.[2]

Their deaths are satirized in Scary Movie.[4]

Mickey[edit]

Mickey is a student at Windsor College and Derek's best friend. Like Randy Meeks from Scream, he shows an avid interest in horror films and sequels. In the finale he is revealed as the current Ghostface, with his accomplice Mrs. Loomis. He kills Sidney's boyfriend Derek in front of her. Mickey states that he carried out the killings with the intention of getting caught, believing he would receive fame for his deeds and from the resulting trial, and intending to blame film violence for influencing him. Contrary to Mickey's desires, however, Mrs. Loomis intends to disappear after the killings; so she shoots him, seemingly fatally. After Mrs. Loomis' defeat, though, Mickey leaps to his feet to attack Sidney, but is finally killed by Gale and Sidney.[2]

In the original Scream 2 script, Mickey was murdered by Ghostface while trying to save Sidney, but this was changed in rewrites after the original script was leaked online.[10][11]

Scream 3[edit]

In Scream 3, the third film in the Scream series, a new series of Ghostface murders begins during production of "Stab 3", a film within a film based on the murders in Scream and Scream 2. Sidney has hidden herself away, and Ghostface leaves photographs of a young Maureen Prescott, her mother, at the crime scenes, hoping to lure her to Hollywood. The killer is revealed as Roman Bridger, Sidney's unknown half-brother and Maureen's son. Roman was conceived after the young Maureen was gang-raped in Hollywood while attempting to become an actress under the pseudonym Rina Reynolds. Baby Roman was given up for adoption, but as an adult he found Maureen, who rejected him. In revenge for this, Roman convinced Billy Loomis to kill her. Sidney and Roman fight, and Sidney stabs him before Dewey Riley shoots him through the head and kills him.

Angelina Tyler[edit]

Angelina Tyler is the actress who plays the role of Sidney Prescott in "Stab 3". To win this role, she took part in a talent competition, but she later reveals that she slept with John Milton, the producer of the "Stab" films, to secure the job. While attending the birthday party of Roman Bridger, she is attacked and killed by Ghostface.[3]

In an early version of the script, Angelina was a second Ghostface, Roman's lover and accomplice, and a former classmate of Sidney from Woodsboro, originally named Angie Crick. Her motivation was stated as her idolizing Sidney and wanting her fame and attention, thus taking on the role of Sidney in the "Stab" film. The idea was later scrapped.[23]

Christine[edit]

Christine is Cotton Weary's girlfriend. In the opening of Scream 3, she is stalked by the current Ghostface, who uses a voice synthesizer to sound like Cotton, convincing her that Cotton is behind the mask. When the real Cotton arrives, she believes him to be Ghostface and attacks him, while the real Ghostface approaches her from behind and stabs her to death.[3]

Mark Kincaid[edit]

Mark Kincaid is a detective investigating the most recent Ghostface murders. He displays an interest in horror films, and in the history of Sidney Prescott. When Sidney is forced to confront the killer, Kincaid is concerned for her and secretly follows her. Kincaid is attacked and severely wounded by Ghostface. After Ghostface is killed, he and Sidney enter into a romantic relationship.[3]

Jennifer Jolie[edit]

Critical reaction to Posey's performance as Jennifer Jolie was highly positive. The role earned her an MTV Movie Award nomination.[24]

Jennifer Jolie is the actress playing the role of Gale Weathers in the first 3 "Stab" movies. She is dating Dewey Riley. After a new series of Ghostface murders, Jennifer believes she may be the next victim and starts following the real Gale, hoping the killer will choose to kill her instead. While attending a birthday party for Roman Bridger she is attacked and killed by Ghostface.[3]

Parker Posey was nominated in 2000 for an MTV Movie Award for Best Comedic Performance for her role as Jennifer Jolie, losing to Adam Sandler, who won it for his performance in Big Daddy (1999).[24]

John Milton[edit]

