List of Presidents of Peru

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President of
the Republic of Peru
Presidential Standard of Peru.svg
Presidential Standard
Incumbent
Ollanta Humala

since July 28, 2011
ResidenceGovernment Palace
AppointerDirect popular election
Term lengthFive years, not renewable immediately
Inaugural holderJosé de San Martín
FormationJuly 28, 1821
Websitewww.presidencia.gob.pe
 
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President of
the Republic of Peru
Presidential Standard of Peru.svg
Presidential Standard
Incumbent
Ollanta Humala

since July 28, 2011
ResidenceGovernment Palace
AppointerDirect popular election
Term lengthFive years, not renewable immediately
Inaugural holderJosé de San Martín
FormationJuly 28, 1821
Websitewww.presidencia.gob.pe
Peru

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Peru


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Established in the Constitution of 1993, the President of Peru, officially the President of the Republic (Presidente de la República), is the head of state of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. The presidential term is five years, with a two-term limit. Therefore, after a re-election (ten years in power) an incumbent president is barred from running in the election. (A former president may run again in subsequent presidential elections if he hasn't been in power twice). The current president of Peru is Ollanta Humala, elected in 2011.

The change of government takes place on July 28, which is the date of independence from Spain and thus a national holiday.

Contents

History

During its more than 180 years of independence, Peru has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically-elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, coups and violence. More than once, several individuals claimed the right to be president at the same time.

Different titles have been used, such as "Protector of Peru" (used by José de San Martin), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).

Presidents of the Republic

The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as president of Peru.

