List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska

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The National Historic Landmarks in Alaska represent Alaska's history from its Russian heritage to its statehood. There are 49 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in the state.[1] The United States National Historic Landmark program is operated under the auspices of the National Park Service, and recognizes structures, districts, objects, and similar resources according to a list of criteria of national significance.[2] Major themes include Alaska's ancient cultures, Russian heritage, and role in World War II, but other stories are represented as well. In addition, two sites in Alaska were designated National Historic Landmarks, but the designation was later withdrawn. These sites appear in italics in another table further below.

The National Historic Landmark Program is administered by the National Park Service, a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process.[2] The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation.[3] Both public and privately owned properties can be designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means.[2] Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.[3]

Contents

NHLs in Alaska

The table below lists all 49 of the National Historic Landmark sites, along with added detail and description.

Landmark name[4]ImageDate desig.[4]Locality
[4][5]
Borough or
Census Area[4]
Description[5]
1Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating BaseHistoric aerial photograph of the Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating Base in early 1944, a busy harbor ringed by installations with snowy mountains in the background.01987-02-27February 27, 1987Adak Station
51°52′19″N 176°38′10″W / 51.872°N 176.636°W / 51.872; -176.636 (Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating Base)
Aleutians WestEstablished in 1942 as part of World War II, this military base was the launching pad for the American attack on the Japanese-held Aleutian Islands of Kiska and Attu.
2Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall1991 HABS photo01978-06-02June 2, 1978Sitka
57°02′57″N 135°20′22″W / 57.0492013985°N 135.339440163°W / 57.0492013985; -135.339440163 (Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall)
SitkaThis 1914 meeting hall and headquarters building served the original chapter of Alaska Native Brotherhood, founded by Tlingits in the early 1900s to fight discrimination and represent interests of natives.
3Amalik Bay Archeological DistrictAddress restricted.PNG02005-04-04April 4, 2005King Salmon
58°5′19″N 154°32′6″W / 58.08861°N 154.535°W / 58.08861; -154.535 (Amalik Bay Archeological District)
Lake and PeninsulaAn archeological site located in Lake and Peninsula Borough
4American Flag Raising SiteHistoric 1827 illustration of Castle Hill in Old Sitka, which later became the American Flag Raising Site, an imposiong fortification on a hill overlooking the water and Tlingit areas.01962-06-13June 13, 1962Sitka
57°02′49″N 135°20′02″W / 57.0468450067°N 135.333765237°W / 57.0468450067; -135.333765237 (American Flag Raising Site)
SitkaIn 1867, site of Russian flag lowering and American flag raising marking the transfer of Alaska to the U.S.; in 1959, after Alaska admitted as 49th state, site of first official raising of 49-star U.S. flag; also called Castle Hill.
5Anangula SiteAnangula Site.jpg01978-06-02June 2, 1978NikolskiAleutians WestSite of earliest signs of human occupation in the Aleutian Islands.
6Attu Battlefield and U.S. Army and Navy Airfields on AttuHistoric photograph of American troops on Attu Island during the Aleutians Campaign of World War II.01985-02-04February 4, 1985Attu Island
52°54′02″N 172°54′34″E / 52.9005349534°N 172.909379543°E / 52.9005349534; 172.909379543 (Attu Battlefield and U.S. Army and Navy Airfields on Attu)
Aleutians WestSite of bloody battle in which only 29 of 2,500 Japanese survived, only battle on U.S. soil during World War II.
7Bering Expedition Landing SitePhotograph of Kaykak Island from offshore, believed to be the Bering Expedition Landing Site.01978-06-02June 2, 1978Kayak Island