John Milton is the producer of the three fictional "Stab" movies. He is revealed to have known Maureen Prescott in her youth, when she was an aspiring actress using the pseudonym Rina Reynolds. It was during one of Milton's parties in the 1970s that Rina was gang-raped and became pregnant with Roman Bridger. Ghostface, revealed as Roman, kidnaps Milton and murders him in front of Sidney, blaming him for turning their mother into a "slut".[3]

Martha Meeks[edit]

Martha Meeks is Randy Meeks' younger sister. After learning of the new Ghostface murders, she meets with Sidney Prescott to give her a tape recorded by Randy prior to his death in Scream 2, which contains his advice for surviving the concluding chapter of a trilogy and the third series of Ghostface murders.[3]

Roman Bridger[edit]

Roman Bridger is the director of "Stab 3: Return to Woodsboro". During his birthday party at John Milton's mansion, he is found in the basement, apparently murdered. Later, when Sidney is confronted by Ghostface, the latter is unmasked as Roman, who has faked his death to eliminate himself as a suspect. Roman tells Sidney that he is her half-brother, relating the circumstances of his conception and later rejection by Maureen and how he had convinced Billy Loomis to murder Maureen. Believing that Sidney has the life and fame that he was denied, Roman now tries to kill her, but in the end he himself is killed by Dewey Riley.[3]

Sarah Darling[edit]

Sarah Darling is an actress starring in "Stab 3". She receives a phone call from someone claiming to be Roman, the director of that film, but after the call turns sinister she attempts to conceal herself among a set of film prop Ghostface costumes. However, one of the costumes is being worn by the killer, who attacks and murders Sarah, leaving a picture of the young Maureen Prescott on her corpse.[3]

Steven Stone[edit]

Steven Stone is Jennifer Jolie's bodyguard. While guarding her home, he inspects Dewey Riley's trailer, which is kept on her land. While there he receives a phone call from someone claiming to be Dewey, who is later revealed to be Ghostface using a voice synthesizer to imitate Dewey's voice. Stone is attacked and killed by Ghostface.

Tom Prinze[edit]

Tom Prinze is an actor in "Stab 3", playing the role of Dewey Riley. At night in Jennifer Jolie's house, Tom, Jennifer, Gale and Dewey are attacked by Ghostface. The killer begins faxing them pages of script detailing the immediate events. As there is a power cut in the house, Tom attempts to illuminate the pages with his lighter, unaware of gas leaking into the house, causing an explosion that kills him.[3]

Tyson Fox[edit]

Tyson Fox is a fictional actor in "Stab 3", playing the role of Ricky, the "Stab 3" equivalent of Randy Meeks. While attending the birthday party of Roman Bridger, he is attacked, stabbed, and thrown over a balcony to his death.[3]

Scream 4[edit]

Scream 4 is the fourth film in the Scream series. On the fifteenth anniversary of the Woodsboro massacre depicted in Scream, Sidney returns to the town to promote her new self-help book, "Out of Darkness", about her overcoming the attacks and the deaths in her life. The fictional "Stab" series of horror films based on her life have continued to be produced and have become increasingly popular. In Scream 4 Woodsboro is attacked by a new Ghostface, who recreates the original Woodsboro killings from Scream. Ghostface targets Sidney, her cousin Jill Roberts, and Jill's friends. As the killings occur, Gale Weathers-Riley struggles to reestablish her journalistic career, while working on her strained marriage to Dewey Riley, now promoted to Sheriff.

Anthony Perkins and Ross Hoss[edit]

Anthony Perkins and Ross Hoss are deputies in the Woodsboro police, who are assigned to guard Jill and Sidney after threats from Ghostface. While patrolling the grounds of Jill's home, they are attacked and stabbed to death by Ghostface.[12]

Charlie Walker[edit]

