List of Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients

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This is an alphabetized, partial list of recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, grouped by the aspect of life in which they are/were renowned. Unless otherwise noted, the names are listed as they were given in the official announcement of the award (e.g. President Jimmy Carter, Dr. Ralph J. Bunche) which may not match the recipient's highest office or their usual title. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is awarded by the President of the United States "for especially meritorious contribution to (1) the security or national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors"; it is awarded to individuals selected by the President or recommended to him by the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board.[1] The only exception to the rule that the sitting president chooses those to be honored was that the first recipients were selected by President John F. Kennedy before his assassination and formally awarded by his successor in office, Lyndon B. Johnson.[2] President Bill Clinton awarded 88 Medals while President George W. Bush awarded 81 Medals; President Barack Obama has awarded 61 Medals as of November 20, 2013.[3][4][5]

Three people, Ellsworth Bunker, John Kenneth Galbraith, and Colin Powell, are two-time recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Ellsworth Bunker was given both of his awards with Distinction.

This list does not include those awarded the similarly named but very distinct Medal of Freedom, an antecedent award issued prior to 1963.


Arts[edit]

Architecture[edit]

NominationDateNote
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe1963 December 6[6]
Buckminster Fuller1983
I.M. Pei1993[7]

Art[edit]

NominationDateNote
Andrew Wyeth1963
Willem de Kooning1964
Alexander Calder1977 January 10posthumous award[8]
Georgia O'Keeffe1977 January 10[9]
Norman Rockwell1977 January 10Rockwell's son, Jarvis, accepted the award[10]
Roger L. Stevens1988
Jasper Johns2011[4]

Dance[edit]

NominationDateNote
Martha Graham1976 October 14Awarded With Distinction[11]
Lucia Chase1980
George Balanchine1983
Lincoln Kirstein1984 March 26[12]
Chita Rivera2009 August 12[13]

Film[edit]

NominationDateNote
Lucille Ball1989 July 7posthumous award[14]
James Cagney1984 March 26[15]
Doris Day2004 June 23[5]
Walt Disney1964 September 14Described as "Mr. Walter Disney"[16]
Kirk Douglas1981
Lynn Fontanne1964 September 14[17]
John Ford1973
Samuel Goldwyn1971
Helen Hayes1986
Audrey Hepburn1992
Charlton Heston2003 July 23[5]
Bob Hope1969
Danny Kaye1987posthumous award
Alfred Lunt1964 September 14[17]
Rita Moreno2004 June 23[5]
Gregory Peck1969
Sir Sidney Poitier2009 August 12[5]
Martha Raye1993 November 2[5]
James Stewart1985
Lew Wasserman1995 September 29[5]
John Wayne1980 June 9posthumous award[18]

Literature[edit]

NominationDateNote
Maya Angelou2011[4]
Jacques Barzun2003
James Burnham1983
J. Frank Dobie1964
T. S. Eliot1964
Ralph Ellison1969
Eric Hoffer1982
Louis L'Amour1984 March 26[19]
Harper Lee2007
Archibald MacLeish1977 January 10Roderick MacLeish, Archibald's nephew, accepted the award[20]
James A. Michener1977 January 10Named as James Albert Michener on the award citation[21]
Toni Morrison2012[22]
Carl Sandburg1964
John Steinbeck1964
Robert Penn Warren1980
Eudora Welty1980
E.B. White1963
Elie Wiesel1992
Thornton Wilder1963
Tennessee Williams1980
Edmund Wilson1963
Albert Wohlstetter1985

Music[edit]

NominationDateNote
Marian Anderson1963[23]
Pearl Bailey1988
'Count' Basie1985Posthumous award
Irving Berlin1977
James "Eubie" Blake1981
Pablo Casals1963
Van Cliburn2003
Aaron Copland1964
Plácido Domingo2002
Bob Dylan2012[22]
Duke Ellington1969
Arthur Fiedler1977
Ella Fitzgerald1992
Ernest Jennings "Tennessee Ernie" Ford1984[24]
Aretha Franklin2005
Vladimir Horowitz1986
B. B. King2006
Loretta Lynn2013[25]
Yo-Yo Ma2011[4]
Mabel Mercer1983
Eugene Ormandy1970
Leontyne Price1964
Mstislav Rostropovich1987
Arthur Rubinstein1976Awarded With Distinction
Arturo Sandoval2013[25]
Rudolf Serkin1963
Beverly Sills1980
Frank Sinatra1985
Kate Smith1982
Isaac Stern1992
Meredith Willson1987Posthumous award

Photography[edit]

NominationDateNote
Edwin H. Land1963
Edward Steichen1963
Ansel Adams1980

Business and economics[edit]