59°53′33″N 144°29′08″W / 59.8925871018°N 144.485588497°W / 59.8925871018; -144.485588497 (Bering Expedition Landing Site)
Valdez-CordovaSite of first recorded contacts between natives and Europeans
8Birnirk SiteUkpeagvik mounds.jpg01962-12-29December 29, 1962BarrowNorth SlopeSixteen prehistoric mounds of the Birnirk and Thule cultures.
9Brooks River Archeological DistrictBrooks River Archeological District01993-04-19April 19, 1993Katmai National Park and Preserve
58°33′16″N 155°47′0″W / 58.55444°N 155.783333°W / 58.55444; -155.783333 (Brooks River Archeological District)
Bristol BayAn archaeological site located along an ancient beach and modern river. There are twenty separate well preserved sites which have provided a large number of Arctic Small Tool Tradition artifacts.
10Cape Krusenstern Archeological DistrictAerial photograph of the Cape Krusenstern Archeological District, showing the coast where the archeological strata are found.01973-11-07November 7, 1973Kotzebue
67°6′51″N 163°41′9″W / 67.11417°N 163.68583°W / 67.11417; -163.68583 (Cape Krusenstern Archeological District)
Northwest ArcticThe archeological district comprises 114 ancient beach ridges which formed nearly 60 years apart. They provide a rare sequential look at over 5000 years of inhabitation.
11Cape Nome Mining District Discovery SitesAnvil Creek Gold Discovery Site.jpg01978-06-02June 2, 1978NomeNomeSignificant for role in the history of gold mining in Alaska
12Chaluka SiteChaluka Site.jpg01962-12-29December 29, 1962NikolskiAleutians WestIncludes a large mound; yields information about origins of Aleuts
13Chilkoot Trail and Dyea SiteHistorical photograph of a dense line of miners climbing over the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush.01978-06-16June 16, 1978Skagway
59°38′N 135°17′W / 59.633°N 135.283°W / 59.633; -135.283 (Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site)
SkagwayMajor access route from the coast to Yukon goldfields in the late 1890s.
14Church of the Holy AscensionPhotograph of the Church of the Holy Ascension on a sunny day, with red roofs, green onion domes, and a small churchyard.01970-04-15April 15, 1970Unalaska
53°52′33″N 166°32′11″W / 53.8758259061°N 166.536306996°W / 53.8758259061; -166.536306996 (Church of the Holy Ascension)
Aleutians WestBuilt in 1826 by the Russian American Fur Company to help acclimate indigenous population in Russian Alaska.
15Dry Creek Archeological SiteAddress restricted.PNG01978-06-02June 2, 1978Healy, AlaskaDenaliThis archeological site has provided evidence which supports the Bering land bridge theory
16Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears, U.S. ArmyHistoric photograph of U.S. Marines in defensive trenches during the Japanese attacks of 1942, while fuel tanks burn in the background.01985-02-04February 4, 1985Unalaska
53°53′16″N 166°32′23″W / 53.88778°N 166.53972°W / 53.88778; -166.53972 (Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears)
Aleutians WestOnly US fortifications in the Aleutian Islands prior to WWII, attacked by the Japanese Navy during the Battle of Dutch Harbor in June 1943.
17Eagle Historic DistrictYukonRiverAtEagle.jpg01978-06-02June 2, 1978Eagle
64°47′10″N 141°12′0″W / 64.78611°N 141.2°W / 64.78611; -141.2 (Eagle Historic District)
Southeast FairbanksHistoric district with over 100 well preserved buildings from the Gold Rush years on the Yukon river. Roald Amundsen announced his successful traverse of the Northwest Passage from here in 1905
18Fort Durham SiteAddress restricted.PNG01978-06-02June 2, 1978Taku HarborJuneauOne of three Hudson's Bay Company posts set up in Alaska
19Cape Field at Fort GlennFort Glenn Army Airfield 1942.jpg01987-05-28May 28, 1987Fort GlennAleutians WestWell preserved World War II defense base.
20Fort William H. SewardHaines AK - Fort Seward Dr.jpg01978-06-02June 2, 1978Haines
59°13′36″N 135°26′40″W / 59.22667°N 135.44444°W / 59.22667; -135.44444 (Fort William H. Seward)
HainesLast of a series of 11 military posts established in Alaska during the gold rush era
