List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates

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The Norwegian Nobel Institute (its headquarters are shown above) assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in selecting recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and in organising the annual award in Oslo.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."[1] It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[2] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Parliament of Norway.[3] The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4] In 1901, Passy and Dunant shared a Prize of 150,782 Swedish kronor, which was equal to 7,731,004 kronor in 2008. In 2013, the Prize was awarded to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.[5] The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm.[6] Unlike the other prizes, the Peace Prize is occasionally awarded to an organisation (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, a three-time recipient) rather than an individual.

The prize is considered the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes with several of the selections having been criticised.[7][8] Despite having been nominated five times, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi never won the Prize. Following his assassination in 1948, the committee considered awarding it to him posthumously but decided against it and instead withheld the Prize that year with the explanation that "there was no suitable living candidate."[9] In 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, who died after his nomination but several months before the announcement, became the only laureate to be recognised posthumously; following this, the statutes were changed to make a future posthumous prize nearly impossible.[10] In 1973, Le Duc Tho declined the Prize, because "he was not in a position to accept the Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason."[11] Linus Pauling, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate in 1962, is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes; he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954.[11] At 17 years of age, Malala Yousafzai, the 2014 recipient, is the youngest to be awarded the Peace Prize.

Laureates[edit]

As of 2014, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 103 individuals and 22 organizations. Fifteen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, more than any other Nobel Prize.[12] Only two recipients have won multiple Prizes: the International Committee of the Red Cross has won three times (1917, 1944, and 1963) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981).[11] There have been 19 years since its creation in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.

