List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
The Roberts Court, 2010
Back row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, and Elena Kagan. Front row (left to right): Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States. Its membership consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices. The justices are nominated by the President of the United States and appointed after confirmation by the United States Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court have life tenure[1] and receive a salary which is set at $255,500 per year for the chief justice and at $244,400 per year for each associate justice as of 2014.[2][3][4] On August 7, 2010, Justice Elena Kagan became the 112th justice to serve on the Court.[5]

The Supreme Court was created in 1789 by Article III of the United States Constitution, which stipulates that the "judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court" together with any lower courts Congress may establish.[1] Congress organized the Court that year with the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789. It specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of justices at six (one chief justice and five associate justices).[6][7]

Since the passage of the Judiciary Act, Congress has occasionally altered the size of the Supreme Court, historically in response to the country's own expansion in size. Membership was decreased in 1801 to five, then increased to seven members in 1807, to nine in 1837, and to ten in 1863. It was then reduced to seven in 1866. In 1869, Congress set the Court's size to nine members, where it has remained since.[8] While the justices of the Supreme Court are appointed for life, some choose to retire: a total of 54 have retired or resigned. The average age of newly appointed justices is about 53 years old. Historically, the average length of service on the Court has been less than 15 years; however, since 1970 the average length of service has increased to about 26 years.[9]

List of justices[edit]

The following lists all justices aside from Edwin Stanton, who died before taking office.