Charlie Walker is a Woodsboro teenager, friend of Robbie Mercer, love interest of Kirby Reed and an avid fan of horror films, particularly the "Stab" series. He runs a film club with Robbie, and the pair are recruited by Gale to help profile the killer. He hosts a large-scale viewing of the seven "Stab" films in a remote area, and later attends an after-party at Kirby's house. Ghostface attacks the party and Charlie is captured and bound to a chair. Kirby is forced to answer horror film trivia questions to save his life. Believing she has won, Kirby frees Charlie, but he stabs her in the stomach and confesses to being the killer, angry with her for not returning his affections in the years they had known each other, before leaving her for dead. Charlie is revealed to have an accomplice, Jill, with whom he is in a romantic relationship. Charlie admits to aiding Jill in order to become the new generation Randy Meeks to her Sidney Prescott. Jill instead betrays him and stabs him through the heart, killing him.[12]

Jenny Randall and Marnie Cooper[edit]

Jenny Randall and Marnie Cooper are students at Woodsboro High School. After watching "Stab 7", Jenny pranks Marnie by pretending to be Ghostface. However, Marnie is then attacked by the real Ghostface, who murders her. Ghostface then chases Jenny through the house, wounding her and crushing her back as she tries to crawl under an automatic garage door, before stabbing her to death.[12]

Jill Roberts[edit]

Roberts plays Sidney's cousin Jill in the fourth movie.

Jill Roberts is a student at Woodsboro High School, cousin of Sidney Prescott and daughter of Kate Roberts. Before the events of the film, she ends her relationship with her boyfriend Trevor Sheldon after he cheats on her. She and her friends, Kirby and Olivia, are targeted by the new Ghostface, resulting in their gaining police protection. Jill sneaks away from the protection to Kirby's house for a party. Ghostface attacks the party, murdering some of the attendees before being revealed as Charlie Walker. Following this reveal, Charlie and his accomplice, unmasked as Jill, capture Sidney. Envious of Sidney's fame, Jill wants to become the new "Sidney Prescott" by recreating the events that made Sidney famous. Jill murders Trevor for cheating on her, betrays Charlie by stabbing him through the heart, and stabs Sidney in the stomach. Believing that the witnesses to her crimes are all dead, Jill plants evidence framing Trevor and Charlie for the murder spree. Jill then intentionally harms herself to appear to be the lone survivor of the Ghostface attacks. After being taken to hospital, Jill discovers that Sidney has survived her wounds. Jill again attempts to kill Sidney, but Sidney, aided by Dewey, Gale, and Judy Hicks, shoots Jill in the chest, killing her.[12]

Ashley Greene was considered for the role of Jill before Emma Roberts was cast.[25]

Judy Hicks[edit]

Judy Hicks is Deputy Sheriff of Woodsboro under Sheriff Dewey Riley and a former classmate of Sidney Prescott. She idolizes Dewey but dislikes his wife Gale. The two are able to put aside their differences in the end, when Judy saves Gale from being shot by Jill. She is then shot herself, but is unharmed, as she is wearing a bulletproof vest.[12]

Lake Bell was given the role of Judy, but she dropped out only four days before filming was to begin, citing scheduling conflicts.[26]

Kate Roberts[edit]

Kate Roberts is the mother of Jill Roberts, aunt to Sidney Prescott, and sister to Maureen Prescott. After Kate and Sidney are attacked by Ghostface, Kate, leaning against a door, is stabbed in the back through a mail slot and dies.[12]

Lauren Graham was originally cast in the role of Kate Roberts but left the production a few days into principal photography, being replaced with McDonnell.[27][28]

Kirby Reed[edit]

Panettiere received a positive critical response to her role as Kirby Reed.

Kirby Reed is a Woodsboro teenager, friend of Jill Roberts and Olivia Morris, love interest of Charlie Walker and an avid fan of horror films. While entertaining friends at a party, she begins to pursue Charlie romantically. Ghostface attacks the party and she retreats into the basement with Sidney. Ghostface captures Charlie and forces Kirby to play a game to save his life. When she believes she has won, she unties Charlie, who then stabs her in the stomach and reveals that he is the killer, blaming her because she had not returned his affections sooner, and leaving her for dead.[12]

Olivia Morris[edit]

Olivia Morris is a Woodsboro teenager and a friend of Jill Roberts and Kirby Reed. Following a new series of Ghostface murders, she is attacked by Ghostface in her home and disemboweled while her friends are forced to watch from the neighboring house.[12]

