List of Russian rulers

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Monarchy of Russia
Former Monarchy
Lesser CoA of the empire of Russia.svg
Imperial Coat of arms
Nicholas II, 1914.jpg
Nicholas II
First monarchRurik (as Prince)
Last monarchNicholas II (as Emperor)
StyleHis Imperial Majesty
Official residenceWinter Palace
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began862
Monarchy ended15 March 1917 (formally 1 September 1917)
Current pretender(s)Disputed:
Nicholas Romanov,
Maria Vladimirovna
 
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Monarchy of Russia
Former Monarchy
Lesser CoA of the empire of Russia.svg
Imperial Coat of arms
Nicholas II, 1914.jpg
Nicholas II
First monarchRurik (as Prince)
Last monarchNicholas II (as Emperor)
StyleHis Imperial Majesty
Official residenceWinter Palace
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began862
Monarchy ended15 March 1917 (formally 1 September 1917)
Current pretender(s)Disputed:
Nicholas Romanov,
Maria Vladimirovna

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus', and Emperor of All Russia. The list started with a semi-legendary Prince of Novgorod Rurik sometime in the mid 9th century (862) and ended with the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II who abdicated in 1917, and was executed with his family in 1918.

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus',[1][2] the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Muscovy and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. The full title of the Russian Emperors, according to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, was given as:

Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Chersonesos Taurica, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estland, Livland, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhny Novgorod, Sovereign of Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and all northern territories; Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories – hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Circassians and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–1613.

Monarchs of various Russian states prior to 1547[edit]

The land that is today known as Russia was populated by various East Slavic peoples from before the ninth century. The first states to exert hegemony over the region were those of the Rus' people, a branch of Nordic Varangians who moved into the region occupied by modern Russia sometime in the ninth century, and set up a series of states starting with the Rus' Khaganate sometime around 830 or so. Little is known of the Rus' Khaganate beyond its existence, including the extent of its territory or any reliable list of its Khagans (rulers). Traditionally, Russian statehood is traced to Rurik, a Rus' leader of Holmgard (later Novgorod, modern Veliky Novgorod), a different Rus' state. Rurik's successor Oleg moved his capital to Kiev, founding the state of Kievan Rus'. Over the next several centuries, the most important titles were those of the Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Novgorod whose holder (often the same person) could claim hegemony. By the early 11th century, however, the Rus' state had fragmented into a series of petty principalities which warred constantly with each other. In 1097, the Council of Liubech formalized the federal nature of the Russian lands. By the 12th century, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the dominant principality, adding its name to those of Novgorod and Kiev, culminating with the rule of Alexander Nevsky. After Alexander Nevsky, the region once again broke up into petty states, though the Grand Duchy of Moscow, founded by Alexander Nevsky's youngest son Daniel, began to consolidate control over the entire Russian territory in the 15th century. Following the Mongol conquests of the 13th century, all of the Russian principalities paid tribute to the Golden Horde, effectively operating as vassals of the Mongol state. The Russians began to exert independence from the Mongols, culminating with Ivan the Great of Moscow ceasing tribute to the Horde, effectively declaring his independence. The last Grand Duke (sometimes Grand Prince) of Moscow Ivan the Terrible assumed the title Tsar of All Russias in 1547.

Princes of Novgorod[edit]

MonarchPortraitBorn-DiedRelationship with Predecessor(s)Ruled fromRuled until
RurikRurik titularnik.jpg?-879none862879
Oleg of Novgorod (regent)Oleg of Novgorod.jpg?-912Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince Igor of Kiev879882

Grand Princes of Kiev[edit]