Legend

  † Chief justice 
* Recess appointment
  Currently serving justice 

#JudgeStateBorn/DiedActive serviceChief JusticeRetirementAppointed byReason for
termination
1Wilson, JamesJames WilsonPA174209141742–1798178910051789–1798
(9 years)
WashingtonDeath
2Jay, JohnJohn JayNY174512121745–1829178909261789–1795
(6 years)
178909261789–1795WashingtonResignation
3Cushing, WilliamWilliam CushingMA173203011732–1810179002021789–1810
(21 years)
WashingtonDeath
4Blair, JohnJohn Blair, Jr.VA17320000<1732–1800179002021789–1795
(6 years)
WashingtonResignation
5Rutledge, JohnJohn RutledgeSC173909181739–1800179002151789–1791
(2 years)
WashingtonResignation[n 1]
6Iredell, JamesJames IredellNC175110051751–1799179005121790–1799
(9 years)
WashingtonDeath
7Johnson, ThomasThomas Johnson*MD173211041732–1819179208061792–1793
(1 years)
WashingtonResignation
8Paterson, WilliamWilliam PatersonNJ174512241745–1806179303111793–1806
(13 years)
WashingtonDeath
5Rutledge, JohnJohn Rutledge*†SC173909181739–1800179506301795–1795
(0 years)
179512281795WashingtonRejection
9Chase, SamuelSamuel ChaseMD174104171741–1811179602041796–1811
(15 years)
WashingtonDeath
10Ellsworth, OliverOliver EllsworthCT174504291745–1807179603081796–1800
(4 years)
179603081796–1800WashingtonResignation
11Washington, BushrodBushrod WashingtonVA176206051762–1829179902041798–1829
(31 years)
Adams, J.Death
12Moore, AlfredAlfred MooreNC175505211755–1810180004211800–1804
(4 years)
Adams, J.Resignation
13Marshall, JohnJohn MarshallVA175509241755–1835180102041801–1835
(34 years)
180102041801–1835Adams, J.Death
14Johnson, WilliamWilliam JohnsonSC177112271771–1834180405071804–1834
(30 years)
JeffersonDeath
15Livingston, Henry BrockholstHenry Brockholst LivingstonNY175711251757–1823180701201807–1823
(16 years)
JeffersonDeath
16Todd, ThomasThomas ToddKY176501231765–1826180705041807–1826
(19 years)
JeffersonDeath
17Duvall, GabrielGabriel DuvallMD175212061752–1844181111231811–1835
(24 years)
MadisonResignation
18Story, JosephJoseph StoryMA177909181779–1845181202031812–1845
(33 years)
MadisonDeath
19Thompson, SmithSmith Thompson*NY176801171768–1843182309011823–1843
(20 years)
MonroeDeath
20Trimble, RobertRobert TrimbleKY177611171776–1828182606161826–1828
(2 years)
Adams, J. Q.Death
21McLean, JohnJohn McLeanOH178503111785–1861183001111830–1861
(31 years)
JacksonDeath
22Baldwin, HenryHenry BaldwinPA178001141780–1844183001181830–1844
(14 years)
JacksonDeath
23Wayne, James MooreJames Moore WayneGA17900000<1790–1867183501141835–1867
(32 years)
JacksonDeath
24Taney, Roger B.Roger B. TaneyMD177703171777–1864183603281836–1864
(28 years)
183603281836–1864JacksonDeath
25Barbour, Philip PendletonPhilip Pendleton BarbourVA178305251783–1841183605121836–1841
(5 years)
JacksonDeath
26Catron, JohnJohn CatronTN17860000<1786–1865183705011837–1865
(28 years)
JacksonDeath
27McKinley, JohnJohn McKinleyAL178005011780–1852183801091837–1852
(15 years)
Van BurenDeath
28Daniel, Peter VivianPeter Vivian DanielVA178404241784–1860184201101842–1860
(18 years)
Van BurenDeath
29Nelson, SamuelSamuel NelsonNY179211101792–1873184502271845–1872
(27 years)
TylerRetirement
30Woodbury, LeviLevi Woodbury*NH178912221789–1851184509231845–1851
(6 years)
PolkDeath
31Grier, Robert CooperRobert Cooper GrierPA179403051794–1870184608101846–1870
(24 years)
PolkRetirement
32Curtis, Benjamin RobbinsBenjamin Robbins Curtis*MA180911041809–1874185110101851–1857
(6 years)
FillmoreResignation
33Campbell, John ArchibaldJohn Archibald CampbellAL181106241811–1889185304111853–1861
(8 years)
PierceResignation
34Clifford, NathanNathan CliffordME180308181803–1881185801211858–1881
(23 years)
BuchananDeath
35Swayne, Noah HaynesNoah Haynes SwayneOH180412071804–1884186201271862–1881
(19 years)
LincolnRetirement
36Miller, Samuel FreemanSamuel Freeman MillerIA181604051816–1890186207211862–1890
(28 years)
LincolnDeath
37Davis, DavidDavid Davis*IL181503091815–1886186212101862–1877
(15 years)
LincolnResignation
38Field, Stephen JohnsonStephen Johnson FieldCA181611041816–1899186305201863–1897
(34 years)
LincolnRetirement
39Chase, Salmon P.Salmon P. ChaseOH180801131808–1873186412151864–1873
(9 years)
186412151864–1873LincolnDeath
40Strong, WilliamWilliam StrongPA180805061808–1895187003141870–1880
(10 years)
GrantRetirement
41Bradley, Joseph PhiloJoseph P. BradleyNJ181303141813–1892187003231870–1892