#PicturePresidentInauguratedLeft officeForm of entryTitle
1Smartin.JPGJosé de San MartínJuly 28, 1821September 20, 1822Indirect electionsProtector of Peru
2LunaPizarro1.jpgFrancisco Xavier de Luna PizarroSeptember 20, 1822September 22, 1822Indirect electionsInterim caretaker
3LaMar1.jpgJosé La MarSeptember 22, 1822February 27, 1823Elected by CongressPresident of the Government Junta
4José Bernardo de Tagle.pngJosé Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-TagleFebruary 27, 1823February 28, 1823Indirect electionsInterim caretaker
5JRivaAguero01.jpgJosé de la Riva AgüeroFebruary 28, 1823June 23, 1823Elected by Congress
6Gran marical de ayacucho.jpgAntonio José de SucreJune 23, 1823July 17, 1823Elected by Congress
7José Bernardo de Tagle.pngJosé Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-TagleJuly 17, 1823February 17, 1824Elected by CongressSupreme Delegate
8Simón Bolívar 2.jpgSimón BolívarFebruary 17, 1824January 28, 1827Elected by Congress
9Andréssantacruz2.jpgAndrés de Santa CruzJanuary 28, 1827June 9, 1827Elected by CongressPresident of the Government Council
10Msalazaryb.pngManuel Salazar y BaquíjanoJune 9, 1827August 22, 1827Elected by CongressInterim caretaker
11LaMar1.jpgJosé La MarAugust 22, 1827June 7, 1829Direct Elections
12Agutierrezf.pngAntonio Gutiérrez de la FuenteJune 7, 1829September 1, 1829Coup d'état
13Agustín Gamarra.jpgAgustín GamarraSeptember 1, 1829December 20, 1833Elected by Congress
14LunaPizarro1.jpgFrancisco Xavier de Luna PizarroDecember 20, 1833December 21, 1833Elected by CongressInterim caretaker
15Orbegoso1.jpgLuis José de Orbegoso y MoncadaDecember 21, 1833August 11, 1836Elected by Congress
16Pablo bermudez 1.jpgPedro Pablo Bermúdez[1]January 4, 1833April 24, 1834Coup d'étatProvisional Supreme Ruler
17Salaverry2.jpgFelipe Santiago Salaverry[2]February 23, 1835February 7, 1836Coup d'étatSupreme Legislator
18Andréssantacruz2.jpgAndrés de Santa Cruz[3]August 11, 1836August 25, 1838Supreme Protector of the Confederation
19Agustín Gamarra.jpgAgustín GamarraAugust 25, 1838November 18, 1841Elected by Congress
20Manuel Menéndez.jpgManuel MenéndezNovember 18, 1841August 16, 1842Interim caretakerPresident of the Government Council
21Torrico1.jpgJuan Crisóstomo TorricoAugust 16, 1842October 17, 1842Coup d'état
22Vidal1.jpgJuan Francisco de Vidal[4]October 17, 1842March 15, 1843Coup d'état
23Figuerola.jpgJusto FiguerolaMarch 15, 1843March 20, 1843Coup d'état
24Vivanco1.jpgManuel Ignacio de VivancoMarch 20, 1843June 17, 1844Selfproclaimed President
25Domingonieto.jpgDomingo NietoMarch 20, 1843February 17, 1844Elected by the Government Junta established to re-instate constitutional order after the Vivanco dictatorship. -Nieto would die in office (possibly poisoned).President of the Government Junta - Grand Marshall of Perú
26RamonCastilla.jpgRamón CastillaFebruary 17, 1844August 10, 1844Elected in replace of Domingo Nieto
27Domingo Elias.jpgDomingo ElíasJune 17, 1844August 10, 1844Selfproclaimed President
'28Manuel Menéndez.jpgManuel MenéndezAugust 10, 1844August 11, 1844Interim caretakerPresident of the Government Council
29Figuerola.jpgJusto FiguerolaAugust 11, 1844October 7, 1844Coup d'état
30Manuel Menéndez.jpgManuel MenéndezOctober 7, 1844April 20, 1845Interim caretakerPresident of the Government Council
31RamonCastilla.jpgRamón CastillaApril 20, 1845April 20, 1851Direct Elections
331851joseechenique.jpgJosé Rufino EcheniqueApril 20, 1851January 5, 1855Direct Elections
34RamonCastilla.jpgRamón CastillaJanuary 5, 1855October 24, 1862Coup d'état
Direct Elections
35Miguelsanroman.pngMiguel de San RománOctober 24, 1862April 3, 1863Direct Elections
36RamonCastilla.jpgRamón CastillaApril 3, 1863April 9, 1863Revolution
Selfproclaimed President
37Pedro Diez Canseco.jpgPedro Diez CansecoApril 3, 1863August 5, 1863Interim caretakerSecond Vicepresident
38President Pezet.jpgJuan Antonio PezetAugust 5, 1863April 25, 1865First Vicepresident
39Mariano Prado.jpgMariano Ignacio PradoApril 25, 1865June 24, 1865Coup d'état
40President Pezet.jpgJuan Antonio PezetJune 24, 1865November 8, 1865
41Pedro Diez Canseco.jpgPedro Diez CansecoNovember 8, 1865November 28, 1865Interim caretaker
42Mariano Prado.jpgMariano Ignacio PradoNovember 28, 1865January 8, 1868Direct Elections
-Pedro Diez Canseco.jpgPedro Diez CansecoJanuary 8, 1868August 2, 1868Interim caretaker
43Balta1.jpgJosé BaltaAugust 2, 1868July 22, 1872Direct Elections
44Tgutierrez.pngTomás GutiérrezJuly 22, 1872July 26, 1872Coup d'étatSupreme Leader of the Nation
45Francisco Diez Canseco.jpgFrancisco Diez CansecoJuly 26, 1872July 27, 1872Interim caretaker
46HerenciaZevallos.jpgMariano Herencia ZevallosJuly 27, 1872August 2, 1872Interim caretaker
47Mpardol.pngManuel PardoAugust 2, 1872August 2, 1876Direct Elections
48Mariano Prado.jpgMariano Ignacio PradoAugust 2, 1876December 23, 1879Direct Elections
49Nicolas Pierola.jpgNicolás de PiérolaDecember 23, 1879November 28, 1881Coup d'étatCommander in Chief of the State
50Garcia Calderon.jpgFrancisco García CalderónMarch 12, 1881September 28, 1881Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Lima)
Provisional President of the Republic
51LizardoMontero.jpgLizardo Montero FloresSeptember 28, 1881November 6, 1881Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Arequipa)
Provisional President of the Republic
52Andres Caceres.jpgAndrés Avelino CáceresNovember 6, 1881December 25, 1882Selfproclaimed
Chilean Occupation
(Central Peru)
President of the Republic
53Miguel Iglesias colaboracionista con Chile.jpgMiguel IglesiasNovember 6, 1881December 25, 1882Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Cajamarca)
