List of Nazi concentration camps

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This article presents a partial list of more prominent German concentration camps set up across Europe during World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Nazi Germany,[1] while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Nazis established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries."[2] Most of these camps were destroyed.

The later camps, built by the Third Reich mostly between 1939 and 1942, were intended to hold large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process, including Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, prisoners of war and many others, seen as undesirable by the occupation administration. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of mistreatment, starvation, forced labour, and murder. Some of the data presented in this table originates from The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz.[3]

List[edit]

Extermination camps are marked with misty rose, concentration camps are marked with lavender, labour camps are marked with grey, while transit camps and collective points remain unmarked. Nazi ghettos are generally not included. According to data presented in the table below, an estimated 4,251,500 people lost their lives in the camps.

#Camp nameCountry (today)Camp typeDates of useEst. prisonersEst. deathsSub-campsWebpage
1AlderneyChannel IslandsLabor campsJan 1942 – Jun 19446,000700Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt[2]
2AmersfoortNetherlandsTransit camp and prisonAug 1941 – Apr 194535,0001,000[3]
3ArbeitsdorfGermanyLabor camp8 Apr 1942 – 11 Oct 1942600 min.none
4Auschwitz-BirkenauPolandExtermination and labour campApr 1940 – Jan 1945135,000 min.[4] in August 19441,100,000 min.[5] out of 6,000,000 rec. arrivals [6]list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum [7][4] [5] [7] [6]
5BanjicaSerbiaConcentration campJun 1941 – Sep 194423,6373,849[8]
6BardufossNorwayConcentration campMar 1944 – ????800250[citation needed]
7BełżecPolandExtermination campOct 1941 – Jun 1943 434,508 min.[4]
8Berga an der Elster (Berga, Thuringia)GermanyLabour camp; Buchenwald subcamp
9Bergen-BelsenGermanyCollection pointApr 1943 – Apr 1945 70,0002[5]
10Berlin-MarzahnGermanyEarly a "rest place" then labour camp for RomaJuly 1936 –  none[6]
11BernburgGermanyCollection pointApr 1942 – Apr 1945 100,0002 
12BogdanovkaUkraineConcentration camp194154,00040,000
13BolzanoItalyTransitJul 1944 – Apr 194511,116 
14BredtvetNorwayConcentration campFall, 1941 – May, 19451,000 min. ????none
15BreendonkBelgiumPrison and labour camp20 Sep 1940 – Sep 19443532 min.391 min.none[7]
16BreitenauGermany"Early wild camp", then labour campJun 1933 – Mar 1934,
1940–1945
470 – 8500 [8]
17BuchenwaldGermanyLabour campJul 1937 – Apr 1945250,00056,000list[9]
18Chełmno
(Kulmhof)
PolandExtermination campDec 1941 – Apr 1943,
Apr 1944 – Jan 1945
 152,000 min.[10]
19Crveni krstSerbiaConcentration camp1941–194430,00010,000
20DachauGermanyLabour campMar 1933 – Apr 1945200,000 31,591list[11]
21DrancyFranceInternment camp, transit20 Aug 1941 – 17 Aug 194470,000Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps[12]
22FalstadNorwayPrison campDec 1941 – May 1945200 min.none[13]
23Flößberg (Frohburg)GermanyLabour camp; Buchenwald subcampNovember 1944 – Apr 19451904235 min.[14]
24FlossenbürgGermanyLabour campMay 1938 – Apr 1945100,000 min.30,000list[15]
25Fort de RomainvilleFrancePrison and transit camp1940 – Aug 19448,100 min.200 min.none[16]
26Fort VII (Poznań)PolandConcentration, detention, transitOct 1939 – Apr 194418,000 min.4,500 min.[17]
27FossoliItalyPrison and transit camp5 Dec 1943 – Nov 1944none
28GriniNorwayPrison camp2 May 1941 – May 194519,7888Fannrem
Bardufoss
Kvænangen
29Gross-RosenPolandLabour camp; Nacht und Nebel campAug 1940 – Feb 1945125,00040,000list[18]
30Herzogenbusch
(Vught)
NetherlandsConcentration camp1943 – Summer 194431,000750list[19]
31HinzertGermanyCollection point and subcampJul 1940 – Mar 194514,000302 min.[20]
32Janowska
(Lwów)
UkraineGhetto; transit, labour, & extermination campSep 1941 – Nov 1943 40,000 min.none[21]
(see "A-Z")
33Jasenovac concentration campCroatiaExtermination camp for Jews, Serbs and Roma[9]1941–1945700,000 min.[10]100,000[11]Stara Gradiška concentration camp, Sisak children's concentration camp, Donja Gradina, Jasenovac main[22]
34Kaiserwald
(Mežaparks)
LatviaLabour camp1942 – 6 Aug 194420,000?16,
incl. Eleja-Meitenes
[23]
35Kaufering/LandsbergGermanyLabour campJun 1943 – Apr 194530,00014,500 min.[24]
36Kauen
(Kaunas)
LithuaniaGhetto and internment camp ????Prawienischken[25]
37KemnaGermanyEarly concentration campJun 1933 – Jan 19444,500none[26]
38KloogaEstoniaLabour campSummer 1943 – 28 Sep 19442,400
39KoldichevoBelarusLabour campSummer 1942 – Jun 194422,000