Alan Greenspan, 2005
NominationDateNote
Muhammad Yunus2009
Walter Annenberg1986
Gary Becker2007
Edgar Bronfman, Sr.1999
Irving Brown1988
Warren Buffett2011[4]
James E. Burke2000
Edward J. DeBartolo, Sr.1988
Peter Drucker2002
David Dubinsky1969
Henry Ford II1969
Milton Friedman1988
John Kenneth Galbraith2000
Alan Greenspan2005
Bryce Harlow1981
Friedrich von Hayek1991
Paul G. Hoffman1974
Edgar Kaiser1969
Frederick Kappel1964
Lane Kirkland1994
Daniel Kahneman2013[25]
Estée Lauder2004
John L. Lewis1964
J. Willard Marriott1988Posthumous award
David Packard1988
Clarence B. Randall1963
Walter Reuther1995Posthumous award
David Rockefeller1998
Laurance Rockefeller1969
James Rouse1995
John J. Sweeney2011[4]
Dave Thomas2003Posthumous award
Tex Thornton1981
Juan Trippe1985Posthumous award
Sam Walton1992
An Wang1986
Thomas Watson, Jr.1964
Justin Whitlock Dart1987Posthumous award
Walter B. Wriston2004
Iorwith Wilbur Abel1977

Computing[edit]

Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, 2005
NominationDateNote
Gordon Moore2002 July 9[26]
Vinton Cerf2005 November 9[27]
Robert Kahn2005 November 9[28]

Education[edit]

Norman Francis, 2006
NominationDateNote
Detlev Bronk1964
Genevieve Caulfield1963
James E. Cheek1983
Ruth Johnson Colvin2006
James Bryant Conant1963Awarded With Distinction
Norman Francis2006
Hanna Holborn Gray1991
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C.1964
Jerome H. Holland1985Posthumous award
Karl Holton1963
Margaret McNamara1981
Alexander Meiklejohn1963
Antonia Pantoja1996
Frederick Patterson1987
George W. Taylor1963
Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson (The Lubavitch Rebbe)1994
Admiral Hyman G. Rickover1980

History[edit]

NominationDateNote
Bruce Catton1977
Robert Conquest2005
Ariel Durant1977
Will Durant1977
John Hope Franklin1995
Vartan Gregorian2004
Dumas Malone1983
David McCullough2006
Samuel Eliot Morison1964
Roberta Wohlstetter1985

Humanitarian[edit]

NominationDateNote
Norman Borlaug1977
Nancy Goodman Brinker2009[13]
Millard Fuller1996
John W. Gardner1964
Frances Hesselbein1998
Gerda Weissmann Klein2011[4]
Juliette Gordon Low2012Posthumous award[22]
Paul Rusesabagina2005
Eunice Kennedy Shriver1984 March 26[29]
Leon Sullivan1991
Annie D. Wauneka1963 December 6[30]

Media[edit]

William Safire, 2006.
Paul Harvey, 2005
Andy Griffith, 2005
RecipientDateContributions toNotes
Robert L. Bartley2004Journalism
Earl Charles Behrens1970Journalism[31]
Herbert L. Block1994Journalism
Ben Bradlee2013Journalism[25]
William F. Buckley, Jr.1991Journalism
Walter Cronkite1981Journalism
Edward T. Folliard1970Journalism[31]
Katharine Graham2002JournalismPosthumous award
William M. Henry1970Journalism[31]
John H. Johnson1996Journalism
Paul Johnson2006Journalism
Arthur Krock1970Journalism[31]
David Lawrence1970Journalism[31]
George Gould Lincoln1970Journalism[31]
Walter Lippmann1964Journalism
Ralph McGill1964Journalism
Raymond Moley1970Journalism[31]
Edward R. Murrow1964JournalismAwarded with Distinction
Frank Reynolds1985JournalismPosthumous award
Abe Rosenthal2002Journalism
Vermont C. Royster1986Journalism
William Safire2006Journalism
Albert Merriman Smith1967Journalism
Adela Rogers St. Johns1970Journalism[31]
DeWitt Wallace1972Journalism
Lila Acheson Wallace1972Journalism
Mark S. Watson1963Journalism
Oprah Winfrey2013Television[25]
William S. White1969Journalism
Lowell Thomas1977Radio[32]
Paul Harvey2005Radio[5]
Lucille Ball1989TelevisionPosthumous award[14]
David Brinkley1992Television
Carol Burnett2005Television[5]
Johnny Carson1992Television
Peggy Charren1995Television[5]
Joan Ganz Cooney1995Television[5]
Bill Cosby2002Television[5]
Andy Griffith2005Television[5]
Brian P. Lamb2007Television[5]
Fred Rogers2002Television[5]