Regenerator President of the Republic
54Antarenas.pngAntonio ArenasDecember 3, 1885June 5, 1886Interim caretakerPresident of the Government Junta
55Andres Caceres.jpgAndrés Avelino CáceresJune 5, 1886August 10, 1890Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
56Remigio Morales Bermudez Presidente.jpgRemigio Morales BermúdezAugust 10, 1890April 1, 1894Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
57Justiniano Borgoño presidente.jpgJustiniano BorgoñoApril 1, 1894August 10, 1894Interim caretakerPresident of the Government Junta
58Andres Caceres.jpgAndrés Avelino CáceresAugust 10, 1894March 20, 1895Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
59Manuel Candamo.jpgManuel CandamoMarch 20, 1895September 8, 1895Interim caretakerPresident of the Government Junta
60Nicolas Pierola.jpgNicolás de PiérolaSeptember 8, 1895September 8, 1899Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
61Eduardo Lopez de Romana.jpgEduardo López de RomañaSeptember 8, 1899September 8, 1903Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
62Manuel Candamo.jpgManuel CandamoSeptember 8, 1903May 7, 1904Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
63SerapioCalderon.jpgSerapio CalderónMay 7, 1904September 24, 1904Interim caretakerPresident of the Government Junta
64Pardo y Barreda.jpgJosé Pardo y BarredaSeptember 24, 1904September 24, 1908Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
65LEGUIA.JPGAugusto B. Leguía y SalcedoSeptember 24, 1908September 24, 1912Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
66Guillermo billinghurst.jpgGuillermo BillinghurstSeptember 24, 1912February 4, 1914Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
67Óscar Benavides.jpgÓscar BenavidesFebruary 4, 1914August 18, 1915Coup d'état
68Pardo y Barreda.jpgJosé Pardo y BarredaAugust 18, 1915July 4, 1919Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
69LEGUIA.JPGAugusto B. Leguía y SalcedoJuly 4, 1919August 25, 1930Direct Elections
Coup d'état
Constitutional President
70Manuel María Ponce.jpgManuel María Ponce BroussetAugust 25, 1930August 27, 1930Interim caretaker
71Sánchez Cerro.jpgLuis Miguel Sánchez CerroAugust 27, 1930March 1, 1931Coup d'étatPresident of the Provisional Government Junta
72Ricardo Leoncio Elias.jpgRicardo Leoncio Elías AriasMarch 1, 1931March 5, 1931Coup d'étatPresident of the Provisional Government Junta
73Gustavo A Jimenez.jpgGustavo JiménezMarch 5, 1931March 11, 1931Coup d'étatPresident of the Provisional Government Junta
74Samanez Ocampo.jpgDavid Samanez OcampoMarch 11, 1931December 8, 1931Interim caretakerPresident of the Southern Junta
75Sánchez Cerro.jpgLuis Miguel Sánchez CerroDecember 8, 1931April 30, 1933Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
76Óscar Benavides.jpgÓscar BenavidesApril 30, 1933December 8, 1939Elected by CongressConstitutional President
77President Don Manuel Prado.JPGManuel Prado y UgartecheDecember 8, 1939July 28, 1945Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
78Jose Luis Bustamante i Rivero.jpgJosé Bustamante y RiveroJuly 28, 1945October 29, 1948Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
79Escudo nacional del Perú.svgManuel A. OdríaOctober 29, 1948June 1, 1950Coup d'état
80Escudo nacional del Perú.svgZenón Noriega AgüeroJune 1, 1950July 28, 1950Interim caretaker
81Escudo nacional del Perú.svgManuel A. OdríaJuly 28, 1950July 28, 1956Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
82President Don Manuel Prado.JPGManuel Prado y UgartecheJuly 28, 1956July 18, 1962Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
83Escudo nacional del Perú.svgRicardo Pérez GodoyJuly 18, 1962March 3, 1963Coup d'état1st President of the Military Junta
84Escudo nacional del Perú.svgNicolás Lindley LópezMarch 3, 1963July 28, 1963Coup d'état2nd President of the Military Junta
85Presidente Belaúnde Terry.JPGFernando Belaúnde TerryJuly 28, 1963October 3, 1968Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
86Juan Velasco Alvarado.jpgJuan Velasco AlvaradoOctober 3, 1968August 30, 1975Coup d'état1st President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
87Escudo nacional del Perú.svgFrancisco Morales BermúdezAugust 30, 1975July 28, 1980Coup d'état2nd President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
88Presidente Belaúnde Terry.JPGFernando Belaúnde TerryJuly 28, 1980July 28, 1985Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
89Garciaalan09112006.jpgAlan García PérezJuly 28, 1985July 28, 1990Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
90FujimoriUSIP.jpgAlberto FujimoriJuly 28, 1990April 5, 1992Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
91FujimoriUSIP.jpgAlberto FujimoriApril 5, 1992July 28, 1995Self-Coup d'ÉtatPresident de facto
92FujimoriUSIP.jpgAlberto FujimoriJuly 28, 1995July 28, 2000Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
93FujimoriUSIP.jpgAlberto FujimoriJuly 28, 2000November 22, 2000[5]Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
94VPC May 2003.jpgValentín PaniaguaNovember 22, 2000July 28, 2001As President of Congress, was 3rd in the line of succession. Raised to power after the President was impeached and both VP resigned.President of Transition Government
95Alejandro Toledo (8682).jpgAlejandro ToledoJuly 28, 2001July 28, 2006Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
96Garciaalan09112006-1.jpgAlan García PérezJuly 28, 2006July 28, 2011Direct ElectionsConstitutional President
97Ollanta Humala em Brasília.jpgOllanta HumalaJuly 28, 2011IncumbentDirect ElectionsConstitutional President

