List of Portuguese monarchs

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King of Portugal and the Algarves
Former Monarchy
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Portugal (1640-1910).png
Royal Coat of arms
SMF Manoel II.jpg
El-Rei D. Manuel II
First monarchD. Afonso I
Last monarchD. Manuel II
StyleStyle of the Portuguese sovereign
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began25 July 1139
Monarchy ended5 October 1910
Current pretender(s)Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
 
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King of Portugal and the Algarves
Former Monarchy
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Portugal (1640-1910).png
Royal Coat of arms
SMF Manoel II.jpg
El-Rei D. Manuel II
First monarchD. Afonso I
Last monarchD. Manuel II
StyleStyle of the Portuguese sovereign
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began25 July 1139
Monarchy ended5 October 1910
Current pretender(s)Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza

The Monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

Through the nearly 800 years which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two Kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the House of Habsburg came into power, the Kings of Spain, and Naples, also became Kings of Portugal. The House of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then Emperor of Brazil.

After the demise of the Portuguese monarchy, in 1910, Portugal almost restored its monarchy in a revolution known as the Monarchy of the North, though the attempted restoration only lasted a month before destruction. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed King of Portugal by their monarchist groups. This is purely symbolic and no one can have a place among the Kings of Portugal unless they were acclaimed by the Portuguese state and parliament. The Portuguese government states that the current representative of the House of Braganza, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, is the legitimate successor to the Kings of Portugal, but only recognizes him as Duke of Braganza and not King.

The monarchs of Portugal all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I Henriques, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. These houses are:

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)[edit]

The House of Burgundy, known as the Afonsine Dynasty, was the founding house of the Kingdom of Portugal. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. When Afonso I Henriques declared the independence of Portugal, he turned the family from a comital house to royal house which would rule Portugal for over two centuries. When Ferdinand I died, a succession crisis occurred and Ferdinand's daughter Beatrice of Portugal was proclaimed queen and her husband John I of Castile proclaimed king by the right of his wife. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.[1][2]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Alphonse I
1109 – 6 December 1185 (aged 76)25 July 11396 December 1185Founder of the Kingdom of Portugal
Son of Count Henry
Burgundy
Sancho I
11 November 1154 – 26 March 1212 (aged 57)6 December 118526 March 1212Son of Afonso IBurgundy
Alphonse II
23 April 1185 – 25 March 1223 (aged 37)26 March 121225 March 1223Son of Sancho IBurgundy
Sancho II
8 September 1209 – 4 January 1248 (aged 38)26 March 12234 December 1247Son of Afonso IIBurgundy
Alphonse III
5 May 1210 – 16 February 1279 (aged 68)4 January 124816 February 1279Son of Afonso IIBurgundy
Denis I
9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 (aged 63)6 February 12797 January 1325Son of Afonso IIIBurgundy
Alphonse IV
8 February 1291 – 28 May 1357 (aged 66)7 January 132528 May 1357Son of Denis IBurgundy
Peter I
19 April 1320 – 18 January 1367 (aged 46)8 May 135718 January 1367Son Afonso IVBurgundy
Ferdinand I
31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383 (aged 37)18 January 136722 October 1383Son of Peter IBurgundy

House of Aviz (1385-1580)[edit]

The House of Aviz, known as the Joanine Dynasty, succeeded the House of Burgundy as the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal. The house was founded by John I of Portugal, who was the Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. When King John II of Portugal died without an heir and the throne of Portugal passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian I of Portugal died and the throne passed to his uncle, Henry I of Portugal. When Henry I died, a succession crisis occurred and António, Prior of Crato was proclaimed António I of Portugal. His legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
John I
11 April 1358 – 14 August 1433 (aged 75)6 April 138514 August 1433Illegitimate son of Peter IAviz
Edward I
31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438 (aged 46)14 August 14339 September 1438Son of John IAviz
Alphonse V
15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481 (aged 49)13 September 1438
15 November 1477
11 November 1477
28 August 1481
Son of Edward IAviz
John II
3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495 (aged 40)11 November 1477
28 August 1481
15 November 1477
25 October 1495
Son of Afonso VAviz
Emmanuel I
(1469-05-31)31 May 1469 - 13 December 1521(1521-12-13) (aged 52)25 October 149513 December 1521Cousin of John IIAviz
John III
(1502-06-07)7 June 1502 - 11 June 1557(1557-06-11) (aged 55)13 December 152111 June 1557Son of Emmanuel IAviz
Sebastian I
(1554-01-20)20 January 1554 - c. 4 August 1578(1578-08-04) (aged 24)11 June 15574 August 1578Grandson of John IIIAvizKing Sebastian I
Henry I
31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580 (aged 68)4 August 157831 January 1580Son of Emmanuel IAvizKing Henry