YearLaureateCountryRationale
1901Jean Henri Dunant.jpgHenry DunantSwitzerlandFor his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross[10][13]
Frederic Passy.jpgFrédéric PassyFrance"[For] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress"[10][13]
1902Ducommun.jpgÉlie DucommunSwitzerland"[For his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[10][14]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpgCharles Albert Gobat"[For his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][14]
1903Cremer.jpgWilliam Randal CremerUnited Kingdom"[For his role as the] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][15]
1904Logo of Institut de Droit International.svgInstitute of International LawBelgium"[F]or its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law"[10][16]
1905Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpgBertha von SuttnerAustria-HungaryFor authoring Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[10][17]
1906President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpgTheodore RooseveltUnited States"[F]or his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[10][18]
1907Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpgErnesto Teodoro MonetaItaly"[For his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[10][19]
Louis Renault jurist.gifLouis RenaultFrance"[For his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"[10][19]
1908KParnoldson.jpgKlas Pontus ArnoldsonSweden"[For his work as] founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League"[10][20]
Fredrik Bajer nobel.jpgFredrik BajerDenmark"[For being] the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau"[10][20]
1909Beernaert.gifAuguste BeernaertBelgium"[For being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][21]
PaulBalluet.gifPaul Henri d'Estournelles de ConstantFrance"[For] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[10][21]
1910IPB logo svg.svgPermanent International Peace BureauSwitzerland"[For acting] as a link between the peace societies of the various countries"[22][23]
1911TMCasser.jpgTobias AsserNetherlands"[For being a] member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law"[10][24]
Alfred Hermann Fried nobel.jpgAlfred FriedAustria-Hungary"[For his work as] founder of the German Peace Society"[10][24]
1912Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpgElihu Root[A]United States"[F]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[10][25]
1913HenriLaFontaine.jpgHenri La FontaineBelgium"[For his work as] head of the International Peace Bureau"[10][26]
1914Not awarded due to World War I.
1915
1916
1917Emblem of the ICRC.svgInternational Committee of the Red CrossSwitzerland"[For undertaking] the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides [of World War I], including their right to establish contacts with their families"[10][27]
1918Not awarded due to World War I.
1919President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpgWoodrow WilsonUnited States"[F]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[10][28]
1920Léon Bourgeois.jpgLéon BourgeoisFrance"[For his participation] in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907" and for his work towards "what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'"[10][29]
1921Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpgHjalmar BrantingSweden"[F]or his work in the League of Nations"[10][30]
Christian Lous Lange.jpgChristian LangeNorway"[For his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][30]
1922Fridtjof Nansen LOC 03377u-3.jpgFridtjof NansenNorway"[For] his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine" and "his work for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace"[31][32]
1923Not awarded
1924
1925Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpgAusten Chamberlain[A]United KingdomFor work on the Locarno Treaties[10][33]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpgCharles G. Dawes[A]United States"[F]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[10][33]
1926Aristide Briand 2.jpgAristide BriandFranceFor work on the Locarno Treaties[10][34]
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpgGustav StresemannGermany
1927Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpgFerdinand BuissonFrance"[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[10][35]
Ludwig Quidde nobel.jpgLudwig QuiddeGermany
1928Not awarded
1929FrankKellogg.jpgFrank B. Kellogg[A]United States"[F]or the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy"[10][36]
1930Nathan Söderblom nobel.jpgNathan SöderblomSweden"[F]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[10][37]
1931Jane Addams profile.jpgJane AddamsUnited States"[F]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[10][38]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpgNicholas Murray Butler"[For his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[10][38]
1932Not awarded
1933Norman Angell 01.jpgNorman Angell[A]United KingdomFor authoring The Great Illusion and for being a "supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist [and] educator for peace in general"[39]
1934Arthurhenderson.jpgArthur HendersonUnited Kingdom"[F]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[10][40][41]
1935Carl von Ossietzky.jpgCarl von Ossietzky[B]Germany"[For his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"[10][42]
1936Carlos Saavedra Lamas.jpgCarlos Saavedra LamasArgentina"[F]or his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia"[10][43]
1937Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood - Project Gutenberg eText 15306.jpgRobert CecilUnited KingdomFor his work with the League of Nations[10][44]
1938Flag of the League of Nations (1939–1941).svgNansen International Office for RefugeesLeague of NationsFor its work in aiding refugees[45]
1939Not awarded due to World War II.
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944Emblem of the ICRC.svgInternational Committee of the Red CrossSwitzerland"[F]or the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity"[46]
1945Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpgCordell HullUnited States"[For] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[47]
1946EmilyGreeneBalch.jpgEmily Greene BalchUnited States"Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[48]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpgJohn Raleigh Mott"Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[48]
1947Quaker star-T.svgFriends Service CouncilUnited Kingdom"compassion for others and the desire to help them"[49]
American Friends Service CommitteeUnited States
1948Not awarded because "there was no suitable living candidate." (A tribute to the recently assassinated Gandhi, since the prize cannot be awarded posthumously.)[9]
1949John Boyd Orr nobel.jpgThe Lord Boyd-OrrUnited Kingdom"Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agricultural Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[50]
1950Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpgRalph BuncheUnited States"Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[51]
1951Léon Jouhaux nobel.jpgLéon JouhauxFrance"President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations"[52]
1952Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpgAlbert SchweitzerFrance"Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[53]
1953General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEGGeorge Catlett MarshallUnited States"General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan'"[54]
1954United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesUnited Nations"An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[55]
1955Not awarded
1956
1957Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpgLester Bowles PearsonCanada"former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[56] "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[10]
1958Georges Pire 1958.jpgGeorges PireBelgium"Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[57]
1959Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpgPhilip J. Noel-BakerUnited Kingdom"Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[58]
1960Albert Lutuli nobel.jpgAlbert LutuliSouth Africa"President of the African National Congress,"[59] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[10]
1961Dag Hammarskjöld.jpgDag Hammarskjöld[C]Sweden"Secretary General of the U.N.,"[60] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[10]
1962Pauling.jpgLinus Carl PaulingUnited States"for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing"[61]
1963Emblem of the ICRC.svgInternational Committee of the Red CrossSwitzerlandFor their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence.[62]
