List of Linux distributions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
Timeline representing the development of various Linux distributions.

This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list. Distributions are organized into sections by the major distribution they are based on, or the package management system they are based around.

Debian-based[edit]

Debian family tree

Debian GNU/Linux is a distribution that emphasizes free software. It supports many hardware platforms. Debian and distributions based on it use the .deb package format[1] and the dpkg package manager and its frontends.[2]

DistributionDescription
64 StudioAttempts to specialize in audio and video production on x86-64 workstations.[3]
aptosidMultilingual desktop-oriented Live CD based on Debian unstable. Formerly sidux.[4]
Astra LinuxOS developed for Russian Army with raised security.[5]
Bharat Operating System SolutionsThis software is also known by the acronym BOSS GNU/Linux or simply BOSS Linux.[6]
CanaimaA Venezuelan GNU/Linux distribution.[7]
Corel LinuxCommercial. Short-lived desktop GNU/Linux distribution, bought by Xandros GNU/Linux.[8]
CrunchBang LinuxA small GNU/Linux Distro and Live CD based on Debian Stable, featuring the Openbox window manager and tint2 panel with GTK+ applications.[9]
DevuanA fork of Debian begun in 2014 with the primary goal of allowing user choice in init systems, by decoupling software packages from systemd.[10]
DreamlinuxA Brazilian GNU/Linux distribution (not active anymore).
EliveA Live CD and Distribution featuring Enlightenment as the only window manager. Aims to be intuitive and easy to use.[11]
Emdebian GripA small-footprint GNU/Linux distribution based on and compatible with Debian, intended for use on resource-limited embedded systems.[12]
FinnixA small system administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures.[13]
gNewSenseoriginally based on Ubuntu and later upon Debian, and developed with sponsorship from the Free Software Foundation. Its goal is user-friendliness, but with all proprietary (e.g. binary blobs) and non-free software removed.
grmlLive CD for system recovery.[14]
HandyLinuxA Debian GNU/Linux derivative, designed for seniors equipped with old computers which have become too slow for Windows.[15]
Instant WebKioskLive, browser only operating system for use in web kiosks and for digital signage.[16]
Kali LinuxMade to be a completely customizable OS, used for penetration testing. It is based on Debian GNU/Linux[17]
KanotixAn installable live DVD/CD for desktop usage using KDE and LXDE, focusing on convenient scripts and GUI for ease of use.[18]
KnoppixThe first Live CD (later DVD) version of Debian GNU/Linux.[19]
KuruminEarlier, it was a version of the Knoppix distribution, modified with Debian and designed for Brazilian users.
LEAF ProjectThe Linux Embedded Appliance Framework. A tiny primarily floppy-based distribution for routers, firewalls and other appliances.[20]
LiMuxAn ISO 9241 industry workplace certified GNU/Linux distribution, deployed at the City of Munich, Germany.[21]
LinuxBBQLinuxBBQ is a plethora of releases for various targets and goals based on Debian Sid GNU/Linux.
Linux Mint Debian EditionLinux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) is a rolling GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian Testing. It is available in both 32 and 64-bit as a live DVD with a Cinnamon or MATE desktop. The purpose of LMDE is to look identical to the main GNU/Linux Mint edition and to provide the same functionality while using Debian as a base.[22]
MaemoA development platform for hand held devices such as the Nokia N800, N810, and Nokia N900 Internet Tablets and other GNU/Linux kernel–based devices.[23]
MEPISFocuses on ease of use. Also includes a lightweight variant called antiX. antiX is meant to be used on older computers with limited hardware.[24] There is also a Xfce distro called MX that's based on Debian Stable.[25]
MintPPCFor PowerPC computers. Although MintPPC uses some Mint LXDE code, it is not GNU/Linux Mint.[26]
Musix GNU+LinuxA Debian GNU/Linux based distribution, intended for music production, graphic design, audio, video editing, and other tasks. It is built with only free software.[27]
NepaLinuxA Debian and Morphix GNU/Linux based distribution focused for desktop usage in Nepali language computing.[28]
OpenZaurusDebian packages and ROM image for the Sharp Zaurus PDA. Replaced by Ångström distribution.[29]
PardusDeveloped by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology. Prior to 2013 it used PISI as the package manager, with COMAR as the configuration framework. Starting with Pardus 2013, it is Debian-based.
ParsixOptimized for personal computers and laptops. Built on top of Debian testing branch and comes with security support.[30]
RxartDesktop-oriented distribution. Focused on providing proprietary software.[31]
SacixA Debian Pure Blend originally created to support the educational and free software diffusion goals of the Telecentres project of the city of São Paulo, Brazil.[32]
SiductionDerived from aptosid, siduction is a distro based on debian sid with a friendly community.[33]
SkolelinuxA GNU/Linux distribution from Norway. It is provided as a thin client distribution for schools.[34]
SolusOSBased on the Stable branch of Debian with updated software applications from Debian backports. Improved media support. Featured the Gnome desktop with usability patches and customized applications. Discontinued October 2013[35]
SolydXKXfce and KDE desktop with a semi-rolling release model.[36]
SteamOSDebian-based and gaming-focused distribution developed by Valve Corporation and designed around the Steam digital distribution platform.
Sunwah LinuxA Chinese GNU/Linux distribution[37]
Symphony OSIncludes the Mezzo desktop environment. Previous versions were based on Knoppix.[38]
SalineOSLean, stable and easy-to-use distribution with XFCE as graphical interface.[39]
TAILSThe Amnesic Incognito Live System' or Tails is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity, with all outgoing connections forced to go through Tor.[40]
UbuntuA distribution sponsored by Canonical Ltd. and receiving major funding from South African Mark Shuttleworth. Aims to offer a complete and polished desktop on a single DVD.[41]
UlteoVirtual desktop project.[42]
Univention Corporate ServerEnterprise distribution with integrated IT infrastructure and identity management system by the company Univention GmbH, Germany. A full version for up to 5 users for tests and for private use can be downloaded for free.[43]
WebconvergerDebian Live based browser only distribution, similar to Google Chrome OS. However based on Firefox & dwm, with no user sign-in, no special hardware required and designed for public places.[44]
VyattaCommercial open source network operating system includes routing, firewall, VPN, intrusion prevention and more. Designed to be an open source Cisco replacement.[45]

