List of Japanese military equipment of World War II

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Military History of Japan during World War II

The following is a list of Japanese military equipment of World War II which includes artillery, vehicles and vessels, and other support equipment of both the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), and Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) from operations conducted from 1937 through 1945. The Empire of Japan forces conducted operations over a variety of geographical areas and climates from the frozen North of China bordering Russia during the Battle of Khalkin Gol (Nomonhan) to the tropical jungles of Indonesia. Japanese military equipment was researched and developed align two separate procurement processes, one for the IJA and one for the IJN. Until 1943, the IJN usually received a greater budget allocation, which allowed for the Super Battleships, advanced aircraft such as the Mitsubishi A6M series, and the worlds largest submarines. However, the Imperial Japanese Army suffered from severe lack of supply which eventually impacted its use of tactics in the engagements during the run up and including WWII.

The basic rifle was the Arisaka Type 99 which was antiquated when Japan entered WWII in 1941. Its 6.5mm round lacked lethal ability at range due to a frequently underpowered propellant. The bolt system was cumbersome and to chamber another round the operator had to remove his head from the sighting position, thus breaking his aim and requiring a complete re-aming procedure when the round was chambered. Machine Guns were heavy, required up to four personnel to transport, and a lack of belt fed systems limited their prolonged fire.

The Japanese commanders, faced with equipment that was substandard when engaging the industrial Western Powers of the UK and US, and even some of the Chinese armies that were equipped by the Germans in 1937, would initially resort to the "Banzai" or bayonet charge to attempt to close quickly with the enemy and negate the superior firepower in hand to hand combat. Although by 1940 an increasingly isolated Japan made the controversial decision to join the Axis, very little in the way of technological transfer occurred, and as a result Japanese equipment maintained independent development for the most part, however in some of the cases where limited exchanges of design did take place, Japans lack of industrial capacity limited these to either prototypes for testing, or limited production runs for home defense only.

A majority of the materials used were cotton, wool, and silk for the fabrics. Wood for weapon stocks. Leather for ammunition pouches, belts, etc. But by 1943 material shortages caused much of the leather to switch to cotton straps as a substitute.

Contents

Swords and bayonets[edit]

ModelBlade lengthFrom:Comments
Guntō (Type 98 Military Sword)73 cm1938-
Type 30 bayonet40 cm1897fitted on rifles from Type 30 to Type 99
Type 4 bayonet ? cm1911integrated with Type 44 Cavalry Carbine
Type 2 bayonet19.5 cm1942fitted on Type 2 TERA Rifle and Type 100 SMG
Pole bayonet38.6 cm1945last-ditch weapon

Small arms[edit]

Pistols (manual and semi-automatic)[edit]

Automatic pistols and submachine guns[edit]

Rifles[edit]

[1]

TypeBase modelMakerRoundsCartridgeFrom:ProducedWeightComment
Type 30 RifleType 30Arisaka56.5×50mm Arisaka18975990003.95 kglimited distribution in 1945
Type 38 RifleType 38Arisaka56.5×50mm Arisaka190534000003.95 kgmain IJA rifle
Type 38 Cavalry CarbineType 38Arisaka56.5×50mm Arisaka1905 ?3.3 kgmain armament of IJA auxiliary troops
Type 44 Cavalry CarbineType 38Arisaka56.5×50mm Arisaka1911919003.3 kgfoldable
Type 97 sniper rifleType 38Arisaka56.5×50mm Arisaka1937225003.95 kg2.5x telescopic sight
Type 99 (short) rifleType 99Arisaka57.7×58mm Arisaka193935000003.7 kgintended to replace Type 38
Type Mo rifle I, IIKarabiner 98kMauser57.92×57mm Mauser1937400003.9 kgimported, version I for infantry and II for cavalry
Type Mo rifle IIIvz. 24Považská Bystrica57.92×57mm Mauser1937100004.2 kgimported, for both infantry and cavalry
Type 99 (long) rifleType 99Arisaka57.7×58mm Arisaka1939 ?4.09 kgscarse
Type 2 TERA RifleType 99Nagoya57.7×58mm Arisaka1943212003.7 kgtakedown variant for paratroopers
Type 99 sniper rifleType 99Arisaka57.7×58mm Arisaka19398000 (approx.)3.7 kg2.5x or 4x telescopic sight
Type 100 TERA rifleKarabiner 98kunknown57.7×58mm Arisaka1940500 (approx.)3.9 kgdetachable barrel for paratroopers
Type 1 TERA rifleType 38 Cavalry CarbineNagoya56.5×50mm Arisaka1941250 (approx.)3.3 kgfoldable for paratroopers
Type I RifleType 38Carcano56.5×50mm Arisaka1939600003.95 kgbuilt in Italy for IJN
Type 4 RifleM1 GarandYokosuka107.7×58mm Arisaka1945204.14 kg(also known as Type 5) semi-automatic