Medicine[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Benjamin Carson2008
Denton Cooley1984 March 26[33]
Michael DeBakey1969
Lena Frances Edwards1964
John F. Enders1963
Anthony Fauci2008
William Foege2012[22]
Pedro José Greer, Jr.2009[13]
David Hamburg1996
Donald Henderson2002
Surgeon General C. Everett Koop1995
Tom Little2011Posthumous [4]
Charles LeRoy Lowman1974
Karl Menninger1981
Arnall Patz2004
Janet Davison Rowley2009[13]
Albert Sabin1986
Jonas Salk1977
Helen B. Taussig1964
William B. Walsh1987
Paul Dudley White1964

Philanthropy[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
J. Clifford MacDonald1963
Lowell Thomas1977 January 10[32]
Catherine Filene Shouse1977
Morris I. Leibman1981
Brooke Astor1998
Zachary Fisher1998
Eugene Lang1996
Ronnie Eugene Ford1978

Philosophy[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Will Durant1977 January 10[34]
Sidney Hook1985
Friedrich Hayek1991

Politics and government[edit]

Activism[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Arnold Aronson1998
Roger Nash Baldwin1981
Oscar Elias Biscet2007
César Chávez1994Posthumously
Justin Whitlock Dart, Jr.1998
Evelyn Dubrow1999
Marian Wright Edelman2000 August 9[35]
James L. Farmer, Jr.1998
Hector Garcia1984 March 26[36]
Dorothy Height1994
George G. Higgins2000
Gordon Hirabayashi2012Posthumously [22]
Benjamin Hooks2007
Dolores Huerta2012[22]
Rev. Jesse Jackson2000
Millie Jeffrey2000
Helen Keller1964
Martin Luther King, Jr.1977Posthumously
Fred Korematsu1998
Mary Lasker1969
Rev. Joseph Lowery2009[13]
Sylvia Mendez2011[4]
Harvey Milk2009Posthumously [13]
Clarence M. Mitchell1980
Mario G. Obledo1998
Rosa Parks1996
Esther Peterson1981
Bayard Rustin2013Posthumously [25]
Ginetta Sagan1996
Natan Sharansky2006
Gloria Steinem2013[25]
William C. Velasquez1995Posthumously
Cordy Tindell "C.T." Vivian2013[25]
Lech Wałęsa1989
Roy Wilkins1967
Andrew Young1981

Diplomacy[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Anne L. Armstrong1987
Manlio Brosio1971
David K. E. Bruce1976Awarded with Distinction
Ralph J. Bunche1963 December 6Awarded with Distinction[37]
Ellsworth Bunker1963 December 6(Twice) Awarded with Distinction [38]
Ellsworth Bunker1967(Twice) Awarded with Distinction [38]
Ryan Crocker2009[39]
General Andrew Goodpaster1984[40]
Philip Habib1982
Jan Karski2012Posthumously [22]
George F. Kennan1989
Jeane Kirkpatrick1985
Sol M. Linowitz1998
Harry W. Shlaudeman1992
Gerard C. Smith1981
Jean Kennedy Smith2011[4]
Robert Schwarz Strauss1981

Environmentalism[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
John H. Adams2011[4]
Horace M. Albright1980
Rachel Carson1980Posthumously
Marjory Stoneman Douglas1993
Gilbert Melville Grosvenor2004
Margaret Murie1998
Roger Tory Peterson1980
Russell E. Train1991
Edgar Wayburn1999

Espionage / service to country[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Whittaker Chambers1984 March 26[41][42][43][44][45]
Jean MacArthur1988
George Tenet2004

Foreign heads of state or government[edit]

RecipientDateCountryNotes
Tony Blair2009 January 13United Kingdom[46]
President Václav Havel2003Czech Republic
John Howard2009Australia
Helmut Kohl1999Germany
Joseph Luns1984Netherlands
Nelson Mandela2002South Africa
Wilma Mankiller1998 January 15Cherokee Nation[47]
Angela Merkel2011Germany[4]
President Shimon Peres2012Israel[22]
Mary Robinson2009Ireland[13]
Carlos P. Romulo1984Philippines
President Anwar el-Sadat1984 March 26EgyptPosthumously [48]
President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf2007Liberia
Margaret Thatcher1991United Kingdom
President Álvaro Uribe2009Colombia

Law[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
John Doar2012[22]
Henry J. Friendly1977
A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr.1995
Oliver White Hill1999
Frank Minis Johnson1995
Irving Robert Kaufman1987
Joseph Warren Madden1947
Joseph L. Rauh, Jr.1993Posthumously
Cruz Reynoso2000
Laurence Silberman2008
Elbert Tuttle1981
Patricia Wald2013[25]
John Minor Wisdom1993