MonarchPortraitBorn-DiedRelationship with Predecessor(s)Ruled fromRuled until
Askold and Dir (non-Rurikids)11 1 List of Radzivill Chron.jpg?-882none842[3][4] or 862882
Oleg of Novgorod (regent)Oleg of Novgorod.jpg?-912Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince Igor of Kiev882Autumn 912
Igor IKnyazigor.jpg?-945Son of Rurik879 (in Novgorod, as an heir of Rurik); 913[5]Autumn 945
Saint Olga of Kiev (regent)Olga by Roerich 2.jpg?-969Igor I's wife and regent of Sviatoslav I of Kiev945962
Sviatoslav I the GreatSvatoslav titularnik.png942–972Son of Igor I and Olga of Kiev962Spring 972
Yaropolk IYaropolk murder.jpg958 (960?)–980Son of Sviatoslav I972980
Saint Vladimir I the GreatVladimir I of Kiev.PNG958–1015Younger son of Sviatoslav I, brother of Yaropolk I11 June 97815 July 1015
Sviatopolk I the AccursedSviatopolk silver srebrenik.jpg980–1019Son of Vladimir I1015Autumn 1016
Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav the Wise.jpg978–1054Younger son of Vladimir I, brother of Sviatopolk IAutumn 1016Summer 1018
Sviatopolk I the AccursedSviatopolk silver srebrenik.jpg980–1019Son of Vladimir I14 August 10181019
Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav the Wise.jpg978–1054Younger son of Vladimir I, Younger brother of Sviatopolk I101919 February 1054
Iziaslav IMinskizjaslav.jpg1024–1078First son of Yaroslav IFebruary 105415 September 1068
Vseslav of PolotskDrazdovicz Usiaslau.jpg1039–1101Great-Grandson of Vladimir I. Usurped the Kievan Throne15 September 1068April 1069
Iziaslav IMinskizjaslav.jpg1024–1078First son of Yaroslav I2 May 1069March 1073
Sviatoslav IIIzbornik.jpg1027–1076Third son of Yaroslav I22 March 107327 December 1076
Vsevolod IVsevolod yaroslavich.jpg1030–1093Fourth son of Yaroslav I1 January 1077July 1077
Iziaslav IMinskizjaslav.jpg1024–1078First son of Yaroslav I15 July 10773 October 1078
Vsevolod IVsevolod yaroslavich.jpg1030–1093Fourth son of Yaroslav IOctober 107813 April 1093
Sviatopolk IICongress in Dolobsk 1103.jpg1050–1113Son of Iziaslav I24 April 109316 April 1113
Vladimir II MonomakhVladimir monomakh.jpg1053–1125Son of Vsevolod I20 April 111319 May 1125
Mstislav the GreatMstislav I of Kiev (Tsarskiy titulyarnik).jpg1076–1132Son of Vladimir II20 May 112515 April 1132
Yaropolk IIYaropolk II of Kiev.jpg1082–1139Son of Vladimir II, Younger brother of Mstislav17 April 113218 February 1139
Viacheslav IИзяслав мстиславович.jpg1083-2 February 1154Son of Vladimir II22 February 11394 March 1139
Vsevolod IIVsevolod Ol'govich.jpg?-1146Grandson of Sviatoslav II5 March 113930 July 1146
Igor IICvKnyazIgor.jpg?- 19 September 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIAugust 114613 August 1146
Iziaslav II PanteleimonІзяслав II Пантелеймон.jpg1097–1154Older son of Mstislav13 August 114623 August 1149
Yuri I the Long ArmsDolgorukiy.jpg1099–1157Younger brother of Mstislav28 August 1149Summer 1150
Viacheslav IИзяслав мстиславович.jpg1083-2 February 1154Son of Vladimir IISummer 1150Summer 1150
Iziaslav II PanteleimonІзяслав II Пантелеймон.jpg1097–1154Older son of MstislavSummer 1150Summer 1150
Yuri I the Long ArmsDolgorukiy.jpg1099–1157Younger brother of MstislavAugust 1150Winter 1151
Iziaslav II PanteleimonІзяслав II Пантелеймон.jpg1097–1154Older son of MstislavWinter 115113 November 1154
Viacheslav IИзяслав мстиславович.jpg1083-2 February 1154Son of Vladimir IISpring 11516 February 1154
Rostislav IRostislav Mstislavich.jpg1110–1165Second son of Mstislav1154January 1155
Iziaslav IIIIzyaslav III.jpg?-1162Grandson of Sviatoslav IIJanuary 11551155
Yuri I the Long ArmsDolgorukiy.jpg1099–1157Younger brother of Mstislav20 March 115515 May 1157
Iziaslav IIIIzyaslav III.jpg?-1162Grandson of Sviatoslav II19 May 1157December 1158
Mstislav IIMstislav Izjaslavich.jpg1125–1170Son of Iziaslav III22 December 1158Spring 1159
Rostislav IRostislav Mstislavich.jpg1110–1167Second son of Mstislav12 April 11598 February 1161
Iziaslav IIIIzyaslav III.jpg?-1162Grandson of Sviatoslav II12 February 11616 March 1161
Rostislav IRostislav Mstislavich.jpg1110–1167Second son of MstislavMarch 116114 March 1167
Vladimir IIISin foto.svg1132–1173Younger son of MstislavSpring 1167Spring 1167
Mstislav IIMstislav Izjaslavich.jpg1125–1170Son of Iziaslav III19 May 116712 March 1169