Grenades and grenade launchers[edit]

GrenadeLauncherIntroducedTypeWeight, gcomments
Type 10 GrenadeType 101914fragmentation530inaccurate fuse timing
Type 91 GrenadeType 891931fragmentation530improvement of Type 10
Type 92 GrenadeType 101933chemical530green (skin irritant) and red (tear gas) versions
Type 97 GrenadeNo1937fragmentation450evolution of Type 91 optimized for hand-throw
Type 98 GrenadeNo1939fragmentation595copy of Model 24 grenade, long handle
Type 99 GrenadeType 1001939fragmentation300variant of Type 97 for grenade launcher
Type 2 Grenade (30mm)Type 21942anti-tank230
Type 2 Grenade (40mm)Type 21942anti-tank36998mm RHA penetration
Type 3 GrenadeNo1943anti-tank830-1270shaped charge, fabric body
Type 4 GrenadeNo1944fragmentation~480Ceramic (Pottery) grenade

Recoilless rifles[edit]

Flamethrowers[edit]

Machine guns[edit]

Infantry and dual-purpose machine guns[edit]

Vehicle and aircraft machine guns[edit]

See also List of weapons of World War II Japanese aircraft#Army aircraft (IJA)
and List of weapons of World War II Japanese aircraft#Navy aircraft (IJN)

Artillery[edit]

Infantry mortars[edit]

Heavy mortars & rocket launchers[edit]

Field artillery[edit]

Fortress and siege guns[edit]

Infantry guns[edit]

Anti-tank guns[edit]

Anti-tank weapons (besides anti-tank guns)[edit]

Anti-aircraft weapons[edit]

Occasional anti-aircraft guns[edit]

Light anti-aircraft guns[edit]

Medium & heavy anti-aircraft guns[edit]

ModelCaliberEff. alt.FromProducedWeight, kgfire rate, RPMComment
QF 3.7-inch AA gun Mk194mm730019410931715captured from British
Type 1175mm665019224420615(approx.)used as railroad gun and in home islands fortresses
Type 14100mm1050019257051945(approx.)civil defense in Kyushu only
Type 10120mm1006519272000780011cheap coastal defense tool, dual-purpose
Type 8875mm725019282000274018based on QF 3-inch 20 cwt design, mainstay of civil defense
Type 89 naval gun127mm9439193213062030011standard heavy AA gun of IJN
Type 9988mm10420193810006500152nd most produced after Type 88 for civil defense
Type 3 80?mm76.2mm76001943 ?2600 ?lack of data
Type 3 12cm120mm1300019441201980020the only mass-produced Japanese weapon effective against B-29
Type 475mm10000194470585010reverse-engineered Bofors gun captured from Chinese, intended to replace Type 88, modified as Type 5 75 mm Tank Gun
Type 5149.1mm1600019452920010had a fire-control electronic computer

Vehicles[edit]

Tankettes[edit]

Amphibious tanks[edit]

Note: Amphibious Tanks were used by the IJN.