(22 years)
GrantDeath
42Hunt, WardWard HuntNY181006141810–1886187301091873–1882
(9 years)
GrantRetirement
43Waite, MorrisonMorrison WaiteOH181611291816–1888187403041874–1888
(14 years)
187403041874–1888GrantDeath
44Harlan, John MarshallJohn Marshall HarlanKY183306011833–1911187712101877–1911
(34 years)
HayesDeath
45Woods, William BurnhamWilliam Burnham WoodsAL182408031824–1887188101051881–1887
(6 years)
HayesDeath
46Matthews, StanleyStanley MatthewsOH182407211824–1889188105171881–1889
(8 years)
GarfieldDeath
47Gray, HoraceHorace GrayMA182803241828–1902188201091882–1902
(20 years)
ArthurDeath
48Blatchford, SamuelSamuel BlatchfordNY182003091820–1893188204031882–1893
(11 years)
ArthurDeath
49Lamar, Lucius Quintus CincinnatusLucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar
MS182509171825–1893188801181888–1893
(5 years)
ClevelandDeath
50Fuller, MelvilleMelville FullerIL183302111833–1910188810081888–1910
(22 years)
188810081888–1910ClevelandDeath
51Brewer, David JosiahDavid Josiah BrewerKS183706201837–1910189001061890–1910
(20 years)
Harrison, B.Death
52Brown, Henry BillingsHenry Billings BrownMI183603021836–1913189101051891–1906
(15 years)
Harrison, B.Retirement
53Shiras, George Jr.George Shiras, Jr.PA183201261832–1924189210101892–1903
(11 years)
Harrison, B.Retirement
54Jackson, Howell EdmundsHowell Edmunds JacksonTN183204081832–1895189303041893–1895
(2 years)
Harrison, B.Death
55White, Edward DouglassEdward Douglass WhiteLA184511031845–1921189403121894–1921
(27 years)
191012121910–1921Cleveland (associate)
Taft (chief)[n 2]
Death
56Peckham, Rufus WheelerRufus Wheeler PeckhamNY183811081838–1909189601061896–1909
(13 years)
ClevelandDeath
57McKenna, JosephJoseph McKennaCA184308101843–1926189801261898–1925
(27 years)
1921 (acting)[n 3]McKinleyRetirement
58Holmes, Oliver Wendell Jr.Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.MA184103081841–1935190212081902–1932
(30 years)
1930 (acting)[n 4]Roosevelt, T.Retirement
59Day, William R.William R. DayOH184904071849–1923190303021903–1922
(19 years)
Roosevelt, T.Retirement
60Moody, William HenryWilliam Henry MoodyMA185312231853–1917190612171906–1910
(4 years)
Roosevelt, T.Retirement[n 5]
61Lurton, Horace HarmonHorace Harmon LurtonTN184402261844–1914191001031910–1914
(4 years)
TaftDeath
62Hughes, Charles EvansCharles Evans HughesNY186204111862–1948191010101910–1916
(6 years)
TaftResignation[n 1]
63Van Devanter, WillisWillis Van DevanterWY185904171859–1941191101031911–1937
(26 years)
193706021937–1941
(4 years)
TaftRetirement
64Lamar, Joseph RuckerJoseph Rucker LamarGA185710141857–1916191101031911–1916
(5 years)
TaftDeath
65Pitney, MahlonMahlon PitneyNJ185802051858–1924191203181912–1922
(10 years)
TaftResignation
66McReynolds, James ClarkJames Clark McReynoldsTN186202031862–1946191410121914–1941
(27 years)
194101311941–1946
(5 years)
WilsonRetirement[n 6]
67Brandeis, Louis DembitzLouis BrandeisMA185611131856–1941191606051916–1939
(23 years)
193902131939–1941
(2 years)
WilsonRetirement[n 6]
68Clarke, John HessinJohn Hessin ClarkeOH185709181857–1945191610091916–1922
(6 years)
WilsonResignation
69Taft, William HowardWilliam Howard TaftOH185709151857–1930192107111921–1930
(9 years)
192107111921–1930HardingResignation[n 7]
70Sutherland, GeorgeGeorge SutherlandUT186203251862–1942192210021922–1938
(16 years)
193801171938–1942
(4 years)
HardingRetirement[n 6]
71Butler, PiercePierce ButlerMN186603171866–1939192301021923–1939
(16 years)
HardingDeath
72Sanford, Edward TerryEdward Terry SanfordTN186507231865–1930192302191923–1930
(7 years)
HardingDeath
73Stone, Harlan F.Harlan F. StoneNY187210111872–1946192503021925–1946
(21 years)
194107031941–1946[n 8]Coolidge (associate)
Roosevelt, F. (chief)[n 2]
Death
62Hughes, Charles EvansCharles Evans HughesNY186204111862–1948193002241930–1941
(11 years)
193002241930–1941HooverRetirement
74Roberts, Owen Owen RobertsPA187505021875–1955193006021930–1945
(15 years)
HooverResignation
75Cardozo, Benjamin N.Benjamin N. CardozoNY187005241870–1938193203141932–1938
(6 years)
HooverDeath
76Black, HugoHugo BlackAL188602271886–1971193708191937–1971
(34 years)
1946 (acting)
1953 (acting)[n 9][n 10]
197109171971–1971
(0 years)
Roosevelt, F.Retirement[n 6]
77Reed, Stanley FormanStanley Forman ReedKY188412311884–1980193801311938–1957
(19 years)
195702251957–1980
(23 years)