House of Habsburg (1581–1640)[edit]

The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Philip I
(1527-05-21)21 May 1527 - 13 September 1598(1598-09-13) (aged 71)25 March 158113 September 1598Grandson of Emmanuel IHabsburgKing Philip I
Philip II
(1578-04-14)14 April 1578 - 31 March 1621(1621-03-31) (aged 42)13 September 159831 March 1621Son of Philip IHabsburgKing Philip II
Philip III
(1605-04-08)8 April 1605 - 17 September 1665(1665-09-17) (aged 60)31 March 16211 December 1640Son of Philip IIHabsburgKing Philip II

House of Braganza (1640–1910)[edit]

The House of Braganza, known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power, in 1640, when John II of Braganza became the reigning house of Portugal and deposed the House of Habsburg in the Portuguese Restoration War.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
John IV
18 March 1603 – 6 November 1656 (aged 53)1 December 16406 November 1656Great-great-grandson of Emmanuel IBraganza
Alphonse VI
21 August 1643 – 12 September 1683 (aged 40)6 November 165612 September 1683Son of John IVBraganza
Peter II
26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706 (aged 58)6 November 16839 December 1706Son of John IVBraganza
John V
22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750 (aged 60)9 December 170631 July 1750Son of Peter IIBraganza
Joseph I
6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777 (age 62)31 July 175024 February 1777Son of John VBraganza
Mary I
(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 - 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81)24 February 177720 March 1816Daughter of Joseph IBraganza
Peter III
(1717-07-05)5 July 1717 - 25 May 1786(1786-05-25) (aged 68)24 February 177725 May 1786Husband of Mary I
Son of John V
jure uxoris king
Braganza
John VI
13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58)20 March 181610 March 1826Son of Mary I and Peter IIIBraganza
Peter IV
12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35)10 March 18262 May 1826Son of John VIBraganza
Mary II
4 April 1819 – 15 November 1853 (aged 34)2 May 1826
26 May 1834
23 June 1828
15 November 1853
Daughter of Peter IVBraganza
Michael I
26 October 1802 – 14 November 1866 (aged 64)26 February 18286 May 1834Son of John VIBraganza
Ferdinand II
29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885 (aged 69)16 September 183715 November 1853Husband of Mary II
jure uxoris king
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1853–1910)[edit]

The House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is the designation given to the house of the last four Kings of Portugal. The house's existence is debated, as Portuguese historians and the monarchs themselves styled themselves as members of the House of Braganza and not cadet members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Peter V
16 September 1837 – 11 November 1861 (aged 24)15 November 185311 November 1861Son of Mary II and Ferdinand IIBraganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Louis I
31 October 1838 – 19 October 1889 (aged 50)11 November 186119 October 1889Son of Mary II and Ferdinand IIBraganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Charles I
28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908 (aged 44)19 October 18891 February 1908Son of Louis IBraganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Emmanuel II
15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932 (aged 42)1 February 19084 October 1910Son of Charles IBraganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David Williamson, «Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe»,1988,Webb & Bower, Exeter, ISBN 0-86350-194-X; César Olivera Serrano, «Beatriz de Portugal»
  2. ^ García de Cortázar, Fernando (1999), Breve historia de España, Alianza Editorial, page 712; Armindo de Sousa, in História de Portugal coordinated by José Mattoso, Editorial Estampa, vol. II, ISBN 972-33-0919-X, pages 494/95

External links[edit]