Military[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
General of the Army Omar Bradley1977
Admiral Arleigh Burke1977
General Wesley Clark2000
War Chief Joe Medicine Crow2009[13]
Admiral William J. Crowe2000
Lieutenant General Jimmy Doolittle1989
General Tommy Franks2004
General Lyman Lemnitzer1987
General Richard B. Myers2005
Jan Nowak-Jeziorański1996
General Peter Pace2008
General Colin Powell1991Twice awarded
General Colin Powell1993Twice awarded
General Matthew B. Ridgeway1986
Captain Joseph Rochefort1986Posthumously
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf1991
General John Shalikashvili1997
John Paul Vann1972Posthumously
General John W. Vessey1992
James E. Webb1969
General Albert Coady Wedemeyer1985
Major General Chuck Yeager1985
Admiral Elmo Zumwalt1998

Supreme Court Justices[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Associate Justice William J. Brennan, Jr.1993
Chief Justice Warren E. Burger1988
Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter1963 December 6Awarded with Distinction[49]
Associate Justice Arthur J. Goldberg1978
Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall1993
Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor2009 August 12[50]
Associate Justice John Paul Stevens2012[22]
Chief Justice Earl Warren1981Posthumously
Associate Justice Byron White2003Posthumously

U.S. Cabinet members[edit]

Donald Rumsfeld, displaying 1977 Medal (awarded With Distinction)
RecipientDateNotes
Dean Acheson1964Awarded with Distinction
Madeleine Albright2012[22]
James Baker1991
Malcolm Baldrige, Jr.1988Posthumously
Harold Brown1981
Zbigniew Brzezinski1981
Dick Cheney, as Secretary of Defense1991 July 3[51]
Warren Christopher1981
Clark Clifford1969Awarded with Distinction
William T. Coleman, Jr.1995
C. Douglas Dillon1989
Robert Gates2011
Averell Harriman1969Awarded with Distinction
Henry Kissinger1977
Melvin Laird1974
Robert A. Lovett1963Awarded with Distinction
Robert S. McNamara1968
Norman Mineta2006
William Perry1997
Elliot Richardson1998
William P. Rogers1973
Donald Rumsfeld1977Awarded with Distinction
Dean Rusk1969Awarded with Distinction
Donna Shalala2008
George P. Shultz1989
Cyrus Vance1969
Caspar Weinberger1987Awarded with Distinction

U.S. First Ladies[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Lady Bird Johnson1977 January 10[52]
Betty Ford1991 November 18[53]
Rosalynn Carter1999 August 9[5]
Nancy Reagan2002 July 9[5]

U.S. members of Congress[edit]

Senator Edward Brooke, 2004
Senator Strom Thurmond, 1993
RecipientDateNotes
Senator Howard H. Baker, Jr.1984 March 26[54]
Senator Lloyd M. Bentsen1999
Senator Edward W. Brooke2004
Senator John H. Chafee2000Posthumously
Senator Bob Dole1997
Representative Dante B. Fascell1998
Senator William Fulbright1993
Senator Barry Goldwater1986
Representative Henry Hyde2007
Senator Daniel Inouye2013Posthumously [25]
Senator Henry M. Jackson1984Posthumously
Senator Jacob K. Javits1983
Representative Barbara Jordan1994
Representative Walter Judd1981
Representative Jack Kemp2009Posthumously [13]
Senator Edward Kennedy2009[13]
Representative Tom Lantos2008
Representative John Lewis2011[4]
Representative Clare Boothe Luce1983
Senator Richard Lugar2013[25]
Senator Mike Mansfield1989
Senator George McGovern2000
Representative Robert H. Michel1994
Senator George J. Mitchell1999
Representative G. V. (Sonny) Montgomery2005
Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan2000
Senator Ed Muskie1981
Senator Gaylord Nelson1995
Representative Tip O'Neill1991
Representative Claude Pepper1989
Senator Margaret Chase Smith1989
Senator Strom Thurmond1993
Representative Mo Udall1996
Representative Carl Vinson1964Awarded with Distinction

U.S. Presidents[edit]

President Ronald Reagan, January 13, 1993
RecipientDateNotes
John F. Kennedy1963 December 635th President - Posthumous award[55]
Lyndon B. Johnson1980 June 936th President - Posthumous award[56]
Ronald Reagan1993 January 1340th President – Awarded With Distinction[57]
Gerald Ford1999 August 938th President[5]
Jimmy Carter1999 August 939th President[5]
George H. W. Bush2011 February 1541st President[4]
Bill Clinton2013 August 842nd President[25]

U.S. Vice Presidents[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Nelson A. Rockefeller1977 January 1041st Vice President[58]
Hubert H. Humphrey1980 June 938th Vice President, Posthumous[59]