21Gallagher Flint Station Archeological SiteGallagher Flint Station Archeological Site.jpg01978-06-02June 2, 1978SagwonNorth SlopeDiscovered in 1970 during the construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, it is the earliest dated archaeological site in northern Alaska.
22Holy Assumption Orthodox ChurchPhotograph of the front of the Holy Assumption Orthodox Church, behind a white picket fence with white clapboard and a blue roof and onion dome.01970-04-15April 15, 1970Kenai
60°33′09″N 151°15′59″W / 60.552413°N 151.266262°W / 60.552413; -151.266262 (Holy Assumption Orthodox Church)
Kenai PeninsulaRussian Orthodox church in Kenai, Alaska.
23Ipiutak SiteIpiutak Site.jpg01961-01-20January 20, 1961Point Hope Peninsula
68°20′49″N 166°45′47″W / 68.34694°N 166.76306°W / 68.34694; -166.76306 (Ipiutak Site)
North SlopeThe type site for the Ipiutak culture
24Iyatayet SiteIyatayet Site.jpg01961-01-20January 20, 1961Cape Denbigh PeninsulaNomeShows evidence of several separate cultures, dating back as far as 6000 B.C.
25Sheldon Jackson SchoolRichard Allen Memorial Hall.jpg02001-08-07August 7, 2001SitkaSitkaOldest institution of higher learning in Alaska
26Kake CanneryHABS photo01997-12-09December 9, 1997KakePetersburgBuilt 1912-1940; significant for role in history of salmon canning in Alaska
27Kennecott MinesPhotograph of the red-painted Kennecott Mines facilities rising up a hillside with grand mountain scenery in the far background and a field of bare glacial till in the middle background.01986-06-23June 23, 1986Kennecott
61°29′6.8″N 142°53′18.4″W / 61.485222°N 142.888444°W / 61.485222; -142.888444 (Kenecott Mines)
Valdez-CordovaSite of discovery of copper in 1900 and subsequent mining activities
28Kijik Archeological DistrictLake Clark in the Kijik Archeological District.jpg01994-10-12October 12, 1994Lake Clark National Park and Preserve
60°17′33″N 154°15′1″W / 60.2925°N 154.25028°W / 60.2925; -154.25028 (Kijik Archeological District)
Bristol BayRelated to the history of the Dena'ina Athabaskan Indians
29Japanese Occupation Site, Kiska IslandHistoric photograph of Japanese troops raising the Imperial battle flag on Kiska Island.01985-02-04February 4, 1985Kiska Island
51°58′2.0″N 177°29′31.0″E / 51.96722°N 177.49194°E / 51.96722; 177.49194 (Japanese Occupation Site, Kiska Island)
Aleutians WestSite of the Japanese occupation of Kiska which along with nearby Attu were the only US land occupied by the Japanese during World War II
30Kodiak Naval Operating Base and Forts Greely and AbercrombieKodiak Island Air Station 1.jpg01985-02-04February 4, 1985KodiakKodiak IslandWorld War II-related facilities
31Ladd FieldLadd-aaf-1943.jpg01985-02-04February 4, 1985Fairbanks
64°50′15″N 147°36′52″W / 64.8375°N 147.61444°W / 64.8375; -147.61444 (Ladd Field)
Fairbanks North StarPrimary role during WWII was major stopping point for the Lend-Lease program.
32Leffingwell Camp SiteLeffingwell.jpg01978-06-02June 2, 1978Flaxman Island
70°11′6.5″N 146°0′14″W / 70.185139°N 146.00389°W / 70.185139; -146.00389 (Leffingwell Camp Site)
North SlopeCampsite of geologist and polar explorer Ernest de Koven Leffingwell on Arctic coast of Alaska, not far from Prudhoe Bay.
33Nenana (river steamboat)Nenana in 198801989-05-05May 5, 1989Fairbanks
64°50′16″N 147°46′06″W / 64.8377001558°N 147.768332861°W / 64.8377001558; -147.768332861 (Nenana (river steamboat))
Fairbanks North StarRiver steamboat; only surviving wooden one of this type.
34New Russia Siteimage pending01978-06-02June 2, 1978YakutatYakutatSite of Russian trading post attacked and destroyed by Tlingit natives.
35Old Sitka SiteSitkaRussianPossessionPlate.png01962-06-13June 13, 19626 miles (9.6 km) north of Sitka on Starrigavan Bay
57°07′53″N 135°22′15″W / 57.131389°N 135.370833°W / 57.131389; -135.370833 (Old Sitka Site)
SitkaAlso known as the Redoubt St. Archangel Michael Site, this was the site of a Russian-American Company settlement, established in 1799 and destroyed by Tlingit attack in 1802.
36Onion Portage Archeological DistrictAddress restricted.PNG01978-06-02June 2, 1978Kiana
67°5′49″N 158°17′51″W / 67.09694°N 158.2975°W / 67.09694; -158.2975 (Onion Portage Archeological District)