Knoppix-based[edit]

Knoppix family tree

Knoppix, itself, is based on Debian.[46]

DistributionDescription
Damn Small LinuxIt is a small GNU/Linux distro designed to run on older hardware. It is commonly used on virtual machines due to low memory requirements.[47]
Feather LinuxIt boots from either a CD or a USB flash drive. Uses Knoppix-based hardware detection and the Fluxbox window manager.[48]
HikarunixA GNU/Linux distribution solely for studying and playing the game of Go. Based on Damn Small Linux.[49]

Ubuntu-based[edit]

Ubuntu family tree

Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian, designed to have regular releases, a consistent user experience and commercial support on both desktop and server.[50]

Official distributions[edit]

These Ubuntu variants simply install a set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them.[51]

DistributionDescription
EdubuntuA complete GNU/Linux based operating system targeted for primary and secondary education. It is freely available with community based support. The Edubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Edubuntu Manifesto: that software, especially for education, should be available free of charge and that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities.[52]
KubuntuAn official derivative of Ubuntu GNU/Linux using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces used by default in Ubuntu.[53]
LubuntuLubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", using the LXDE desktop environment.[54][55][56]
MythbuntuBased on Ubuntu and MythTV, providing applications for recording TV and acting as a media center.[57]
Ubuntu for AndroidDesigned for use with Android phones.[58]
Ubuntu GNOMEAn official Ubuntu variant[59] that uses Gnome Shell as its default desktop and GDM as its display manager.[60]
UbuntuKylinAn official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.
Ubuntu ServerAn official derivative made for use in servers. Ubuntu Server handles mail, controls printers, acts as a fileserver, can host LAMP and more.[61]
Ubuntu StudioBased on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed at the audio, video and graphic editors.[62]
Ubuntu TouchDesigned for use with touchscreen devices.
Ubuntu TVDesigned for use with TVs.[63]
XubuntuAn official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.[64]

Old official distributions[edit]

DistributionDescription
GobuntuGobuntu was an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. It was officially announced by Mark Shuttleworth on July 10, 2007, and daily builds of Gobuntu 7.10 began to be publicly released. The project ended around the release of 8.04 and has since merged into mainline Ubuntu as a 'free software' option.[65]
Ubuntu JeOS"Just Enough OS" – was described as "an efficient variant [...] configured specifically for virtual appliances".[66] Since the release of Ubuntu 8.10 it has been included as an option as part of the standard Ubuntu Server Edition.
Ubuntu MobileAn embedded operating system designed for use on mobile devices. The operating system will use Hildon from maemo as its graphical frontend. Ubuntu Touch is a successor to Ubuntu Mobile.
Ubuntu Netbook Edition[67]Netbook Edition was an official derivative of Ubuntu designed for netbooks using the Intel Atom processor. Starting from Ubuntu 11.04, Ubuntu Netbook Edition has been merged into the desktop edition.

Third-party distributions[edit]

Unofficial variants and derivatives are not controlled or guided by Canonical Ltd. and generally have different goals in mind.