Other political figures[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Eugene R. Black, Sr.1969
James Brady1996
Paul Bremer2004
McGeorge Bundy1969
The 6th Baron Carrington1988
Leo Cherne1984
Javier Perez de Cuellar1991
Governor Luis A. Ferré1991
Arthur Flemming1994
Paul Drabinski1993
James P. Grant1994
Ella T. Grasso1981Posthumously
William J. Hopkins1971
Max Kampelman1999
Robert W. Komer1967
Irving Kristol2002
Aung San Suu Kyi2000
Governor Herbert H. Lehman1963 December 6Lehman died the day before the ceremony, and the medal was presented to his widow on January 28, 1964[60]
Eugene M. Locke1967
John Macy1969
John J. McCloy1963 December 6Awarded with Distinction
John McCone1987
George Meany1963 December 6[61]
Jean Monnet1963 December 6Awarded with Distinction
Governor Luis Muñoz-Marín1963Awarded with Distinction
Paul Nitze1985
Norman Podhoretz2004
George Robertson2003
Walt Rostow1969
Brent Scowcroft1991
Albert Shanker1998Posthumously
Sargent Shriver1994
Vernon Walters1991
William Webster1991
Simon Wiesenthal2000
Whitney Young1969

Religion[edit]

RecipientDateNotes
Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, Archbishop of Chicago1996
Terence Cardinal Cooke, former Archbishop of New York1984Posthumously
Sister M. Isolina Ferré1999 August 11[5]
Billy Graham1983
Gordon B. Hinckley2004 June 23[5]
Archbishop Iakovos of America1980
Reinhold Niebuhr1964
Pope John XXIII1963 December 6Posthumously[62]
Pope John Paul II2004 June 4[5]
Norman Vincent Peale1984 March 26[63]
Reverend Gardner C. Taylor2000 August 9[5]
Mother Teresa1985
Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town2009 August 12[13]

Science[edit]

Stephen Hawking, 2009
RecipientDateNotes
John Bardeen1977
Rachel Carson1980Posthumously
Francis Collins2007
Jacques-Yves Cousteau1985
Stephen Hawking2009[13]
Clarence Johnson1964
Mathilde Krim2000
Joshua Lederberg2006
George Low1985Posthumously
Margaret Mead1979Posthumously[64]
Mario Molina2013[25]
Lewis Mumford1964
Simon Ramo1983
Edward Teller2003
Alan Tower Waterman1963
James D. Watson1977

Sociology[edit]

Space exploration[edit]

The Apollo 13 astronauts are awarded the medal by President Richard Nixon in 1970.

Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team; group award by President Nixon in 1970

Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team (as a group)

Sports[edit]


Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Executive Order 11085 THE PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM, retrieved 2009-07-30[dead link]
  2. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Medal of Freedom Ceremony" (August 12, 2009), a news release, August 12, 2009, from the White House Press Secretary at whitehouse.gov, the White House's official website. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". whitehouse.gov. The White House. November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Secretary of the Senate, United States Congress. "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Official Website of the United States Senate. United States Senate (Government of the United States). Retrieved November 14, 2011. 
  6. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Mr. Ludwig Mien van der Rohe...THE PRESIDENT. Teacher, designer, master builder, he has conceived soaring structures of glass, steel and concrete which at once embody and evoke the distinctive qualities of our age." 
  7. ^ "Curriculum Vitae of I. M. Pei". Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  8. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "NORMAN ROCKWELL...Normal Rockwell, represented by his son, Jarvis Rockwell. "Artist, illustrator and author, Norman Rockwell has portrayed the American scene with unrivaled freshness and clarity. Insight, optimism and good humor are the hallmarks of his artistic style. His vivid and affectionate portraits of our country and ourselves have become a beloved part of the American tradition."" 
  9. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Georgia O'Keeffe (1887–1986)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 10, 1977" 
  10. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "But let me again congratulate each and every one of you. I regret that Irving Berlin, Alexander Calder, the late Alexander Calder, and Georgia O'Keeffe were unable to be represented here today. We will of course present their medals to them or to their families at a later date." 
  11. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Gerald R. Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Martha Graham, October 14, 1976". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "[At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows:] The President of the United States of America Awards this Presidential Medal of Freedom With Distinction to Martha Graham. Dancer, teacher, and choreographer, Martha Graham has captivated the world with her magic and has left a legacy of imagination with all who have witnessed her talent. Her energy, creativity and daring have opened new doors of expression in dance. Her followers and friends adore her, and her country, the United States of America, is proud to proclaim her a brilliant star and a National treasure." 
  12. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Lincoln Kirstein: Lincoln Kirstein is an author and entrepreneur who has honored and delighted Americans through his enormous contribution to ballet in our country. Through his commitment, two major institutions of American dance, the New York City Ballet and the School of American Ballet, were created and flourished. Developing and fostering appreciation for the arts have always depended on the energy, creativity, and commitment of individual citizens. Lincoln Kirstein stands tall as one of a select and treasured few in the world of American art." 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "President Obama Names Medal of Freedom Recipients; 16 Agents of Change to Receive Top Civilian Honor". White House. July 30, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009. 
  14. ^ a b "NATION : Lucille Ball Gets Medal of Freedom". Los Angeles Times. 1989-07-06. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  15. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "As a giant in the world of entertainment, James Cagney has left his mark not only on the film industry but on the hearts of all his fellow Americans. In some 60 years in entertainment, performing on stage and screen, he mastered drama and action adventure, as well as music and dance. One of his most remembered performances, as George M. Cohan in "Yankee Doodle Dandy," was a whirlwind singing and dancing film that inspired a Nation at war when it sorely needed a lift in spirit. James Cagney's professional and personal life has brought great credit to him and left unforgettable memories with millions who have followed his career." 
  16. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Lyndon B. Johnson, XXXVI President of the United States: 1963–1969, Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "Mr. Walter Disney. THE PRESIDENT. Artist and impresario, in the course of entertaining an age, he has created an American folklore." 
  17. ^ a b Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Lyndon B. Johnson, XXXVI President of the United States: 1963–1969, Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, March 26, 1964". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "Mr. Alfred Lunt and Miss Lynn Fontainne. THE PRESIDENT. A luminous partnership of artistic talents and personal devotion they have brilliantly enlivened and enriched the American stage." 
  18. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "All of these are famous people, they're well-known throughout the world. But even including Vice Presidents and Presidents, noted singers and dancers and writers and ornithologists, I think the next would be the most famous of us all, including the one who reads this citation. I would like to ask Mrs. John Wayne to come forward. [At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows: THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AWARDS THIS PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM TO JOHN WAYNE. John Wayne was both an example and a symbol of true American grit and determination. Through his countless film roles, "The Duke" still leads millions on heroic adventures on behalf of fairness and justice. He embodies the enduring American values of individualism, relentless bravery and perseverance in pursuit of what is right. He was the quintessential patriot, and will especially be remembered whenever our Nation faces a challenge calling for steadfast courage.]" 
  19. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Louis L'Amour: Through his western novels, Louis L'Amour has played a leading role in shaping our national identity. His writings portrayed the rugged individual and the deep-seated values of those who conquered the American frontier. Starting out from humble beginnings, he has lived a fulfilling and adventurous life. An eminently successful writer, more than 100 million copies of his novels are in print, L'Amour's descriptions of America and Americans have added to our understanding of our past and reaffirmed our potential as an exploring, pioneering, and free people." 
  20. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "Archibald MacLeish, represented by his nephew, Roderick MacLeish. "Poet and playwright, teacher and statesman, Archibald MacLeish has combined the vocation of man of letters with that of public spokesman. A poet of realities as well as dreams, his eloquent words are matched by his sensitive social conscience. He seeks truth inspired by love of his fellow men and of his country. We are proud to recognize his stature as a humanist, an artist, and an American."" 
  21. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "JAMES ALBERT MICHENER, "Author, teacher and popular historian, James Michener has entranced a generation with his compelling essays and novels. From 'Tales of the South Pacific,' to 'Centennial,' the prolific writings of this master storyteller have expanded the knowledge and enriched the lives of million."" 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Albright, World War II hero among 13 to receive Presidential Medal of Freedom". CNN. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  23. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Marian Anderson (1897–1993)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963" 