40Langenstein-ZwiebergeGermanyBuchenwald subcampApr 1944 – Apr 19455,0002,000
41Le VernetFranceInternment camp1939–1944  
42Majdanek
(KZ Lublin)
PolandExtermination campJul 1941 – Jul 1944 78,000[27]
43MalchowGermanyLabour and Transit campWinter 1943 – 8 May 19455,000 
44Maly TrostenetsBelarusExtermination campJul 1941 – Jun 1944 206,500 (official)
65,000
[28]
[29]
45Mauthausen-GusenAustriaLabour campAug 1938 – May 1945195,00095,000 min.list[30]
46MechelenBelgiumTransit campJuly 1942 – Sep 194425267 min.[12]300 min.[13]none[31]
47Mittelbau-DoraGermanyLabour campSep 1943 – Apr 194560,00020,000 min.list[32]
48MittelsteinePolandLabour camp; Gross-Rosen subcampAug 1944 – April 1945300–1,00010–20none[33]
49Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof)FranceLabour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination campMay 1941 – Sep 194440,00025,000list[34]
50NeuengammeGermanyLabour camp13 Dec 1938 – 4 May 1945106,00042,900+list[35]
51NiederhagenGermanyPrison and labour campSep 1941 – early 19433,9001,285none[36]
52Oberer KuhbergGermanyConcentration campNov 1933 – 19350Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm)[37]
53OhrdrufGermanyLabour and concentration camp; Buchenwald subcampNov 1944 – Apr 194511,700[38]
54OranienburgGermanyEarly concentration campMar 1933 – Jul 19343,00016 min.[39]
55OsthofenGermanyCollective pointMar 1933 – Jul 1934  
56PłaszówPolandLabour campDec 1942 – Jan 1945150,000 min.9,000 min.list
57RavensbrückGermanyLabour camp for womenMay 1939 – Apr 1945150,00090,000 min.list[40][41]
58Risiera di San Sabba
(Trieste)
ItalyPolice detainment campSep 1943 – 29 Apr 194525,0005,000[42]
59SachsenhausenGermanyLabour campJul 1936 – Apr 1945200,000 min.100,000list[43]
60SajmišteSerbiaExtermination campOct 1941 – Jul 194492,00023,000–47,000
61Salaspils (Kirchholm )LatviaLabour campOct 1941 – Summer 19442,000[44]
62Skrochowitz
(Skrochovice)
Czech RepublicTransit (1939) and labour campSept 1939 - Dec 1939, 1940–19431939:7001939:13[45]
63SobibórPolandExtermination campMay 1942 – Oct 1943 200,000 max.[46]
64SoldauPolandLabour; Transit campWinter 1939/40 – Jan 194530,00013,000
65StutthofPolandLabour campSep 1939 – May 1945110,00065,000list[47]
66Theresienstadt
(Terezín)
Czech RepublicTransit camp and GhettoNov 1941 – May 1945140,00035,000 min.[48]
67TreblinkaPolandExtermination campJul 1942 – Nov 1943 870,000[49]
68VaivaraEstoniaConcentration and transit camp15 Sep 1943 – 29 Feb 194420,00095022[50] [51]
69WarsawPolandLabour and extermination camp1942–1944400,000 max.200,000 max.
70WesterborkNetherlandsTransit campMay 1940 – Apr 1945102,000 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ List of concentration camps and their outposts (German)
  2. ^ Concentration Camp Listing Sourced from Van Eck, Ludo Le livre des Camps. Belgium: Editions Kritak; and Gilbert, Martin Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: William Morrow 1993 ISBN 0-688-12364-3. In this on-line site are the names of 149 camps and 814 subcamps, organized by country.
  3. ^ [1] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: "Nazi holding camp System"
  4. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Construction and Expansion of KL Auschwitz ("Budowa i rozbudowa KL Auschwitz"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (Polish)
  5. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Dead victims of KL Auschwitz per nationality and/or profile of deportees ("Liczba uśmierconych w KL Auschwitz ogółem wg narodowości lub kategorii deportowanych"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (Polish)
  6. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Victims of KL Auschwitz ("Liczba ofiar KL Auschwitz"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (Polish)
  7. ^ a b List of Subcamps of KL Auschwitz (Podobozy KL Auschwitz). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (Polish)
  8. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation: 1918–2005. Indiana University Press, 2006. (p. 131)
  9. ^ Jasenovac. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  10. ^ Stevan K. Pavlowitch (2008). Hitler's new disorder: the Second World War in Yugoslavia. Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-231-70050-4. 
  11. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  12. ^ Schram, Laurence (2006). "De cijfers van de deportatie uit Mechelen naar Auschwitz. Perspectieven en denkpistes". De Belgische tentoonstelling in Auschwitz. Het boek - L'exposition belge à Auschwitz. Le Livre (in Dutch). Het Joods Museum voor Deportatie en Verzet. ISBN 978-90-76109-03-9. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  13. ^ Mikhman, Dan; Gutman, Israel; Bender, Sara (2005). The encyclopedia of the righteous among the nations: rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Belgium. Yad Vashem. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]