Rebecca Walters[edit]

Rebecca Walters is Sidney Prescott's assistant and publicist, who helps arrange Sidney's visit to Woodsboro to promote her book. Sidney fires her after Rebecca attempts to capitalize on the new Ghostface murders to increase sales of Sidney's book. While returning to her car, Rebecca is taunted and attacked by Ghostface. She is stabbed to death and her body is thrown from the top of a parking garage, landing on a news van in front of a crowd of reporters.[12]

Robbie Mercer[edit]

Robbie Mercer is a Woodsboro teenager, a friend of Charlie Walker and an avid fan of horror films, running a film club with Charlie. While attending Kirby Reed's party, he is attacked by Ghostface and fatally wounded, living long enough to warn Sidney, Jill, and Kirby before dying.[12]

Trevor Sheldon[edit]

Trevor Sheldon is a Woodsboro teenager and the ex-boyfriend of Jill Roberts, who ended her relationship with him after he took her virginity and then cheated on her. He makes repeated attempts to earn her forgiveness and continue their relationship. After Ghostface's victims receive calls from Trevor's cellphone, which he claims to have lost, he becomes a suspect in the murders. He attends Kirby's house party, claiming to have been invited by phone, but the guests deny responsibility. When the true Ghostface killers are unmasked as Charlie and Jill, they reveal a bound Trevor, whom they plan to frame for their crimes. Jill shoots him in the crotch for cheating on her, before executing him by shooting him in the head.[12]

Tortorella auditioned five times to secure the role of Trevor by reenacting a scene from Scream where the character of Billy Loomis reveals he is one of the killers.[29]

Reception[edit]

Neve Campbell praised the role of Sidney Prescott, saying she "adored" the character and "she's a fantastic character for any kind of movie."[30] In 1997 the Scream role won Campbell the Saturn Award for Best Actress[18] and an MTV Movie Award for Best Female Performance nomination.[31] The following year she went on to win the 1998 Best Female Performance for Scream 2[19] and received a second nomination for the Saturn Award for Best Actress, losing to Jodie Foster for Contact (1997).[32] She received a third and final Best Female Performance nomination from MTV in 2000 for the character in Scream 3, but lost to fellow Scream alum Sarah Michelle Gellar for Cruel Intentions (2000).[33][34]

Barrymore and Ulrich also received Saturn Award nominations in 1997 for Scream, for Best Supporting Actress and Best Supporting Actor respectively.[7] Although critical of the film itself, Variety singled out Campbell and Ulrich for praise as "charismatic", liking Cox's playing against type as the ambitious reporter Gale and saying the film had a "strong ensemble cast".[35]

John Muir, author of Wes Craven: The Art of Horror, was critical of the new characters introduced in Scream 2 – Derek, Joel, Cici, Hallie, Lois, Murphy and Mickey – stating that they never attained the same depth of character as Scream characters such as Tatum Riley, Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, or even minor characters like Principal Himbry. Muir cited the sequel's focus on increased body counts and violence as the cause of this discrepancy in the quality of the two films' characters. He added that, as a result, Scream 2 lacked the same mystery or intrigue as the original, as the killer could be any character, purely because the audience is never provided with enough information to form an opinion of them. Roger Ebert agreed with this criticism, saying "there is no way to guess who's doing the killing, and everyone who seems suspicious is (almost) sure to be innocent."[36]

However, Muir praised the development of the surviving characters of Scream, labeling Gale Weathers, Dewey Riley, Sidney Prescott, and Randy Meeks as "beloved" and claiming that the death of Randy was the most devastating moment of the sequel and a "bad move".[37] Variety's Leonard Klady was more appreciative of some of the new cast, calling Laurie Metcalf and Liev Schreiber "standout" talent.[38] Cox received a Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress nomination for her role in Scream 2, but lost to Gloria Stuart for Titanic (1997).[32]