DistributionDescription
AuroraSpecifically for the Eee PC range of netbooks, based on Debian. Previously named Eeebuntu and based on Ubuntu.[68]
BaltixUbuntu-based distribution for Lithuanian and Latvian people. Supported languages are Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, Russian, English, Norwegian and other around Baltic region. Main language is Lithuanian.[69]
BackBoxBackBox is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It has been developed to perform penetration tests and security assessments. Designed to be fast, easy to use and provide a minimal yet complete desktop environment, thanks to its own software repositories, always being updated to the latest stable version of the most used and best known ethical hacking tools.[70]
BackTrackDeveloped by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing;[71] superseded by Kali Linux[citation needed]
BlankOnUbuntu-based GNU/Linux distribution for users in Indonesia.[72]
BuildixAn Ubuntu-based GNU/Linux distribution, developed by Global IT professional services firm, ThoughtWorks. For agile developers.
Bodhi LinuxAn Ubuntu-based GNU/Linux distribution featuring the Enlightenment window manager and targeting users who want minimum of preinstalled software or low system requirements.[73]
CubuntuUbuntu-based distribution with the Cinnamon interface.[74]
dyne:bolicLive CD geared toward multimedia (audio and video) production, but comes with other non-media specific application (e.g.: word processor, desktop publisher).[75]
EasyPeasyFork of Ubuntu designed for netbooks.[76]
Element OSBased on Xubuntu, made for Home theater PCs.[77]
elementary OSA powerful, user-friendly distribution known for its well received user interface, proprietary software, and devoted community of developers and artists.[78]
EmmabuntüsBased on Xubuntu designed to facilitate the repacking of computers donated to Emmaüs Communities.[79]
Galsoft LinuxA GNU/Linux distribution derived from Lubuntu that is made to be installed from a DVD or a USB flash drive. The distribution is specially optimized to run efficiently with limited hardware resources.
GendBuntuA version adapted for use by France's National Gendarmerie.
GoobuntuAn Ubuntu-based distribution used internally by Google. Not available outside of Google.
gOSUses the GNOME desktop environment with user interface enhancements to make it work more like Mac OS X, it also features Google Apps, Picasa, Google Gadgets and other web-based applications, and comes with Wine 1.0 pre-installed.
GuadalinexUbuntu-based distribution promoted by the local government of Andalucia, Spain, for home users and schools.[80]
IskolinuxA GNU/Linux distribution packaged and maintained by UP Manila's (UPM) Information Management System as part of University of the Philippines' thrust to migrate to Linux.
Joli OSJoli OS (formerly named Jolicloud) is in development and Pre-beta testing. Joli OS is built upon Debian and Ubuntu 9.10, but is tweaked to be more suitable for computers that have weaker specifications in terms of disk storage, memory and screen size. It is designed to run on relatively low-powered netbook computers.[81]
HP MiBased on Ubuntu 8.04 LTS, designed by Canonical and HP for use on the HP Mini 1000 and 110 series netbooks.[82]
Impi LinuxSouth African and focuses on the enterprise and government sector.[83]
KaroshiA formerly PCLinuxOS-based distribution designed for use in schools.[84]
Kuki LinuxLightweight Ubuntu-based GNU/Linux distribution founded by João Ferro, built to be a replacement for the Linpus Linux Lite distribution on the Acer Aspire One.[85]
LiMuxA project by the city council of Munich, Germany.
Linux MintLinux Mint synchronizes its release-cycle with Ubuntu's, and is tailored to user-friendliness for desktop users. Also features a Debian-based edition.[86]
LinuxMCELinux Media Center Edition, a Kubuntu based distribution that provides in-depth HTPC functionality as well as home automation.[87]
LinuxTLEA Thai Linux distribution.[88]
LliureXA distribution by the Generalitat Valenciana[89]
LOUDLCSEE Optimized Ubuntu Distribution, an Ubuntu distribution used at West Virginia University. It contains several specialized educational packages as well as its own themes and login manager.[90]
MAXStands for MAdrid LinuX.[91]
MolinuxUbuntu based initiative to introduce the Castile-La Mancha community in Spain to the information society.[92]
Moon OSMoon OS uses the Enlightenment window manager and also has an LXDE version, and is based on the LTS release.[93]
NovaCuban state-sponsored distribution developed at the University of Information Science, Havana. Formerly based on Gentoo.
NetrunnerKubuntu based distribution with complete software and codecs installed, developed by Blue Systems (also sponsoring Kubuntu and LinuxMintKDE).[94]
OpenGEUUbuntu based distribution with Enlightenment window manager, previously known as Geubuntu.[95]
Peppermint OSA light-weight LXDE distribution for cloud applications through its own Ice Framework using Chromium Web Browser. Based on Lubuntu[96]
Pinguy OSAn Ubuntu-based distro for people that have never used Linux before or for people that want an out-of-the-box working OS without having to tweak a fresh installation of Ubuntu or other Ubuntu-based distro.[97]
Poseidon LinuxFor academic and scientific use. Based on Ubuntu, but enhanced by e.g. GIS/maps, numerical modelling, 2D/3D/4D visualization, statistics, tools for creating simple and complex graphics, programming languages.
PUDSmall distribution, aimed at being simple and usable.
Qimo 4 KidsEducational games for children aged three and up. Ubuntu-based with easy-to-use interface.[98]
SabilyUbuntu based distribution for Muslims (formerly Ubuntu Muslim Edition).[99]
Super OSAiming to provide an ‘out of the box’ experience, containing various enhancements over Ubuntu.[100]
Trisquel GNU/LinuxFully free software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses the Linux-libre kernel, based on Ubuntu LTS Releases.[101]
TurnKey Linux Virtual Appliance LibraryOpen source project developing a family of free, Ubuntu-based appliances optimized for ease of use in server-type usage scenarios.[102]
UberStudentFor higher education and advanced secondary students, those who teach them, and lifelong learners.[103]
Ubuntu MATEUbuntu using the MATE Desktop.[104]
VinuxA Linux distribution designed for visually impaired users.[105]
ZevenOSSimilar to BeOS, with some extra tools.[106]