In 1169 Vladimir-Suzdal troops took Kiev. This act underlined the declining importance of that city.[according to whom?]

Grand Princes of Vladimir[edit]

The state of Vladimir-Suzdal (formally the Grand Duchy of Vladimir) became dominant among the various petty principalities to form from the dissolution of the Kievan Rus' state; the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir became one of the three titles (along with Kiev and Novgorod) possessed by the most important rulers among the Russian nobility. While Vladimir enjoyed hegemony for a time, it too would disintegrate into a series of petty states, the most important of which became Grand Duchy of Moscow, which itself would eventually evolve into the Tsardom of Russia.

MonarchPortraitBorn-DiedRelationship with Predecessor(s)Ruled fromRuled until
Saint Andrei I BogolyubskyКнязь Андрей Боголюбский.jpg1110–1174Son of Yuri I15 May 115729 June 1174
Mikhail IMichael I of Kiev.jpg?-1176Brother of Andrei I1174September 1174
YaropolkSin foto.svg?-after 1196Grandson of Vladimir II117415 June 1175
Mikhail IMichael I of Kiev.jpg?-1176Brother of Andrei I15 June 117520 June 1176
Vsevolod III the Big NestVsevolodthebignest.jpg1154–1212Brother of Andrei I and Mikhail IJune 117615 April 1212
Yuri IIFlight of Yuri II of Vladimir (Boris Chorikov).jpg1189–1238Son of Vsevolod III121227 April 1216
Konstantin of RostovBenevolence of the Grand Duke Constantine (Boris Chorikov).jpg1186–1218Son of Vsevolod IIISpring 12162 February 1218
Yuri IIFlight of Yuri II of Vladimir (Boris Chorikov).jpg1189–1238Son of Vsevolod IIIFebruary 12184 March 1238
Yaroslav IIYaroslav Vsevolodovich (Spas Nereditsi).jpeg1191–1238Son of Vsevolod III123830 September 1246
Sviatoslav IIISin foto.svg1196–3 February 1252Son of Vsevolod III12461248
Mikhail KhorobritSin foto.svg1229–15 January 1248Son of Yaroslav II124815 January 1248
Sviatoslav IIISin foto.svg1196– 3 February 1252Son of Vsevolod III12481249
Andrey IIAndrei2.jpg1221–1264Son of Yaroslav IIDecember 124924 July 1252
Saint Alexander I NevskyAlexanderNevskyTitul.jpg1220–1263Son of Yaroslav II125214 November 1263
Yaroslav IIIYaroslav Yaroslavich in Novgorod.jpeg1230–1272Son of Yaroslav II12641271
Vasily of KostromaVasily Yaroslavich Grand Dukes of Vladimir.jpg1241–1276Son of Yaroslav II1272January 1277
Dmitry of PereslavlDmitry of Pereslavl (Vereshchagin).jpg1250–1294Son of St. Alexander12771281
Andrey IIIAndreygorodetsky.jpg1255–1304Son of St. Alexander1281December 1283
Dmitry of PereslavlDmitry of Pereslavl (Vereshchagin).jpg1250–1294Son of St. AlexanderDecember 12831293
Andrey IIIAndreygorodetsky.jpg1255–1304Son of St. Alexander12931304
Saint Michael of TverMikhailtver.jpg1271–1318Son of Yaroslav IIIAutumn 130422 November 1318
Yuri (III) of MoscowJurij of Moscov.jpg1281–1325Grandson of St. Alexander13182 November 1322
Dmitry I the Terrible EyesДмитрий Грозные Очи убивает Юрия Даниловича.jpg1299–1326Son of St. Michael132215 September 1326
Alexander of TverAlexander Pskov.jpg1281–1339Son of St. Michael13261327
Alexander of SuzdalSin foto.svg?–1331Grandson of Andrey II13281331
Ivan I of Moscow KalitaIvan Kalita.jpg1288–1340Grandson of St. Alexander133231 March 1340