Land tanks and derivatives[edit]

Self-propelled guns[edit]

Tank-based[edit]

NameChassisGunDevelopedManufacturedRole
Jiro-ShaType 95 Heavy Tankunknown ? ?-
Type 2 Ka-ToType 95 Heavy Tank105 mm19420self-propelled anti-tank gun
Type 5 Ho-RuType 95 Ha-GoType 1 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun19451SP ATG
Type 4 120 mm Ho-ToType 95 Ha-GoType 38 12 cm Howitzer1944 ?self-propelled gun
Type 1 Ho-Ni IType 97 Chi-HaType 90 75 mm Field Gun194155SP ATG
Type 1 Ho-Ni IIType 97 Chi-HaType 91 10 cm howitzer194183SPG
Type 3 Ho-Ni IIIType 97 Chi-HaType 3 75 mm Tank Gun194380SP ATG
Type 2 Ho-IType 97 Chi-HaType 41 75 mm Mountain Gun194230SPG
Type 4 Ho-RoType 97 Chi-HaType 38 15 cm howitzer194419SPG
Short barrel 120mm gun tankType 97 Chi-Ha120mm naval gun1945 ?SPG
Type 5 Ho-ChiType 97 Chi-HaType 96 15 cm howitzer19451SPG
Type 98 Ta-Se 20 mmType 98 Ke-NiType 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon19431self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
So-KiType 98 Ke-Nitwin Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon19441self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Ta-HaType 1 Chi-Hetwin 37 mm high-angle gun19420self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Type 5 Na-ToType 4 Chi-ToType 5 75 mm tank gun19452SP ATG
Type 5 Ho-RiType 5 Chi-Ri1x105mm, 1x37mm, 2x20mm (AA)19451SP ATG/AAG

Other[edit]

NameChassisGunDevelopedManufacturedRole
Ki-ToType 97 Te-Ketwin Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon19381self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Ko-HiType 98 half-trackType 2 20 mm AA Machine Cannon19421self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Type 98 20 mm AAG Tank Ho-kiType 1 Ho-Ki APCtwin Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon19430self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Type 4 Ha-TouniqueType 3 30 cm mortar19444self-propelled mortar/rocket launcher

Armored cars[edit]

MakerDevelopedRail wheelsProducedArmamentModel
Austin Motor Company/Nissan1934No ?noneAustin 7
Crossley1928No ?noneIGA
Wolseley Motors Limited1928No ?noneunknown
Sumida(Isuzu)1932No2003x6.5mm Type 11 MGType 2592 Chiyoda, also known as "Chiysda" (misspelled)
Sumida(Isuzu)1931No23x6.5mm Type 11 MG(Chiyoda QSW) "Aikoku"
Sumida(Isuzu)1931No ?3x6.5mm Type 11 MG(Chiyoda) "Kokusan"
Sumida(Isuzu)1932No ?noneType 2592 Sumida
Sumida(Isuzu)1931Yes10001x7.7mm machine gunSumida M.2593, also known as Type 91 Broad-gauge Railroad Tractor Sumi-Da or Type 91 armored railroad car So-Mo
unknown1935Yes121noneType 95 armored railroad car So-Ki
unknown1932Yes ?5× 7.7 mm Vickers .303 MGType 2592 Osaka Hokoku-Go (also known as "Hokoku" or Type 92 Osaka or Type 92 naval armored car)
Ford ?No ?noneMk IV?
 ?1938Yes ?noneType 2598 railroad car

Armored carriers[edit]

Armored trains[edit]

Railroad vehicles[edit]

Wagons[edit]

Locomotives[edit]

Railroad cars[edit]

Engineering and command[edit]

See List of Japanese Army military engineer vehicles of World War II

Trucks[edit]

Passenger cars[edit]

Motorcycles[edit]