On the characters of Scream 3, Roger Ebert was critical, stating "[the characters] are so thin, they're transparent", but he praised Neve Campbell's appearance as Sidney Prescott, saying "The camera loves her. She could become a really big star and then giggle at clips from this film at her AFI tribute".[39] The New York Times praised her role equally highly, saying "She has developed as an actress; when her eyes go dark with concern and fear, she is nerve-racked and tormented, not play-acting."[40] Harry Knowles of Ain't It Cool News was less complimentary about Campbell, saying "She adds ZERO coolness. Zero talent. And Zero charisma to [Scream 3]."[41] The BBC's Tom Coates and Elvis Mitchell of the New York Times praised Parker Posey's character, with Mitchell saying "[Jennifer Jolie] alone makes the picture worth seeing. Dizzy and nakedly – hilariously – ambitious, she's so flighty she seems to be levitating."[40][42] So well received was Posey's character that she received an MTV Movie Award for Best Comedic Performance nomination in 2000 for the role, although she lost to Adam Sandler for Big Daddy (1999).[24] Mitchell also praised the characters of Sarah Darling (McCarthy), Tyson Fox (Richmond) and Steven Stone (Warbuton), calling them "assets" to the film. In 2001, as part of the American Film Institute''s AFI 100 Years... series, the character of Ghostface became one of the four hundred nominees in the "100 Heroes and Villains" category.[43]