Since 1331 the title of the Grand Princes of Vladimir assigned to the Princes of Moscow.

Grand Princes of Moscow[edit]

Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Vladimir, placed his youngest son Daniel in charge of the territory around Moscow, and establishing the state of Muscovy, originally a vassal state to Vladimir-Suzdal. Daniel's son Ivan I assumed the title of Vladimir himself, establishing Muscovy as the premier principality among the various Russian states. Later rulers of Muscovy would consolidate power, culminating with Ivan III who threw off the Mongol yoke and conquered most of the other Russian states. His son Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by eliminating the last few independent states in the 1520s. Vasili's son Ivan the Terrible formalized the situation by assuming the title Tsar of All Russias in 1547.

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageRuled fromRuled untilDeath
Danielno imageDaniil of Moscow (fresco in Archang. cat).jpg1261unknown12834 March 13034 March 1303, Moscow, Russia
Yuryno imageJurij of Moscov.jpg1281unknown4 March 130321 November 132521 November 1325, Moscow, Russia
Ivan I Kalitano imageIvan Kalita.jpg1288Helena
9 children
21 November 132531 March 134031 March 1340, Moscow, Russia
Simeon the Proudno imageSimeon Dumny.jpg7 November 1316Anastasia of Lithuania
no children

Euphraxia of Smolensk
no children

Maria of Tver
4 sons (died young)
31 March 134027 April 135327 April 1353, Moscow, Russia
Ivan II the Handsomeno imageIvan krasniy titularnik.jpg30 March 1326Fedosia Dmitrievna of Bryansk
no children

Alexandra Ivanovna Velyaminova
4 children
27 April 135313 November 135913 November 1359, Moscow, Russia
Saint Dmitry I Donskoyno imageDmitri Donskoy.jpg12 October 1350Eudoxia Dmitrievna of Nizhny Novgorod
12 children
13 November 135919 May 138919 May 1389, Moscow, Russia
Vasily Ino imageVasily Dmitrievich titularnik.jpg30 December 1371Sophia of Lithuania
9 children
19 May 138927 February 142527 February 1425, Moscow, Russia
Vasily II the Blindno imageVasil2b.gif10 March 1415Maria Yaroslavna of Borovsk
3 children
27 February 142527 March 146227 March 1462, Moscow, Russia
Ivan III the GreatCoat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svgIvan III of Russia.jpg22 January 1440Maria Borisovna of Tver
one son

Sophia Palaiologina
8 children
5 April 14626 November 15056 November 1505, Moscow, Russia
Vasily IIICoat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svgVasili III of Russia.jpg25 March 1479Solomonia Yuryevna Saburova
no children

Elana Vasilyevna Glinskaya
2 sons
6 November 150513 December 153313 December 1533, Moscow, Russia
Ivan IV the TerribleCoat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svgKremlinpic4.jpg25 August 1530unmarried as Prince13 December 153326 January 154728 March 1584

Tsars of Russia[edit]

From the rule of Ivan III, the Grand Duchy of Moscow effectively became the dominant Russian state, overthrowing the Golden Horde, consolidating all remaining Russian principalities under itself, and conquering lands far from its roots in the city of Moscow. While Ivan III became effective ruler over the entirety of Russia, the situation was not formally recognized until his grandson Ivan the IV assumed the title Tsar in 1547, that the state of Russia (apart from its constituent principalities) came into formal being.