Emblem of the IFRC.svgLeague of Red Cross Societies
1964Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpgMartin Luther King, Jr.United StatesCampaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence."[63]
1965United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)United Nations"An international aid organization." [64]
1966Not awarded
1967
1968René Cassin nobel.jpgRené CassinFrance"President of the European Court for Human Rights"[65]
1969Flag of ILO.svgInternational Labour OrganizationUnited Nations[66]
1970Norman Borlaug (cropped).jpgNorman E. BorlaugUnited States"International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[67] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[10]
1971Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpgWilly BrandtWest Germany"Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[68]
1972Not awarded
1973Henry Kissinger.jpgHenry KissingerUnited States"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces"[10][69]
LeDucTho1973.jpgLe Duc Tho[D]North Vietnam
1974Seán MacBride 1984.jpgSeán MacBrideIreland"President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[70] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[10]
Satō Eisaku.jpgEisaku SatōJapan"Prime Minister of Japan,"[70] "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation"[10]
1975RIAN archive 25981 Academician Sakharov.jpgAndrei Dmitrievich Sakharov[E]Soviet Union"[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations"[71]
1976Betty Williams.jpgBetty WilliamsUnited Kingdom/Ireland"Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[72]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpgMairead Corrigan
1977Amnesty International logo.svgAmnesty InternationalUnited Kingdom"[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience"[10][73]
1978Anwar Sadat cropped.jpgMohamed Anwar Al-SadatEgypt"for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[74]
Menachem Begin 2.jpgMenachem BeginIsrael
1979MotherTeresa 090.jpgMother TeresaIndia"Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[75]
1980Adolfo Pérez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpgAdolfo Pérez EsquivelArgentina"Human rights leader;"[76] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[10]
1981United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesUnited Nations"An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[77]
1982ARB-Alva-Myrdal.jpgAlva MyrdalSweden"[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[78][79]
Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpgAlfonso García RoblesMexico
1983Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpgLech WałęsaPoland"Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[80]
1984Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpgDesmond TutuSouth Africa"Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"[81]
1985International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear WarUnited StatesFor "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."[82]
1986Elie Wiesel.jpgElie WieselUnited States"Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[83]
1987OscarArias.jpgÓscar AriasCosta Rica"for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[84]
1988Emblem of the United Nations.svgUnited Nations Peace-Keeping ForcesUnited Nations"[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations"[85][86]
1989Dalai Lama at WhiteHouse (cropped).jpgTenzin Gyatso,
14th Dalai Lama
Tibet"In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."[87][88]
1990Mikhail Gorbachev 1987.jpgMikhail Sergeyevich GorbachevSoviet UnionPresident of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"[89]
1991Aung San Suu Kyi.jpgAung San Suu Kyi[F]Burma"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"[90]
1992Rigoberta Menchu Tum.JPGRigoberta MenchúGuatemala"for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"[91]
1993Nelson Mandela-2008.jpgNelson MandelaSouth Africa"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[92]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpgFrederik Willem de Klerk
1994ArafatEconomicForum.jpgYasser ArafatPalestine"to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[93]
Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpgYitzhak RabinIsrael
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpgShimon Peres
1995Josef Rotblat ID badge.pngJoseph RotblatUnited Kingdom"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[94]
Peace sign.svgPugwash Conferences on Science and World AffairsCanada
1996Carlosbelo.jpgCarlos Filipe Ximenes BeloEast Timor"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[95]
EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpgJosé Ramos-Horta
1997Icbl english.pdfInternational Campaign to Ban LandminesSwitzerland"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"[96]
JodyWilliamsMay2010.jpgJody WilliamsUnited States
1998John Hume 2008.jpgJohn HumeIreland"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[97]
David Trimble at Lisburn Seed Group benefit, Hillsborough Castle, Christmas 2007 crop.jpgDavid TrimbleUnited Kingdom
1999Médecins Sans Frontières aka Doctors Without BordersSwitzerland"in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"[98]
2000Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).pngKim Dae-jungSouth Korea"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[99]
2001Emblem of the United Nations.svgUnited NationsUnited Nations"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[100]
Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry WadKofi AnnanGhana
2002Jimmy Carter.jpgJimmy CarterUnited States"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[101]
2003Ebadi.jpgShirin EbadiIran"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."[102]
2004Wangari Maathai in Nairobi.jpgWangari Muta MaathaiKenya"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[103]
2005Flag of IAEA.svgInternational Atomic Energy AgencyUnited Nations"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"[104]
Mohamed ElBaradei.jpgMohamed ElBaradeiEgypt
2006Grameen Yunus Dec 04.jpgMuhammad YunusBangladesh"for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"[105]
Grameen Bank
2007Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeUnited Nations"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[106]
Al Gore.jpgAl GoreUnited States
2008Martti Ahtisaari.jpgMartti AhtisaariFinland"for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[107]
2009Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpgBarack ObamaUnited States"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[108]
2010Liu Xiaobo.pngLiu Xiaobo[G]China"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"[109]
2011Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpgEllen Johnson SirleafLiberia"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[110]
Leymah-gbowee-at-emu-press-conference.jpgLeymah Gbowee
Tawakkul Karman (2011).jpgTawakkul KarmanYemen
2012Flag of Europe.svgEuropean Union (EU)Europe"for [having] over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."[111]
2013Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical WeaponsInternational"for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons."[5]
2014Kailash Satyarthi.jpgKailash SatyarthiIndia"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"[112] (At age 17, Ms. Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Prize recipient.)
Malala Yousafzai at Girl Summit 2014.jpgMalala YousafzaiPakistan

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

A Elihu Root, Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes, Frank B. Kellogg, and Norman Angell were all awarded their respective Prizes one year late because the Committee decided that none of the nominations in the year in which they are listed as being awarded the Prize met the criteria in Nobel's will; per its rules the Committee delayed the awarding of the Prizes until the next year, although they were awarded as the previous year's Prize.[25][33][36][39]
B Carl von Ossietzky's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of Germany.[113]
C Dag Hammarskjöld's Prize was awarded posthumously.
D Le Duc Tho declined to accept the Prize.[69]
E Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of the Soviet Union.[114]
F Aung San Suu Kyi's Prize was awarded in absentia because she was being held prisoner by the government of Burma. Following her release from house arrest and election to the Pyithu Hluttaw, Suu Kyi accepted her award in person on 16 June 2012.[115]
G Liu Xiaobo's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was imprisoned in China.[116]

References[edit]

General
Specific
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