Gentoo-based[edit]

Gentoo family tree

Gentoo is a distribution designed to have highly optimized and frequently updated software.[107] Distributions based on Gentoo use the Portage package management system with emerge[108] or one of the alternative package managers.

DistributionDescription
Calculate LinuxCalculate GNU/Linux is a family of distributions.
Chromium OS[109]Chrome OS[110] is used on various Chromebooks, Chromeboxes and tablet computers. It is primarily Internet-based, launching each app within the Chrome browser. The OS features a user interface that is very similar-looking to Chrome instead of GNOME, KDE, etc.
CoreOSEnterprise base image with update subscription
Funtoo LinuxA GNU/Linux distribution based on Gentoo.
GentooxAn adaptation of Gentoo for the Xbox.
KnopperdiskA GNU/Linux distribution aimed at USB sticks.
PentooPenetration-testing Live CD.
Sabayon LinuxAn installable Live DVD with multiple desktop environments. Like Gentoo, Sabayon uses the rolling release model; it uses a customized version of Red Hat's Anaconda Installer and includes a Media Center application.
SystemRescueCDSystem rescue Live CD version of Gentoo.
Tin Hat LinuxBased on hardened Gentoo.
UtutoMade in Argentina.
KogaionRomanian GNU/Linux distro based on Gentoo and Sabayon.

Also, the Gentoo project maintains its own list of distributions based on Gentoo.

Pacman-based[edit]

Arch family tree

Pacman is a package manager that is capable of resolving dependencies and automatically downloading and installing all necessary packages. In theory, a user need only run a single command to completely update the system.

DistributionDescription
Arch LinuxAn i686- and x86-64-optimized distribution targeted at experienced users. Arch runs on a rolling release system and uses the pacman utility for package management.
Chakra LinuxOriginally derived from Arch GNU/Linux, with the latest KDE desktop. For now uses the pacman utility for package management. Strives to be Qt-only.
Frugalware LinuxA general purpose GNU/Linux distribution designed for intermediate users. Has some influences from Slackware, and uses a heavily modified version of the Pacman package manager, Pacman-G2, a fork of a cvs version of the complete rewrite of Pacman-G1 by Aurelien Foret (the old monolithic Pacman-G1 is written by Judd Vinet). The packages are tar archives that are compressed using xz.[111]

Arch-based[edit]

DistributionDescription
Antergos LinuxDerived from Arch GNU/Linux with GUI installer and multiple choices of Desktop Environments
ArchBangBased on Arch GNU/Linux, but also provides LiveCDs with working system and graphical installation scripts; uses Openbox as default window manager
Arch Linux ARMA port of Arch GNU/Linux for ARM computers, with support for soft-float ARMv5te, and hard-float ARMv6 and ARMv7 instruction sets on a variety of consumer devices and development platforms.
LinHESLinHES (Linux Home Entertainment Server) designed for use on Home Theater PCs (HTPCs), providing applications for recording TV and acting as a sound and video center
Manjaro LinuxBased on Arch GNU/Linux, using its own repositories and ships with XFCE (as the default desktop environment), KDE, Openbox, an net edition without GUI, and also an XFCE netbook edition
Parabola GNU/Linux-libreArch Linux without any proprietary-licensed software, plus various added packages. Packages are also built for mips64el in addition to i686 and x86_64
UBOSOptimized for the easy administration of headless personal servers and Internet-of-things devices that run web apps. Subsets Arch, and adds certain metadata, conventions and admin tools. Supports x86_64 and Raspberry Pi.

RPM-based[edit]

Red Hat family tree

Red Hat Linux and SUSE Linux were the original major distributions that used the RPM file format, which is today used in several package management systems. Both of these later divided into commercial and community-supported distributions. Red Hat Linux divided into a community-supported distribution sponsored by Red Hat called Fedora, and a commercially supported distribution called Red Hat Enterprise Linux, where as SuSE divided into openSUSE and SUSE Linux Enterprise