Dates are listed in the Old Style, which continued to be used in Russia.

House of Rurikovich[edit]

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageTsar fromTsar untilDeath
Ivan IV the TerribleRussiancoatofarmsxvicentury.gifKremlinpic4.jpg25 August 1530, Kolomenskoye, RussiaAnastasia Romanovna Zakharyina-Yurieva
6 children

Maria Temryukovna
one son (died young)

Marfa Vasilevna Sobakina

Anna Alexeievna Koltovskaya

Anna Vasilchikova

Vasilisa Melentyeva

Maria Dolgorukaya

Maria Feodorovna Nagaya
26 January 154728 March 158428 March 1584, Moscow, Russia
Feodor IRussiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifFeodor I of Russia (parsuna, 1630s, Moscow History museum).jpg31 May 1557, Moscow, RussiaIrina Feodorovna Godunova
one daughter
28 March 158417 January 159817 January 1598, Moscow, Russia

Time of Troubles[edit]

Following the death of the Feodor I, the son of Ivan the Terrible and the last of the Rurik dynasty, Russia fell into a succession crisis known as the Time of Troubles. As Feodor left no male heirs, the Russian Zemsky Sobor (feudal parliament) elected his brother-in-law Boris Godunov to be Tsar. Devastated by famine, rule under Boris descended into anarchy. A series of impostors, known as the False Dmitriys, each claimed to be Feodor's long deceased younger brother. These impostors claimed (and at times actually held) the title of Tsar. A distant Rurikid cousin, Vasili Shuyskiy, also seized power for a time. During the period of Anarchy, foreign powers involved themselves in Russian politics under the leadership of the Vasa monarchs of Sweden and Poland-Lithuania, including Sigismund III Vasa and his son Władysław IV Vasa. As a child, Władysław was even chosen as Tsar by the Seven Boyars, though he was prevented by his father from formally taking the throne. The Time of Troubles is considered to have ended with the election of Michael Romanov to the throne, who established the Romanov dynasty that would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

House of Godunov[edit]

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageTsar fromTsar untilDeath
Irina (disputed)Russiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifIrina godunova01 reconstruction.jpgc.1557Feodor I of Russia
a daughter
7 January 159815 January 159829 October 1603, Moscow, Russia
Boris IRussiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifBorisgodunov.jpgc.1551, Vyazma, RussiaMaria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya
2 children
21 February 159813 April 160513 April 1605, Moscow, Russia
Feodor IIRussiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifTsar Fyodr II.jpg1589, Moscow, Russiaunmarried, no children13 April 16051 June 16051 June 1605, Moscow, Russia

Pseudo-Rurikovich usurpers[edit]

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageTsar fromTsar untilDeath
False Dmitry I
(Grigory Bogdanovich Otrepyev)
Russiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifPseudo-Dmitrius.jpgc. 1581Marina Mniszech
no children
1 June 160517 May 160617 May 1606, Moscow, Russia
False Dmitry IIRussiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifPseudo-Dimitrij.jpgc. 1582Marina Mniszech
one son (posthumous)
10 July 160711 December 161011 December 1610, Kaluga, Russia
False Dmitry III (Sidorka)Russiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifSin foto.svgunknownunknown28 March 161118 May 1612July 1612

House of Shuysky[edit]