  24. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Ernest Jennings "Tennessee Ernie" Ford: Through his musical talents, warm personality, and quick "down-home" wit Tennessee Ernie Ford won the hearts of the American people. Ford's music, which revealed his character and soul to all who listened, inspired as well as entertained his audiences. His respect for traditional values, his strong faith in God, and his unlimited capacity for human kindness have greatly endeared him to his fellow countrymen. America is a Nation richer in spirit because of Tennessee Ernie Ford." 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  26. ^ McFeatters, Ann (July 10, 2002). "Fred Rogers gets Presidential Medal of Freedom". Pittsburg Post-Gazette (www.post-gazette.com). Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Intel Corp. co-founder Gordon Moore. Through the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Moore is a philanthropic leader in higher education, scientific research, the environment and San Francisco Bay Area projects." 
  27. ^ Vargas, Jose Antonio (November 10, 2005). "At the White House, Prizes for 14 Champs,Medal of Freedom Ceremony Shows Ali as Fast as Ever". The Washington Post (washingtonpost.com). Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Also honored yesterday...Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn, the men who in figuring out how to routinely and quickly transmit data over computer networks helped start a digital revolution" 
  28. ^ "Net pioneers receive top honour". BBC News (www.bbc.com). November 10, 2005. Retrieved February 9, 2011. ""Dr Cerf and Dr Kahn have been at the forefront of a digital revolution that has transformed global commerce, communication, and entertainment," read the citation for the medal." 
  29. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Eunice Kennedy Shriver: With enormous conviction and unrelenting effort, Eunice Kennedy Shriver has labored on behalf of America's least powerful people, the mentally retarded. Over the last two decades, she has been on the forefront of numerous initiatives on the behalf of the mentally retarded, from creating day camps, to establishing research centers, to the founding of the Special Olympics. Her decency and goodness have touched the lives of many, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver deserves America's praise, gratitude, and love." 
  30. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Annie Wauneka (1910–1997)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963" 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Nixon, Richard (April 22, 1970). "Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Eight Journalists". Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on 2011-12-25. Retrieved 2011-12-25. 
  32. ^ a b Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (10 January 1977). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  33. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Dr. Denton Cooley: In an outstanding professional career, Dr. Denton Cooley has distinguished himself time and again in the field of medicine. As one of this country's leading heart surgeons, he has charted new territory in his search for ways to prolong and enrich human life. His efforts have saved the lives not only of his own patients, but of those of many other doctors who have studied and mastered techniques developed by him. As a heart surgeon and as a creative, independent thinker, Dr. Denton Cooley is a force for innovation in American medicine." 
  34. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (10 January 1977). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2011. "WILL DURANT "Writer, historian and philosopher, Will Durant has provided an open window into the lives and thoughts of past ages. With the collaboration of his wife, Ariel, he has helped lead us through the past to the meaning of the present. An eloquent apostle of social order and individual freedom, he is an enemy of chaos, a friend and an invaluable guide to the millions of grateful readers."" 
  35. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Marian Wright Edelman (1939 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received August 9, 2000" 
  36. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Dr. Hector Garcia: Dr. Hector Garcia's patriotism and community concern exemplify the meaning of good citizenship. His many community-building endeavors included his work as a founder and first National Chairman of the American G.I. Forum, a veterans' organization which has done much to improve the lot of Americans of Mexican descent. Over the years, he has faithfully represented our government on numerous occasions, overseas and domestically. Dr. Hector Garcia is a credit to his family and community, and to all Americans. Through his efforts, based on a deep belief in traditional American ideals, he has made this a better country." 
  37. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Mr. Ball: And now, Mr. President, let me present those who are to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Special Distinction....Dr. Ralph J. Bunche. THE PRESIDENT. Scholar and diplomat, servant of the emerging world order, he has opened up new vistas in the demanding quest for international justice and peace." 
  38. ^ a b Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Mr. Ball: And now, Mr. President, let me present those who are to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Special Distinction....First, Mr. Ellsworth Bunker. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and diplomat, he has brought integrity, patience and a compassionate understanding of other men and nations to the service of the Republic under three Presidents." 
  39. ^ "President Bush Commemorates Foreign Policy Achievements and Presents Medal of Freedom to Ambassador Ryan Crocker". White House. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 16, 2009. 
  40. ^ http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1984/22184b.htm
  41. ^ "White House Freedom Medal Set for Whittaker Chambers". New York Times. February 22, 1984. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  42. ^ Sterling, Dorothy (March 9, 1984). "http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/03/09/reviews/chambers-letter.html". New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  43. ^ Buckley Jr., William F. (August 6, 2001). "Witness and Friends". National Review. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  44. ^ Stonor-Saunders, Frances (April 6, 2007). "Was Whittaker Chambers a hero or a traitor?". Telegraph. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  45. ^ Edroso, Roy (July 30, 2009). "Medal of Freedom Recipients Announced, Include Tutu, Harvey Milk". Village Voice. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  46. ^ Mayer, Catherine (January 13, 2009). "A Presidential Medal for Tony Blair". Time (www.time.com). Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Later today in a ceremony in the East Room of the White House, Bush is set to dole out a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Blair." 
  47. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Chief,Wilma Mankiller (1945–2010)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 15, 1998" 
  48. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Mr. Gamal el-Sadat will accept for his father, the late President Anwar el-Sadat. President Anwar el-Sadat, as a soldier, led his country in war, but his greatest acts of courage came in pursuit of peace. He captured the imagination of people everywhere by taking the first great step toward achieving a lasting peace between Egypt and Israel. His humanity and sense of responsibility, even now that he is gone, remain a giant force for peace and stability in the world. Anwar el-Sadat was a peacemaker of monumental wisdom and tenderness who will remain forever a hero in the hearts of the American people." 