Latest election

e • d Summary of the 10 April and 5 June 2011 Peruvian presidential election result
Candidates – Parties1st round2nd round
Votes%Votes%
Ollanta HumalaPeru Wins (Gana Perú)4,643,06431.6997,937,70451.449
Keiko FujimoriForce 2011 (Fuerza 2011)3,449,59523.5517,490,64748.551
Pedro Pablo KuczynskiAlliance for the Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio)2,711,45018.512 
Alejandro ToledoPossible Peru (Perú Posible)2,289,56115.631
Luis CastañedaNational Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional)1,440,1439.832
José Ñique de la Puente – Fonavist Party (Partido Fonavista del Perú)37,0110.253
Ricardo Noriega – National Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional)21,5740.147
Rafael Belaúnde Aubry – Forward Party (Partido Político Adelante)17,3010.118
Juliana Reymer – National Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional)16,8310.115
Humberto Pinazo – Justice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnología, Ecología)11,2750.077
Total valid (turnout %)14,074,682100.00015,428,351100.000
Blank votes1,406,9988.855116,3350.706
Invalid votes416,0262.620921,7115.598
Source: National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE), National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE)

Titles and styles

The President of the Republic of Peru is the Head of the Peruvian State and the Supreme Commander of the Peruvian Armed Forces

His/Her official style is:

The current President of the Republic of Peru, Head of the State and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces is: His Excellency Ollanta Humala Tasso

Line of Succession

President of the Republic: His Excellency Ollanta Humala Tasso

1- First Vice-President of the Republic: Marisol Espinoza

2- Second Vice-President of the Republic: Vacant

3- President of the Congress of the Republic: Víctor Isla

4- First Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Marco Falconí

5- Second Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Juan Carlos Eguren

6- Third Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: José Luna Gálvez

Notes

  1. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegoso in Arequipa.
  2. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegoso in Lima.
  3. ^ The Republic of Peru and the Republic of Bolivia were united into a federal state called the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Peru was divided in the states of North Peru and South Peru, each one of them with its own President.
  4. ^ No effective central government existed after the Coup d'état against Francisco Vidal, with several generals claiming the Presidency in different cities around the country.
  5. ^ Alberto Fujimori submitted his resignation on November 19, 2000. His resignation was rejected by the Peruvian Congress, who declared him "Morally Unfit" for the Presidency and impeached him on November 22, 2000.

See also