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageTsar fromTsar untilDeath
Vasiliy IVRussiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifVasily IV.jpg22 September 1552, Nizhny Novgorod, RussiaElena Mikhailovna Repnina
no children

Maria Buynosova-Rostovskaya
2 children
19 May 160617 July 1610 (deposed)12 September 1612, Gostynin, Poland

House of Vasa[edit]

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageTsar fromTsar untilDeath
Vladislav IPolish House of Vasa Coa.svgWładysław IV Waza.jpg9 June 1595, Łobzów, PolandCecilia Renata of Austria
no children

Marie Louise Gonzaga
no children
6 September 1610November 1612 (deposed)
14 June 1634 (resigned his claim)
20 May 1648, Merkinė, Lithuania

House of Romanov[edit]

The Time of Troubles came to a close with the election of Michael Romanov as Tsar in 1613. Michael officially reigned as Tsar, though his father, the Patriarch Philaret (died 1633) initially held the real power. However, Michael's descendents would rule Russia, first as Tsars and later as Emperors, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Peter the Great (reigned 1682-1725), a grandson of Michael Romanov, reorganized the Russian state along more Western lines, establishing the Russian Empire in 1721.

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageTsar fromTsar untilDeath
Michael IRussiancoatofarmsxvi-xviicentury.gifTsar Mikhail I.jpg12 July 1596
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova
1624
one stillborn child

Eudoxia Lukyanovna Streshneva
5 February 1626
ten children
26 July 161312 July 164512 July 1645, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Alexis I the QuietestImperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svgAlexis I of Russia (Hermitage).jpg9 May 1629
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya
17 January 1648
13 children

Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina
1 February 1671
3 children
12 July 164529 January 167629 January 1676, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Feodor IIIImperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svgFeodor III of Russia.jpg9 June 1661
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya
28 July 1680
one son

Marfa Matveievna Apraksina
24 February 1682
no children
29 January 16767 May 16827 May 1682, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Sophia (regent)Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svgSophia Alekseyevna hermitage.jpg17 September 1657
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
unmarried, no children17 May 168227 August 16893 July 1704, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Ivan V
jointly with Peter I
Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svgIvan V kremlin.jpg6 September 1666
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova
1684
5 daughters
2 June 16828 February 16968 February 1696, Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Peter I the Great
jointly with Ivan V 1682–1696
Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svgPeter de Grote9 June 1672
Moscow, Tsardom of Muscovy
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children
2 June 16822 November 17218 February 1725, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire

Emperors of Russia[edit]

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1917)

The Empire of Russia was declared by Peter the Great in 1721. Officially, Russia would be ruled by the Romanov dynasty until the Russian Revolution of 1917. However, direct male descendants of Michael Romanov came to an end in 1730 with the death of Peter II of Russia, grandson of Peter the Great. The throne passed to Anna, a niece of Peter the Great, and after the brief rule of her infant son Ivan VI, the throne was seized by Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great. Elizabeth would be the last of the direct Romanovs to rule Russia. Elizabeth declared her nephew, Peter, to be her heir. Peter (who would rule as Peter III) spoke little Russian, having been a German prince of the House of Holstein-Gottorp before arriving in Russia to assume the Imperial title. He and his German wife Sophia changed their name to Romanov upon inheriting the throne. Peter was ill-liked, and he was assassinated within six months of assuming the throne, in a coup orchestrated by his wife, who became Empress in her own right and ruled as Catherine the Great (both Peter and Catherine were descended from the House of Rurik). Following the confused successions of the descendants of Peter the Great, Catherine's son Paul I established clear succession laws which governed the rules of primogeniture over the Imperial throne until the fall of the Empire in 1917.