Northwest ArcticPerhaps most important archaeological site in Alaska; caribou river crossing; human presence for millennia.
37Palugvik SiteAddress restricted.PNG01962-12-29December 29, 1962Hawkins IslandValdez-CordovaIncludes a large midden yielding information about Eskimo culture in the area.
38Russian-American Building #29Russian-American 29.jpg01987-05-28May 28, 1987Sitka
57°02′50″N 135°19′52″W / 57.047280°N 135.331157°W / 57.047280; -135.331157 (Russian-American Building #29)
SitkaSiding covered log building; dates back to the years after the 1867 purchase of Alaska.
39Russian-American MagazinRussian American Magazin.jpg01962-06-13June 13, 1962KodiakKodiak IslandStorehouse building associated with the Russian and then the American trading companies active in Alaska.
40Russian Bishop's HousePhotograph of the two-story, yellow Russian Bishop's House.01962-06-13June 13, 1962Sitka
57°02′55″N 135°19′38″W / 57.048488°N 135.327267°W / 57.048488; -135.327267 (Russian Bishop's House)
SitkaOne of four surviving examples of Russian Colonial Style architecture in the Western Hemisphere.
41St. Michael's CathedralPhotograph of St. Michael's Cathedral in the sunlight, with bright white walls and green domes and spires reaching to the sky.01962-06-13June 13, 1962Sitka
57°2′59″N 135°20′5″W / 57.04972°N 135.33472°W / 57.04972; -135.33472 (St. Michael's Cathedral)
SitkaPrimary evidence of Russian influence in North America.
42Seal Island Historic DistrictAerial view of St. Paul Island01962-06-13June 13, 1962Pribilof Islands
57°N 170°W / 57°N 170°W / 57; -170 (Seal Island Historic District)
Aleutians WestHistoric buildings related to Northern Fur Seal hunting in the Pribilof Islands and its restriction in 1911 and 1966.
43Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal DefensesSitka Naval Operating Base buildings.jpg01986-08-11August 11, 1986SitkaSitkaCommissioned as Sitka Naval Air Station in October 1939, it was redesignated the Naval Operating Base, July 1942. Protected the North Pacific during World War II.[6]
44Sitka Spruce PlantationSitkaSprucePlantation.png01978-06-02June 2, 1978Unalaska
53°53′12″N 166°32′23″W / 53.8865687574°N 166.539744163°W / 53.8865687574; -166.539744163 (Sitka Spruce Plantation)
Aleutians WestFirst recorded afforestation project in North America; Russian settlers began in 1805; attempt to make Unalaska self-sufficient in timber.
45Skagway Historic District and White PassPhotograph of the Golden North Hotel in the Skagway Historic District, and other historic buildings, across a broad, unbusy street with dramatic mountains behind.01962-06-13June 13, 1962Skagway and White Pass
59°27′30″N 135°18′50″W / 59.45833°N 135.31389°W / 59.45833; -135.31389 (Skagway Historic District and White Pass)
SkagwayHistoric frontier Gold Rush town and trail leading to White Pass on the border of Canada. Over 100 buildings from the era survive, though they are threatened by continued development. Mentioned in The Call of the Wild by Jack London.
46George C. Thomas Memorial LibraryGeorge C Thomas Memorial Library NRHP Fairbanks, AK.JPG01978-06-02June 2, 1978Fairbanks
64°50′41″N 147°43′40″W / 64.844735°N 147.727652°W / 64.844735; -147.727652 (Thomas, George C., Memorial Library)
Fairbanks North StarThe public library for Fairbanks from its construction in 1909 until the opening of the Noel Wien Public Library in 1977. Site of 1915 meeting between U.S. officials and native Alaskans to settle land claims.
47Three Saints Bay SiteAddress restricted.PNG01978-06-02June 2, 1978Old Harbor
57°08′N 153°30′W / 57.133°N 153.5°W / 57.133; -153.5 (Three Saints Bay Site)
Kodiak IslandSite of the first Russian settlement in Alaska in 1784.
48Wales SiteWales Site.jpg01962-12-29December 29, 1962Wales
65°36′44″N 168°5′21″W / 65.61222°N 168.08917°W / 65.61222; -168.08917 (Wales Sites)
NomeSite of first discovery of how the Thule culture followed the Birnirk culture in precontact whaling populations of the Alaskan shoreline.
49Yukon Island Main SiteYukon Island Main Site.jpg01962-12-29December 29, 1962Yukon IslandKenai PeninsulaRelated to the Kachemak Bay Culture.
Table notes: see [7] below.