On the characters of Scream 4, Film 4 complimented the new additions to the cast, isolating Robbie Mercer and Charlie Walker as the best of the new characters,[44] while the Los Angeles Times called Panettiere's film-nerd Kirby Reed "feisty", labeling her the most "intriguing" new addition to the series.[45]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Craven, Wes (Director) (1996). Scream (DVD). United States: Dimension Films. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Craven, Wes (Director) (1997). Scream 2 (DVD). United States: Dimension Films. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Craven, Wes (Director) (2000). Scream 3 (DVD) (in English). United States: Dimension Films. 
  4. ^ a b Wayans, Keenen Ivory (Director) (2000). Scary Movie (DVD) (in English). United States: Dimension Films. 
  5. ^ Craven, Wes (Director) (September 26, 2000). Ultimate Scream Collection: DVD Bonus Feature Screen Tests (DVD) (in English). United States: Dimension Films. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Craven, Wes (Director), Williamson, Kevin (writer) (December 20, 1996). Scream : Commentary (DVD) (in English). United States: Dimension Films. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, USA". Internet Movie Database. Amazon.com. July 23, 1997. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Rico, Diana (October 31, 2001). "E! A True Hollywood Story: Scream". E! Online (Television Production) (United States: E! Entertainment Television). 
  9. ^ a b c Bell, J. Albert (Writer), Belofsky, Rachel (Writer), Bohusz, Michael Derek (Writer) (2006). Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film (DVD). United States: Starz Entertainment. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Kevin Williamson (1997). "Scream 2 screenplay by Kevin Williamson". imsdb.com. Internet Movie Script Database. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "Scream 2 rewritten after script leak". Hollywood.com. Hollywood.com. April 30, 2010. Archived from the original on December 6, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wes Craven (Director) (2011). Scream 4. United States: Dimension Films. 
  13. ^ a b Kevin Williamson (July 1, 1995). "Scream (Scary Movie)". imsdb.com. Internet Movie Script Database. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c Craven, Wes (Director) (September 26, 2000). Behind the 'Scream' (DVD). United States: Dimension Home Video. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Farrands, Daniel (Director) Hutson (Writer) (April 6, 2011). Scream: The Inside Story (TV). United States: The Biography Channel Video. 
  16. ^ a b Craven, Wes (Director), Lussier, Patrick (Editor), Maddalena, Marianne (Producer) (February 4, 2000). Scream 3: Commentary (DVD) (in English). United States: Dimension Films. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  17. ^ Hewitt, Chris; Quick, Lucy (March 6, 2011). "Carry on Screaming". Empire Magazine (Bauer Consumer Media) (262): 106. 
  18. ^ a b c "Past Saturn Awards". saturnawards.org. The Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films. Retrieved March 14, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b "1998 MTV Movie Awards". mtv.com. MTV. Retrieved March 14, 2011. 
  20. ^ Craven, Wes (Director), Marianne Maddalena (Producer) and Patrick Lussier (Editor) (December 7, 1997). Scream 2 : Commentary (time - 37:20) (DVD) (in English). United States: Dimension Films. Retrieved August 15, 2011. 
  21. ^ Bendick, Bob (November 30, 2009). "Matthew Lillard and I do the talk talk". bobbendickpodcast.com. Acme Comedy. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  22. ^ Ragland, Vanessa; Stratton, Cole (July 2010). "PMC 13: Matthew Lillard (Relevant information - 26 minutes in)". popmyculturepodcast.com. Pop My Culture. Retrieved April 24, 2011. 
  23. ^ Ehren Kruger; Kevin Williamson (May 2, 1999). "Scream 3 Early Draft: 2nd draft revised". Internet Movie Script Database. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b c "MTV Movie Awards 2000". mtv.com. MTV. June 3, 2000. Retrieved April 1, 2011. 
  25. ^ White, James (May 21, 2010). "Ashley Greene Offered Scream 4's Lead". Empire. Bauer Media Group. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  26. ^ Reynolds, Simon (June 25, 2010). "Craven's 'Scream 4' loses cast member". digitalspy.com (Digital Spy Limited). Retrieved June 25, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Lauren Graham confirms 'Scream 4' role". Digital Spy (Hachette Filipacchi UK). June 17, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2010. 
  28. ^ MacKenzie, Carina Adly (July 1, 2010). "'Scream 4' shuffle: The 411 on Lauren Graham's exit, Adam Brody's entry and script changes". Zap2it (Tribune Media Services). Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  29. ^ Schillachi, Sophie (April 7, 2011). "'Scream 4's' Nico Tortorella's throwback audition: Resurrecting Billy Loomis". Zap2it (Tribune Media Services). Retrieved April 7, 2011. 
  30. ^ Spelling, Ian (May 1997). "Scream and Scream Again". Fangoria (Starlog Group Inc.) (162): 66–68. 
  31. ^ "1997 MTV Movie Awards". mtv.com. MTV. June 7, 1997. Retrieved July 21, 2011. 
  32. ^ a b "1998 Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films". Internet Movie Database. June 10, 1998. Retrieved April 2, 2011. 
  33. ^ "MTV Movie Award Nominations". digitalspy.co.uk. Digital Spy. April 18, 2000. Retrieved April 2, 2011. 
  34. ^ "2000 Movie Awards Summary". mtv.com. MTV. June 3, 2000. Retrieved April 2, 2011. 
  35. ^ Klady, Leonard (December 21, 1996). "Scream". variety.com. Variety. Retrieved April 2, 2011. 
  36. ^ Ebert, Roger (December 12, 1997). "Scream 2". suntimes.com. Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved April 1, 2011. 
  37. ^ Muir, John Kenneth (February 24, 2004). Wes Craven: The Art of Horror. McFarland. ISBN 0786419237. 
  38. ^ Leonard, Klady (December 8, 1997). "Scream 2". variety.com. Variety. Archived from the original on April 18, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  39. ^ Ebert, Roger (February 4, 2000). "Scream 3". suntimes.com. Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved March 23, 2011. 
  40. ^ a b Mitchell, Elvis (February 4, 2000). "Scream 3 (2000)". nytimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2011. 
  41. ^ Knowles, Harry (February 5, 2000). "Scream 3". aintitcool.com. Ain't It Cool News. Retrieved April 3, 2011. 
  42. ^ Coates, Tom (May 24, 2001). "Scream 3 (2000)". bbc.com. British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved April 1, 2011. 
  43. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains". American Film Institute (Press release). National Endowment for the Art. June 2003. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  44. ^ Bray, Catherine (April 2011). "Scream 4". film4.com. Film 4. Retrieved April 30, 2011. 
  45. ^ Sharkey, Betsy (April 15, 2011). "Movie review: 'Scream 4'". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 30, 2011. 

External links[edit]