Tractors & prime movers[edit]

Miscellaneous vehicles[edit]

Army vessels[edit]

River-crossing crafts[edit]

Landing craft[edit]

Motorboats[edit]

Gun boats[edit]

Landing craft/aircraft carriers[edit]

Transport vessels[edit]

Navy ships and war vessels[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

Secret weapons[edit]

Army secret weapons[edit]

Navy secret weapons[edit]

Radars[edit]

Imperial Japanese Army radars[edit]

Ground-based radar[edit]

Airborne radar[edit]

Shipborne radar[edit]

Imperial Japanese Navy Radars[edit]

Land-based radar[edit]

Airborne radar[edit]

Shipborne radar[edit]

Missiles & bombs[edit]

nametypeintroducedweight, kgroleusercomment
Kawasaki Ki-147 I-Go Type1 – Koguided missile19441400air-to-surfaceIJARadio-guided
Kawasaki Igo-1-Bguided missile1944680air-to-surfaceIJARadio-guided, also known as Ki-148 or I-Go Type 1-Hei
Ke-Goguided missile1944680air-to-surfaceIJAIR homing version of Ki-148
Funshin-danunguided missile194340surface-to-airIJNused in battle of Iwo Jima
Funryuguided missile19431900surface-to-airIJNRadio-guided, models Funryu-1 to Funryu-4
Yokosuka MXY7 Ohkaguided missile19452140surface-to-airIJNguided by suicide pilot
Type 92 No. 1bomb193215air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 92 No. 25bomb1932250air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 92 No. 50bomb1932500air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 94 No. 5bomb193450air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 94 Mod. No. 5bomb193450air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 94 No. 10bomb1934100air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 94 No. 10 Mod.bomb1934100air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 97 No. 6bomb193760air-to-surfaceIJNused in Pearl Harbor attack
Type 98 No. 25bomb193830air-to-surfaceIJNused in Pearl Harbor attack
Type 99 No. 3 Mod.bomb193930air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 99 No. 80bomb1939800anti-shipIJNused in Pearl Harbor attack
Type 99 No. 25bomb193930anti-shipIJNused in Pearl Harbor attack
Type 1 No. 5bomb194150air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 1 No. 10bomb1941100air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 1 No. 25bomb1941250air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 3 No. 10bomb1943100air-to-surfaceIJA-
Type 3 No. 25bomb1943250air-to-surfaceIJASkipping bomb
Type 4 No. 10bomb1944100anti-shipIJA-
Type 4 No. 25bomb1944250anti-shipIJA-
Type 4 No. 50bomb1944500anti-shipIJA-

For more details on naval bombs, see List of Japanese World War II navy bombs For more details in land bombs, see List of Japanese World War II army bombs

Unclear IJA bombs[edit]

Unclear IJN bombs[edit]

Unclear bomb[edit]

Cartridges and shells[edit]

Cartridges[edit]

High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) shells[edit]

GunCaliberWeightLengthPenetration
Type 90/97 Tank Gun57mm1.80 kg189 mm55 mm
Type 92 Infantry Gun70 mm3.38 kg281 mm90 mm
Type 41 Mountain Gun75 mm3.95 kg297 mm100mm
Type 91 10 cm Howitzer105 mm10.91 kg364 mm120 mm
Type 38 12 cm Howitzer120 mm13.03 kg387 mm140 mm
Type 4 15 cm Howitzer149 mm21.04 kg524 mm150mm

Among them, the HEAT of Type 41 Mountain Gun was used in action and destroyed several Allied tanks in Burma and other places. The use of the HEAT for other guns is not known.

Other HEAT shell was the projectile of Type 94 Mountain Gun. The HEAT of Type 94 Mountain Gun was not produced though it was developed.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Standard Catalog of Military Firearms: The Collector's Price and Reference Guide, edited by Phillip Peterson, ISBN 978-1-4402-3692-1

External links[edit]