Historic areas of the NPS in Alaska

National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, some National Monuments, and certain other areas listed in the National Park system are historic landmarks of national importance that are highly protected already, often before the inauguration of the NHL program in 1960, and are then often not also named NHLs per se. There are three of these in Alaska. The National Park Service lists these three together with the NHLs in the state,[8]

Cape Krusenstern National Monument is also an NHL and is listed above. The other two are:

Landmark name
ImageDate established[9]LocationCountyDescription
1Klondike Gold Rush National Historical ParkKlondike Gold Rush NHP Skagway.JPGSkagwaySkagwayPark of Klondike Gold Rush, an NHL shared with Seattle, Washington.
2Sitka National Historical ParkNative Alaskan Totem Pole.JPGSitkaSitka

Former NHLs in Alaska

Landmark name[4]ImageYear listed[4]Locality[4][5]Borough / Census Area[4]Description[5]
aGambell Sites[10]Ayveghyaget Site.jpg1962,
withdrawn 1989[10]
Gambell [10]
63°46′34″N 171°42′3″W / 63.77611°N 171.70083°W / 63.77611; -171.70083 (Gambell Sites)
Nome [10]These five archeological sites established a chronology of human habitation on St. Lawrence Island, with evidence of four cultural phases of the Thule tradition, beginning about 2000 years before the present. Over the 20th century, the archeological value of the sites was largely destroyed due to ivory mining, and landmark designation was withdrawn.[10]
cSourdough Lodge[10]Sourdough Lodge, Mile 147.5, Richardson Highway, Gakona vicinity (Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska).jpg1978,
withdrawn 1994[10]
Gakona [10]
62°18′07″N 145°18′07″W / 62.301940°N 145.30194°W / 62.301940; -145.30194 (Sourdough Lodge)
Valdez-Cordova [10]Built of logs in 1903-05, this was one of a number of roadhouses built along the Valdez Trail. It was destroyed by fire in 1992, leading to withdrawal of its landmark status. By the time of its destruction, it was one of the oldest continuously-operating roadhouses in Alaska.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ NPS Alaska NHL List
  2. ^ a b c "National Historic Landmarks Program: Questions & Answers". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/nhl/QA.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
  3. ^ a b "Title 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 65". US Government Printing Office. http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_98/36cfr65_98.html. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h National Park Service (June 2011). "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of NHLs by State" (PDF). http://www.cr.nps.gov/nhl/designations/Lists/LIST11.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  5. ^ a b c d National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database". http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/default.cfm. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
  6. ^ "Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses". National Historic Landmarks Quioklinks. National Park Service.
  7. ^ Numbers represent an ordering by significant words. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate the National Monuments, National Historic Sites, National Historic Landmark Districts and other higher designations from other NHL buildings, structures, sites or objects.
  8. ^ These are listed on p.110 of "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State", November 2007 version.
  9. ^ Date of listing as National Historic Site or similar designation, from various sources in articles indexed.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: Withdrawal of NHL Designation". http://www.cr.nps.gov/nhl/DOE_dedesignations/Dedesignations_intro.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-04.

External links