Roosevelt, F.Retirement[n 6]
78Frankfurter, FelixFelix FrankfurterMA188211151882–1965193901301939–1962
(23 years)
196208281962–1965
(3 years)
Roosevelt, F.Retirement[n 6]
79Douglas, William O.William O. DouglasCT189810161898–1980193904171939–1975
(36 years)
197511121975–1980
(5 years)
Roosevelt, F.Retirement[n 6]
80Murphy, FrankFrank MurphyMI189004131890–1949194002051940–1949
(9 years)
Roosevelt, F.Death
81Byrnes, James F.James F. ByrnesSC187905021882–1972194107081941–1942
(1 years)
Roosevelt, F.Resignation
82Jackson, Robert H.Robert H. JacksonNY189202131892–1954194107111941–1954
(13 years)
Roosevelt, F.Death
83Rutledge, Wiley BlountWiley Blount RutledgeIA189407201894–1949194302151943–1949
(6 years)
Roosevelt, F.Death
84Burton, Harold HitzHarold Hitz BurtonOH188806221888–1964194510011945–1958
(13 years)
195810131958–1964
(6 years)
TrumanRetirement[n 6]
85Vinson, Fred M.Fred M. VinsonKY189001221890–1953194606241946–1953
(7 years)
194606241946–1953TrumanDeath
86Clark, Tom C.Tom C. ClarkTX189909231899–1977194908241949–1967
(18 years)
196706121967–1977
(10 years)
TrumanRetirement[n 6]
87Minton, ShermanSherman MintonIN189010201890–1965194910121949–1956
(7 years)
195610151956–1965
(9 years)
TrumanRetirement[n 6]
88Warren, EarlEarl Warren*†CA189103191891–1974195310051953–1969
(16 years)
195310051953–1969196906231969–1974
(5 years)
EisenhowerRetirement[n 6]
89Harlan, John Marshall IIJohn Marshall Harlan IINY189905201899–1971195503281955–1971
(16 years)
197109231971–1971
(0 years)
EisenhowerRetirement[n 6]
90Brennan, William J.William J. Brennan, Jr.*NJ190604251906–1997195610161956–1990
(34 years)
199007201990–1997
(7 years)
EisenhowerRetirement[n 6]
91Whittaker, Charles EvansCharles Evans WhittakerMO190102221901–1973195703251957–1962
(5 years)
196203311962–1965
(3 years)
EisenhowerResignation
92Stewart, PotterPotter Stewart*OH191501231915–1985195810141958–1981
(23 years)
198107031981–1985
(4 years)
EisenhowerRetirement
93White, ByronByron WhiteCO191706081917–2002196204161962–1993
(31 years)
199306281993–2002
(9 years)
KennedyRetirement[n 6]
94Goldberg, ArthurArthur GoldbergIL190808081908–1990196210011962–1965
(3 years)
KennedyResignation
95Fortas, AbeAbe FortasTN191006191910–1982196510041965–1969
(4 years)
Johnson, L.Resignation
96Marshall, ThurgoodThurgood MarshallNY190807021908–1993196710021967–1991
(24 years)
199110011991–1993
(2 years)
Johnson, L.Retirement[n 6]
97Burger, Warren E.Warren E. BurgerVA190709171907–1995196906231969–1986
(17 years)
196906231969–1986198609261986–1995
(9 years)
NixonRetirement[n 6]
98Blackmun, HarryHarry BlackmunMN190811121908–1999197006091970–1994
(24 years)
199408031994–1999
(5 years)
NixonRetirement[n 6]
99Powell, Lewis F.Lewis F. Powell, Jr.VA190709191907–1998197201071972–1987
(15 years)
198706261987–1998
(11 years)
NixonRetirement[n 6]
100Rehnquist, WilliamWilliam RehnquistAZ
VA[n 11]
192410011924–2005197201071972–2005
(33 years)
198609261986–2005Nixon (associate)
Reagan (chief)[n 2]
Death
101Stevens, John PaulJohn Paul StevensIL192004201920–197512191975–2010
(35 years)
2005 (acting)[n 12]201060292010–present
(4 years)
FordRetirement
102O'Connor, Sandra DaySandra Day O'ConnorAZ193003261930–198109251981–2006
(25 years)
200601312006–present
(8 years)
ReaganRetirement
103Scalia, AntoninAntonin ScaliaVA193603111936–198609261986–present
(28 years)
ReaganCurrently serving
104Kennedy, AnthonyAnthony KennedyCA193607231936–198802181988–present
(26 years)
ReaganCurrently serving
105Souter, DavidDavid SouterNH193909171939–199010091990–2009
(19 years)
200906292009–present
(5 years)
Bush, G. H. W.Retirement
106Thomas, ClarenceClarence ThomasGA194806231948–199110231991–present
(23 years)
Bush, G. H. W.Currently serving
107Ginsburg, RuthRuth Bader GinsburgNY193303151933–199308101993–present
(21 years)
ClintonCurrently serving
108Breyer, StephenStephen BreyerMA193808151938–199408031994–present
(20 years)
ClintonCurrently serving
109Roberts, John G.John G. RobertsMD195501271955–200509292005–present
(9 years)
200509292005–presentBush, G. W.Currently serving
110Alito, SamuelSamuel AlitoNJ195004011950–200601312006–present
(8 years)
Bush, G. W.Currently serving
111Sotomayor, SoniaSonia SotomayorNY195406251954–200908082009–present
(5 years)
ObamaCurrently serving
112Kagan, ElenaElena KaganMA196004281960–201008052010–present
(4 years)
ObamaCurrently serving