  49. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Mr. Ball: And now, Mr. President, let me present those who are to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Special Distinction....Mr. Justice Felix Frankfurter. THE PRESIDENT. Jurist, scholar, counselor, conversationalist, he has brought to all his roles a zest and wisdom which has made him teacher to his time." 
  50. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (1930 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received August 12, 2009" 
  51. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "George Bush, XLI President of the United States: 1989–1993, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medals of Freedom and Presidential Citizen's Medals, July 3, 1991". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "this ceremony would not be complete without honoring three more American leaders, exceptional public servants who each contributed singularly to our success in the Gulf...Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney....As to Dick Cheney, Secretary Cheney not only oversaw one of the largest deployments of forces in American history but also worked hard at the beginning of the crisis to ensure that America would respond decisively to aggression. His effective testimony before the United States Congress helped all our fellow countrymen understand what was at stake in the Gulf. Working swiftly, yet skillfully, when time was truly of the essence, he traveled to Saudi Arabia and arranged for the first deployment of U.S. and coalition troops to that nation. And when war came America was ready, and Secretary Cheney's leadership contributed enormously to the victory." 
  52. ^ "Lady Bird Johnson Biography". Lbjlib.utexas.edu. Retrieved January 5, 2011. , for date of award see The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Lady Bird Johnson (1912–2007)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 10, 1977" 
  53. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Betty Ford (1918 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received November 18, 1991" 
  54. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Senator Howard H. Baker, Jr. The citation: As a Member of the United States Senate, one of the country's most powerful and influential citizens, and an individual whose character shines brightly as an example to others, Howard Baker has been a force for responsibility and civility on a generation of Americans. In his almost 20 years of service, he has earned the respect and admiration of his fellow citizens regardless of their political persuasion. As Majority Leader of the Senate, his quiet, cooperative style and keen legislative skills have honored America's finest traditions of enlightened political leadership and statesmanship." 
  55. ^ "Presidential Medal of Freedom – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". Jfklibrary.org. December 6, 1963. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  56. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "The President of the United States of America Awards This Presidential Medal of Freedom to Lyndon Baines Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson cared deeply about our country, its citizens, and the condition of their lives. He knew well how to translate concern into action, and action into a national agenda. He did more than any American of his time to break the chains of injustice, illiteracy, poverty and sickness. We are a greater society because President Johnson lived among us and worked for us." 
  57. ^ "Remarks on presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to President Ronald Reagan-President George Bush-Transcript". The White House: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. January 18, 1993. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
  58. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller...Patriot, philanthropist, patron of the arts, diplomat, Governor of New York, Vice President of the United States, his long years of service to his country have yielded governmental, economic, social and cultural contributions beyond measures."" 
  59. ^ Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (June 9, 1980). "Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "On occasion in our lives, a certain person touches the heartstrings of our existence and inspires us all in a special, deeply human way. I'd now like to ask the wife of Hubert Humphrey to come forward. [Applause] If you'll permit me an aside, I think the applause is not only for the honoree but for Muriel Humphrey as well, who shared so much. At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows: The President of the United States of America Awards this Presidential Medal of Freedom to Hubert H. Humphrey. Hubert H. Humphrey awed us with the scope of his knowledge; he inspired us with the depth of his sympathy; he moved us with his passion for social justice; he delighted us with his joyous love of his fellow human beings. He brought honor and enthusiasm to everything he did. He ennobled the political process." 
  60. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Mr. Ball: Governor Herbert H. Lehman. I know that we were all deeply saddened to hear yesterday of the death of this great citizen. Mr. President, you may wish to read his citation in absentia. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and statesman, he has used wisdom and compassion as the tools of government and has made politics the highest form of public service. Later, on January 28, 1964, the medal for Herbert H. Lehman was presented to Mrs. Lehman at a special ceremony at the White House." 
  61. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "Mr. Ball: Mr. George Meany. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and national leader, in serving the cause of labor, he has greatly served the cause of his Nation and of freedom throughout the world." 
  62. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011. "[President Johnson then resumed speaking.] I have also determined to confer the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously on another noble man whose death we mourned 6 months ago: His Holiness, Pope John XXIII." 
  63. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Dr. Norman Vincent Peale: With a deep understanding of human behavior and an appreciation for God's role in our lives, Dr. Norman Vincent Peale helped originate a philosophy of happiness. Through the American Foundation of Religion and Psychiatry and his many books, Dr. Peale became an advocate of the joy of life, helping millions find new meaning in their lives. Few Americans have contributed so much to the personal happiness of their fellow citizens as Dr. Norman Vincent Peale." 
  64. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Dr. Margaret Mead (1901–1978)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 19, 1979" 
  65. ^ "President Obama Announces Sally Ride as a Recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom – April 18, 1970". Office of the Press Secretary. May 20, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  66. ^ "The American Presidency Project – ''Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team in Houston – April 18, 1970". Presidency.ucsb.edu. April 18, 1970. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 
  67. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, March 26, 1984". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Mrs. Jackie Robinson will accept for her late husband, Mr. Jackie Robinson. As an individual of courage and conviction, and as a skilled and dedicated athlete, Jackie Robinson stood tall among his peers. His courage opened the door of professional sports to all Americans when, in 1947, he became the first black baseball player in the major leagues. He bravely demonstrated to all that skill and sportsmanship, not race or ethnic background, are the qualities by which athletes should be judged. In doing so, he struck a mighty blow for equality, freedom, and the American way of life. Jackie Robinson was a good citizen, a great man, and a true American champion." 

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