DistributionDescription
aLinuxFormerly known as Peanut Linux
ALT LinuxSeveral GNU/Linux distributions including Master, Compact, and Junior, Server, Terminal.
Caldera OpenLinuxA GNU/Linux distribution originally introduced by Caldera and later developed by its subsidiary Caldera Systems, the later Caldera International, who bought SCO and then renamed into The SCO Group and no longer produces a Linux distribution. Last release: 3.1.1 – Jan. 30, 2002
cAos LinuxA general purpose GNU/Linux distribution. Designed to have low overhead, run on older hardware, and be easily customizable.
FedoraCommunity-supported GNU/Linux distribution sponsored by Red Hat. It usually features cutting-edge Linux technologies.
Lycoris Desktop/LX
MageiaA community GNU/Linux distribution initially forked from Mandriva Linux in response to the discontinuation of free versions of Mandriva Linux.
Mandriva LinuxEasy to use system through its unique Control Center.
openSUSEA community-developed GNU/Linux distribution, sponsored by SUSE. It maintains a strict policy of ensuring all code in the standard installs will be from Free/Libre/Open-Source Software solutions, including Linux kernel Modules. SUSE's enterprise Linux products are all based on the codebase that comes out of the openSUSE project.
PCLinuxOSA rolling release GNU/Linux Live CD distribution. Originally based on Mandrake 9.2. Later rebased on Mandriva 2007.
Red Hat LinuxSplit into Fedora Core and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The last official release of the unsplit distribution was Red Hat GNU/Linux 9 in March 2003.
TurbolinuxOriginally based on Red Hat GNU/Linux.
Vine LinuxA Japanese distribution originally based on Red Hat GNU/Linux.
YOPERA rolling release desktop distribution from New Zealand that focuses on optimizing system performance for workstation use. Discontinued.

Fedora-based[edit]

Fedora family tree

Fedora is a community supported distribution. It aims to provide the latest software while maintaining a completely Free Software system.[112]

DistributionDescription
Atomixa Serbian desktop and server oriented Linux distribution
Aurora SPARC LinuxFor Sun's SPARC architecture
Berry LinuxA medium-sized Fedora-based distribution that provides support in Japanese and English.
EduLinuxFor educational purposes
EnGarde Secure LinuxServer-only GNU/Linux distribution designed to be secure.[113]
FuduntuDesigned to fit in somewhere between Fedora and Ubuntu.
HanthanaDesigned to cater the needs of Sri Lankan computer users who are unable to access Internet frequently, with many most-wanted applications built in.
K12LTSPA distribution for educational purpose. Comes with LTSP support.
KororaInitially aimed at easy installation of a Gentoo system by using install scripts instead of manual configuration. Now based on Fedora.
Linpus LinuxFocused on the Chinese market, along with Linpus Lite focused on the netbook market.
MeeGoBuilt by Intel and Nokia, intended for mobile phones (mainly Nokia N9) and tablets. It is based on Moblin together with Maemo.
MoblinBuilt around the Intel Atom processor; supplanted by Meego when Intel and (temporarily) Nokia combined activities
MythDoraSpecialized GNU/Linux distribution for easy setup of the MythTV PVR software, similar to KnoppMyth, based on Fedora.
Network Security ToolkitA Live CD/DVD with security and networking tools to perform routine security and networking diagnostic and monitoring tasks.
Ojuba LinuxFocused on providing the best Arabic support, as well as some Islamic tools such as Hijra (Hijri calendar) and Minbar (prayer time indicator).
Qubes OSFocused on security for desktop users.
Red Hat Enterprise LinuxRed Hat's officially supported distribution. Meant for enterprise use.
Russian Fedora RemixA remix of Fedora.
TrustixA GNU/Linux distribution focused on security.[114]
XangeXange (formerly Simplis, formerly Vixta) is a distribution that tries to emulate the appearance of Windows Vista. It is based on KDE.
Yellow Dog LinuxFor the PowerPC platform.

RHEL-based[edit]

DistributionDescription
AsianuxA GNU/Linux distribution co-developed between Red Flag Software Co., Ltd., Miracle Linux Corp. and Haansoft, INC., focused on Chinese, Japanese and Korean support.
CentOSCommunity-supported distribution that aims to be compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux without the inclusion of proprietary software.
ProxyOSGNU/Linux based on CentOS. Provide layer 4 (customized Linux Virtual Server) and layer 7 (customized Nginx) load balancing. High availability from customized keepalived project. http://ProxyOS.org
ClearOSSmall Business Server. File, Print, Messaging, UTM, VPN.
Fermi Linux LTSBased on Scientific Linux.[115]
Miracle LinuxDeveloped by Japanese software vendor Miracle Linux Co., Ltd
Oracle LinuxSupported by Oracle. Aims to be fully compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Red Flag LinuxA GNU/Linux distribution developed in China and optimized for the Chinese market. Based on Asianux.
Rocks Cluster DistributionA GNU/Linux distribution for building a High-Performance Computing computer cluster, with a recent release supporting Cloud computing. It is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux but with extensions to support large multi-node heterogeneous systems for clusters (HPC), Cloud, and Data Warehousing (in development).
Scientific LinuxA GNU/Linux distribution co-developed by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), which aims to be compatible with and based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
SME ServerBased on CentOS and targeting Small and Medium Enterprises.