Graphic timeline[edit]

The graphic below is a timeline depicting the progression of the justices in the United States Supreme Court. Information regarding their seat number, predecessors, successors and fellow justices, as well as their tenure on the court can be gleaned from the timeline. Additionally, the progression of presidents (with the number of justices they nominated) is shown at the top of the timeline to give a more detailed historical context. Three presidents (Taft, F. Roosevelt, and Reagan), in addition to successfully nominating several justices to the court, elevated an associate justice to chief justice. These elevations are counted as nominations, and are designated with a caret(^). Several justices began their terms on the bench after the inauguration of a new president.

This graphical representation of the progression of the High Court allows some otherwise obscure information to be easily noted. For example, Joseph Story (in the early 19th century) and Stephen Breyer (in the late 20th and early 21st centuries) are each noteworthy for serving over 11 years as the court's most junior member. Samuel Blatchford (in the 1880s) served the third longest as the court's most junior member at less than 6 years. Thomas Johnson (1790s), Robert Trimble (1820s) and Arthur Goldberg (1960s) are the only justices to leave the court while still being the court's most junior member. William Rehnquist is unique in that he is the only justice to witness all of his more senior justices leave the court, without witnessing any of his more junior justices leave the court. Hugo Black, in addition to witnessing all eight of his predecessors leave the court, saw fourteen more junior members replaced on the court, meaning he worked beside a record thirty justices.

Elena KaganSonia SotomayorSamuel AlitoJohn G. RobertsStephen BreyerRuth Bader GinsburgClarence ThomasDavid SouterAnthony KennedyAntonin ScaliaSandra Day O'ConnorJohn Paul StevensWilliam RehnquistLewis F. Powell, Jr.Harry BlackmunWarren E. BurgerThurgood MarshallAbe FortasArthur GoldbergByron WhitePotter StewartCharles Evans WhittakerWilliam J. Brennan, Jr.John Marshall Harlan IIEarl WarrenSherman MintonTom C. ClarkFred M. VinsonHarold Hitz BurtonWiley Blount RutledgeRobert H. JacksonJames F. ByrnesFrank MurphyWilliam O. DouglasFelix FrankfurterStanley Forman ReedHugo BlackBenjamin N. CardozoOwen Josephus RobertsHarlan Fiske StoneEdward Terry SanfordPierce Butler (justice)George SutherlandWilliam Howard TaftJohn Hessin ClarkeLouis BrandeisJames Clark McReynoldsMahlon PitneyJoseph Rucker LamarWillis Van DevanterCharles Evans HughesHorace Harmon LurtonWilliam Henry MoodyWilliam R. DayOliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.Joseph McKennaRufus Wheeler PeckhamEdward Douglass WhiteHowell Edmunds JacksonGeorge Shiras, Jr.Henry Billings BrownDavid Josiah BrewerMelville Weston FullerLucius Q. C. LamarSamuel BlatchfordHorace GrayThomas Stanley MatthewsWilliam Burnham WoodsJohn Marshall HarlanMorrison Remick WaiteWard HuntJoseph Philo BradleyWilliam StrongSalmon Portland ChaseStephen Johnson FieldDavid DavisSamuel Freeman MillerNoah Haynes SwayneNathan CliffordJohn Archibald CampbellBenjamin Robbins CurtisRobert Cooper GrierLevi WoodburySamuel NelsonPeter Vivian DanielJohn McKinleyJohn CatronPhilip Pendleton BarbourRoger Brooke TaneyJames Moore WayneHenry BaldwinJohn McLeanRobert TrimbleSmith ThompsonJoseph StoryGabriel DuvallThomas ToddHenry Brockholst LivingstonWilliam Johnson (judge)John MarshallAlfred MooreBushrod WashingtonOliver EllsworthSamuel ChaseWilliam Paterson (judge)Thomas Johnson (governor)James IredellJohn RutledgeJohn BlairWilliam CushingJohn Jay (American statesman)James Wilson