MonarchCoat of armsPortraitBirthMarriageEmperor fromEmperor untilDeath
Peter I the GreatPeterthegreatcoa.gifPeter de Grote9 June 1672
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children
2 November 17218 February 17258 February 1725, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Catherine ICatherinecoa.gifEmpress Catherine I -c.1724 -3.jpg15 April 1684
Ringen (Rõngu), Duchy of Livonia, Sweden
Peter I of Russia
1707
9 children
8 February 172517 May 172717 May 1727,
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter IIRussian coa 1730.pngPyotralexeevich.jpg23 October 1715
St. Petersburg, Tsardom of Russia
unmarried18 May 172730 January 173030 January 1730, Moscow, Russian Empire
AnnaRussian coa 1730.pngLouis Caravaque, Portrait of Empress Anna Ioannovna (1730).jpg7 February 1693
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland
November 1710
no children
13 February 173028 October 174028 October 1740, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Ivan VI (disputed)Russian coa 1730.pngIvan VI of Russia.jpg23 August 1740
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
unmarried28 October 17406 December 174116 July 1764 (murdered)
Shlisselburg, Russian Empire
ElizabethRussian coa 1730.pngPortrait of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna by Ivan Vishnyakov.jpg29 December 1709
Kolomenskoye, Tsardom of Russia
Alexey Razumovsky
1742
no children
6 December 17415 January 17625 January 1762,
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter IIIRussian coa 1730.pngPeter III by A.Antropov (1762, Tretyakov gallery).jpg21 February 1728
Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
16 August 1745
one son
9 January 17629 July 176217 July 1762 (murdered), Ropsha, Russian Empire
Catherine II the GreatRussian coa 1730.pngCatherinethegreatroslin.jpg2 May 1729
Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia
Peter III of Russia
16 August 1745
one son
9 July 176217 November 179617 November 1796, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Paul IPaulicoa1796.gifBorovikovskiy PtPavla1GRM.jpg1 October 1754
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
29 September 1773
one stillborn son

Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
26 September 1776
ten children
17 November 179623 March 180123 March 1801
(assassinated)
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander I the BlessedRussian coa 1830.pngAlexander I of Russia by G.Dawe (1826, Peterhof).jpg23 December 1777
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Louise of Baden
28 September 1793
2 daughters
23 March 18011 December 18251 December 1825, Taganrog, Russian Empire
Constantine I (disputed)Russian coa 1830.pngKonstantinpaulowrussland(crop).jpg27 April 1779
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
26 February
no children
1 December 182526 December 182527 June 1831
Vitebsk, Russian Empire
Nicholas IRussian coa 1830.pngNicholasbotman(1).jpg6 July 1796
Gatchina, Russian Empire
Princess Charlotte of Prussia
13 July 1817
7 children
1 December 18252 March 18552 March 1855,
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander II the LiberatorLesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svgAlexanderbymakovsky.jpg29 April 1818
Moscow, Russian Empire
Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
16 April 1841
8 children
2 March 185513 March 188113 March 1881
(assassinated)
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander III the Peace-MakerLesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svgDmitriev 001(crop).jpg10 March 1845
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Princess Dagmar of Denmark
9 November 1866
6 children
13 March 18811 November 18941 November 1894
Livadiya, Russian Empire
Saint Nicholas IILesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svgNicholas II of Russia painted by Earnest Lipgart.jpg6 May 1868
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
26 November 1894
5 children
1 November 189415 March 191717 July 1918 (executed)
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Michael II (disputed)Lesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svgMikhail Aleksandrovich by Repin.JPG22 November 1878
Tsarskoye Selo, Russian Empire
Natalia Brassova
15 October 1911
one son (born before his parents' marriage)
15 March 191716 March 1917 (formally, 1 September 1917, the formal abolishment of monarchy)12 June 1918 (murdered)
Perm, Russian SFSR

See List of leaders of Russia for the continuation of leadership.

Pretenders to the Russian throne since 1917[edit]

See Line of succession to the Russian throne

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Russian history: Kievan Rus". Russiapedia. RT. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  2. ^ Glenn E. Curtis (1996). "Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods". Russia: A Country Study. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  3. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7; Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7
  4. ^ according to the Tale of Bygone Years, the date is not clearly identified
  5. ^ officially

External links[edit]