Mandriva Linux-based[edit]

Mandriva family tree
DistributionDescription
AnnvixA security-focused server GNU/Linux distribution. Originally based on Mandrake 9.2 but has diverged a lot. Discontinued.
TinyMeBased on Unity Linux, targeted to be as lightweight as possible.
Trinity Rescue KitAimed specifically at offline operations for Windows and Linux systems such as rescue, repair, password resets and disk cloning
Unity LinuxMeant to be a base for custom distributions.
MageiaCommunity-based fork. Especially for beginners with its startup-screen.

openSUSE-based[edit]

DistributionDescription
Cr OS LinuxA lightweight GNU/Linux distribution based on openSUSE with Cinnamon desktop environment.
LinkatA GNU/Linux distribution promoted by the government of Catalonia, Spain.
SUSE Linux Enterprise DesktopPreviously branded Novell Linux Desktop. A desktop-oriented Linux distribution supplied by SUSE and targeted at the enterprise market.
SUSE Linux Enterprise ServerA server-oriented Linux distribution supplied by SUSE and targeted at the business market.

Slackware-based[edit]

Slackware family tree

Slackware is known as a highly customizable distribution that stresses ease of maintenance and reliability over cutting-edge software and automated tools. Generally considered a distribution for advanced users, it is often suggested to those who want to learn the inner workings of a Linux operating system.

DistributionDescription
Austrumi LinuxAn 108 MB bootable live CD as of version 1.9.3
BasicLinuxA mini GNU/Linux designed to run in old PCs (386). Has a certain degree of compatibility with Slackware packages.
FrugalwareFrugalware GNU/Linux is a general-purpose Linux distribution designed for intermediate users who are familiar with command-line operations. Early versions were based on Slackware, but it is now an independently developed distribution.
HostGISHostGIS GNU/Linux is a Slackware based distribution specifically made for handling GIS information.
KateOSA desktop GNU/Linux distribution aimed at intermediate users. It uses Xfce as its default desktop environment. No longer in development.
MuLinuxFloppy-based GNU/Linux distribution with replaceable modules.
NimbleXCompletely customizable through the NimbleX website. Now no longer producing new versions.
PlatypuxA French GNU/Linux distribution of the Slackware family
Salix OSOriginally a fork of Zenwalk, Salix is a complete GNU/Linux distribution fully backwards compatible with Slackware.

Uses Xfce, KDE, LXDE, Fluxbox or Ratpoison as its default desktop environment. 32 and 64bits version. Live versions are also available.

Sentry FirewallA firewall, server or intrusion detection system GNU/Linux distribution.
simpleLinuxsimpleLinux uses LZMA compression to compress its system files. The project started on year 2007 by a group of Malaysian developer. simpleLinux is a Slackware-based distribution that comes in both Live CD or Persistence version that can be installed to a medium. simpleLinux comes to be a multi-tasking operating system that runs the X Window System.
SlackintoshAn unofficial port of Slackware to the PowerPC architecture.
Slamd64An unofficial port of Slackware to the x86-64 architecture.
SlaxA live CD which aims to provide a complete desktop for general use. Permanent installation of Slax is not recommended or supported; it is designed for "live" use only. Also can be run from a USB flash drive.
SuperGamerA Live DVD GNU/Linux Distribution focused on gaming.
TopologilinuxDesigned to run from within Microsoft Windows, Topologilinux can be installed without any changes to the user's hard disk. Outdated.
VectorLinuxA lightweight GNU/Linux distribution designed to be easy to use even for new users. Generally considered well-suited for older hardware.
WifislaxA GNU/Linux distribution with LiveCD and LiveUSB capabilities conceived and designed for security auditing and related to computer security in general.
WinLinuxA GNU/Linux distro that runs at top of FAT32 FS.
WolvixA desktop-oriented GNU/Linux distribution based on Slackware, mainly targeted at home users, featuring Xfce. No longer available
ZenwalkOriginally a minimal version of Slackware, Zenwalk has evolved into a very different operating system; however, compatibility with Slackware is still maintained.
ZipSlackA lightweight and portable version of Slackware

Slax-based[edit]

Slax's modularity and reputation of quality have made it a popular base for other live CD projects.

DistributionDescription
DAVIXA GNU/Linux Live CD for data analysis and visualization.
DNALinuxA small GNU/Linux distribution designed for running bioinformatics software, including BLAST and EMBOSS.
EmnixA Slax-based GNU/Linux distribution focused around portability and practicality. Production has ceased and Emnix replaced with Project Esma.
PorteusA small GNU/Linux distro based on Slax.

Independent[edit]

The following distributions can not be categorized under the preceding sections.