See also[edit]

Supreme Court of the United States
Other

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Was later reappointed as chief justice
  2. ^ a b c This individual was elevated from associate justice to chief justice. Unlike the inferior courts, the chief justice is separately nominated and subject to a separate confirmation process, regardless of whether or not he or she is already an associate justice.
  3. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, McKenna acted as chief justice from White's death on May 19, 1921 until Taft took office on July 11, 1921.
  4. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Holmes acted as chief justice from Taft's departure on February 3, 1930 until Hughes took office on February 24, 1930.
  5. ^ There is some disagreement on how Moody exited office. According to the Federal Judicial Center, Moody resigned. According to the Supreme Court Historical Society, Moody retired. It turns out that the confusion comes from the fact that Moody was allowed to retire by special act of Congress in 1910 due to prolonged ill health. (Moody did not meet the minimum age and service requirements to retire without this waiver.)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Beginning in the 20th century, many justices who left the Court voluntarily did so by retiring as Supreme Court justices without leaving the federal judiciary altogether. Some databases refer to this as an election by the justice of senior status, although the term "senior status" is used almost exclusively with regard to judges of lower federal courts, not the Supreme Court. A "retired justice", as the status is referred to in the United States Code, is no longer a member of the Supreme Court of the United States, but remains eligible to serve by designation as a judge of a U.S. Court of Appeals or District Court (and many retired justices have indeed served in these capacities). However, because the justice ceases to be a member of the Supreme Court as of the moment of retirement, the reason for these justices' leaving the Supreme Court is given as "retirement", although the reason for the justice's later leaving the federal judiciary altogether might be a subsequent act of (full) retirement or the justice's death.
  7. ^ There is some disagreement on how William Howard Taft exited office. According to some sources, such as the Supreme Court Historical Society, Taft retired. According to others, such as the Federal Judicial Center, Taft resigned.
  8. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Stone acted as chief justice from Hughes's retirement on June 30, 1941 until Stone took the oath of office as chief justice three days later.
  9. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Black acted as chief justice from Stone's death on April 22, 1946 until Vinson took office on June 24, 1946.
  10. ^ Under 62 Stat. 869, Black acted as chief justice from Vinson's death on September 8, 1953, until Warren took office on October 5, 1953. The Supreme Court was not in session during this brief period.
  11. ^ In 1971, Rehnquist was appointed from Arizona,[10] but in 1986, when elevated to chief justice, he was appointed from Virginia.[11]
  12. ^ Under 28 U.S.C. § 3, Stevens acted as chief justice from Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005 until Roberts took office on September 29, 2005. The Supreme Court was not in session during this brief period.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Article III". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  2. ^ Mears, Bill (January 1, 2010). "Chief Justice Roberts has little to say at year's end". CNN. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  3. ^ Barnes, Robert (January 1, 2010). "Supreme Court Chief Justice Roberts opts not to ask Congress to raise judicial salaries". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  4. ^ Rowley, James (January 13, 2014). "Federal Judges in U.S. See $25,000 More as Salary Freeze Falls". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Elena Kagan sworn in by Roberts to become 112th Supreme Court Justice". Los Angeles Times. August 7, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010. 
  6. ^ "About The Supreme Court". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Supreme Court Research Guide". Georgetown Law Library. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  8. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (July 26, 2007). "Stacking the Court". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  9. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (February 26, 2008). "Dems' Choices For Bench Surprisingly Slim". CBS News. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  10. ^ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary (1971). Nominations of William H. Rehnquist and Lewis F. Powell, Jr: Hearings, Ninety-second Congress, first session, on nominations of William H. Rehnquist, of Arizona, and Lewis F. Powell, Jr., of Virginia, to be Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 
  11. ^ "Executive Session". Congressional Record. September 17, 1986. p. 23803.