DistributionDescription
Alpine LinuxA security-oriented, lightweight Linux distribution based on musl and BusyBox.
BifrostSmall, for networking.
BillixA live CD or live USB system administration toolkit and multi-boot distribution with the ability to install any of the included distributions.
Coyote LinuxRouter/firewall GNU/Linux distribution.
CRUXCRUX is a lightweight, x86-64-optimized GNU/Linux distribution targeted at experienced users. The focus is "keep it simple", which is reflected in a simple tar.xz-based package system, BSD-style initscripts, and a relatively small collection of trimmed packages
DD-WRTEmbedded firewall GNU/Linux distribution.
Devil-LinuxRouter/firewall/server GNU/Linux distribution running from CD or USB. Configuration held on USB or floppy disk.
Dragora GNU/Linux-LibreA GNU/Linux distribution written entirely from scratch[116] and sharing some similarities with Slackware. Approved by the GNU Project as a free operating system.[117]
DSLinuxVersion of GNU/Linux designed for the Nintendo DS.
ELinOSGNU/Linux distribution for embedded systems by SYSGO. ELinOS focuses on industrial application and provides real-time extensions.
Familiar LinuxGNU/Linux distribution for iPAQ handhelds.
fli4lRouter/firewall GNU/Linux distribution.[118]
Foresight LinuxA rolling release GNU/Linux distribution built around the Conary package manager.
FREESCOA free replacement for proprietary routers supporting up to 10 network cards and up to 10 modems.
GeeXboXLive CD media center GNU/Linux distribution, mainly to play special-encoded video files (e.g.: .ogg, XVID) on home theater.
GoboLinuxAn alternative GNU/Linux distribution which redefines the file system hierarchy by installing everything belonging to one application in one folder under /Programs, and using symlinks from /System and its subfolders to point to the proper files.
IPCopRouter/firewall GNU/Linux distribution.
JlimeGNU/Linux distribution for the HP Jornada 6xx and 7xx and NEC MobilePro 900(c) handhelds.
Lightweight Portable Security (LPS)[119]A distribution created by the United States Department of Defense that boots entirely in RAM
Lunar LinuxA source code-based GNU/Linux distribution descended from Sorcerer.
MCC Interim LinuxMCC Interim GNU/Linux, possibly the first Linux distribution. Created by the Manchester Computing Centre in February 1992.
MkLinuxA legacy GNU/Linux distribution for PowerPC systems that runs the Linux kernel as a server on top of the Mach microkernel.
MobilinuxBy Montavista for smartphones.
MontaVista LinuxEmbedded systems GNU/Linux distribution by MontaVista Software.
NASLitea floppy-based GNU/Linux designed to turn an old computer into a simple Network Attached Storage device.
NitixDeveloped by Net Integration Technologies Inc., Nitix claims to be the first autonomic Linux kernel–based server operating system.
OpenTV 5Developed by Nagra, next generation television middleware for connected media convergence platform.
OpenWrtRouter/firewall GNU/Linux distribution, also other embedded systems, a lot of routing options via opkg available
paldoIndependently developed desktop operating system and package manager (upkg) with a rolling release format and standard Gnome environment.
PS2 LinuxSony Computer Entertainment GNU/Linux distribution released officially for the PlayStation 2 video game console.
Puppy LinuxA mini GNU/Linux distribution which runs well under low-end PCs – even under 32 MB RAM.
rPathA distribution built around the Conary package manager. Discontinued.
SliTaz GNU/LinuxA small desktop GNU/Linux distribution. The ISO is under 35 MB; runs entirely in RAM; uses its own tazpkg package system.
SmallfootDeveloped by the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO UNIX / SCO Group), formerly Caldera International and Caldera Systems – based on Caldera OpenLinux 3.x and 4.x binaries.
SmoothWallRouter/firewall GNU/Linux distribution.
Softlanding Linux SystemOne of the earliest GNU/Linux distributions, developed from 1992–1994; Slackware was originally based on it.
SorcererA source code-based GNU/Linux distribution.
Source MageA source code-based GNU/Linux distribution, descended from Sorcerer.
Stable Hybrid ReleaseFor smartphones, offering Enlightenment's Illume user interface. It is based on FSO.
ThinstationThin client GNU/Linux distribution supporting all major connectivity protocols.
Tinfoil Hat LinuxBootable floppy GNU/Linux distribution focusing on extreme security
Tiny Core LinuxTiny Core Linux is a minimalist (around 10 MB) GNU/Linux system focusing on providing a base system with BusyBox, FLTK and other minimalist software.
tomsrtbtRoot boot disk.
Tor-ramdiskAn i686 uClibc-based micro GNU/Linux distribution (about 5 MB) that runs in system memory and whose only purpose is to host a Tor server in an environment that maximizes security and privacy.
Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/XOne of the oldest GNU/Linux distributions, not updated since 1995.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ubuntu Manpage: deb - Debian binary package format". Manpages.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  2. ^ "Ubuntu Manpage: dpkg - package manager for Debian". Manpages.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  3. ^ 64 Studio website
  4. ^ aptosid website
  5. ^ (Russian) Astra Linux
  6. ^ BOSS GNU/Linux website
  7. ^ Canaima website
  8. ^ Corel GNU/Linux history
  9. ^ CrunchBang Linux website
  10. ^ Stahie, Silviu (28 November 2014). "Fork Debian Project Announces the Systemd-less OS Devuan". Softpedia. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  11. ^ Elive website
  12. ^ "Emdebian Grip packages: A smaller Debian-compatible distro". emdebian.org. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  13. ^ Finnix website
  14. ^ grml website
  15. ^ Wiki Debian HandyLinux Debian Derivatives Census
  16. ^ Instant WebKiosk project page[dead link]
  17. ^ Kali website
  18. ^ Kanotix website
  19. ^ Knoppix website
  20. ^ LEAF Project website
  21. ^ LiMux website
  22. ^ Linuxmint.com
  23. ^ Maemo website
  24. ^ MEPIS website
  25. ^ MEPIS website
  26. ^ MintPPC website
  27. ^ Musix GNU/Linux website
  28. ^ NepaLinux website
  29. ^ OpenZaurus website
  30. ^ Parsix website
  31. ^ Rxart website
  32. ^ Sacix project page
  33. ^ Siduction website
  34. ^ Skolelinux website
  35. ^ SolusOS website
  36. ^ SolydXK website
  37. ^ Sunwah Linux website
  38. ^ Symphony OS website
  39. ^ SalineOS website[dead link]
  40. ^ TAILS website
  41. ^ Ubuntu website
  42. ^ Ulteo website
  43. ^ Univention Corporate Server website
  44. ^ Webconverger website
  45. ^ Vyatta website
  46. ^ Knoppix Wiki
  47. ^ Damn Small Linux website
  48. ^ Feather Linux website
  49. ^ Hikarunix website
  50. ^ About Ubuntu – Official website
  51. ^ "About Ubuntu Derivatives". Ubuntu. Retrieved August 19, 2012. 
  52. ^ Edubuntu website
  53. ^ Kubuntu website
  54. ^ Smart, Chris (May 2009). "Another day, another Ubuntu derivative.". Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  55. ^ LXDE (February 2009). "Lubuntu? LXDE Meet up with Mark Shuttleworth in Berlin". Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  56. ^ Lubuntu website
  57. ^ Mythbuntu website
  58. ^ Ubuntu for Android website
  59. ^ Ubuntu GNOME approved as official flavour
  60. ^ Ubuntu GNOME
  61. ^ Ubuntu Server Edition website
  62. ^ Ubuntu Studio website
  63. ^ Ubuntu TV website
  64. ^ Xubuntu website
  65. ^ Gobuntu information
  66. ^ Ubuntu JeOS information
  67. ^ "Ubuntu to announce its mobile Linux in June". 
  68. ^ Aurora website
  69. ^ Baltix website
  70. ^ BackBox website
  71. ^ BackTrack website
  72. ^ BlankOn website
  73. ^ Bodhi Linux website
  74. ^ Official Cubuntu website
  75. ^ dyne:bolic website
  76. ^ EasyPeasy website
  77. ^ Element OS website[dead link]
  78. ^ elementary OS website
  79. ^ Emmabuntüs website
  80. ^ Guadalinex website
  81. ^ Joli OS website
  82. ^ Brown, Eric (2008-10-29). "HP netbook boasts homegrown Linux distro". LinuxDevices.com. Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings Inc. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  83. ^ Impi Linux website
  84. ^ Karoshi website
  85. ^ Kuki Linux website[dead link]
  86. ^ Linux Mint website
  87. ^ LinuxMCE website
  88. ^ LinuxTLE website
  89. ^ LliureX website
  90. ^ LOUD website
  91. ^ MAX website
  92. ^ Molinux website
  93. ^ Moon OS website
  94. ^ Netrunner website
  95. ^ OpenGEU website
  96. ^ "About Peppermint OS". 
  97. ^ Pinguy OS Homepage
  98. ^ Qimo 4 Kids website
  99. ^ Sabily website
  100. ^ Super OS website
  101. ^ Trisquel Linux website
  102. ^ TurnKey Linux website
  103. ^ UberStudent website
  104. ^ Ubuntu MATE website
  105. ^ Vinux website
  106. ^ ZevenOS website
  107. ^ About Gentoo
  108. ^ Portage – Gentoo Handbook
  109. ^ "Chromium OS Developer Guide". Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  110. ^ "Chromium Project FAQ". 
  111. ^ "About Frugalware". Frugalware Stable Documentation. Frugalware Project. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  112. ^ Objectives – Fedora Project
  113. ^ DistroWatch.com: EnGarde Secure Linux
  114. ^ DistroWatch.com: Trustix Secure Linux
  115. ^ DistroWatch.com: Fermi Linux
  116. ^ Bruce Byfield: Eight Completely Free Linux Distros (And One More) earthweb.com, 2011.
  117. ^ List of Free GNU/Linux Distributions - GNU Project, Free Software Foundation, retrieved 2014-12-15 
  118. ^ fli4l website
  119. ^ "Software Protection Initiative - Main". Spi.dod.mil. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 

External links[edit]