List of Internet top-level domains

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This is a list of Internet top-level domains (TLDs). A top-level domain is a domain name in the Domain Name System that is a direct subdomain of the DNS root zone.

The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).[1]

In an initiative to expand the domain name space, IANA is considering approval of several proposed top-level domains.

Original top-level domains[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and pre-date the creation of ICANN in 1998.[2]

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.comcommercialThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name, to prevent "squatting".YesYes
.orgorganizationThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some.YesYes
.netnetworkThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites.YesYes
.intinternational organizationsThe .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs which are endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, there are a few grandfathered domain names that do not meet these criteria.NoNo
.edueducationalThe .edu TLD is limited to specific educational institutions such as, but not limited to, primary schools, middle schools, secondary schools, colleges, and universities. In the US, its usability was limited in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies maintained by the United States Department of Education. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by US colleges and universities. Some institutions that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names.NoYes
.govgovernmentalThe .gov TLD is limited to governmental entities and agencies in the US.NoYes
.milUS militaryThe .mil TLD is limited to use by the US military.NoYes

Infrastructure top-level domain[edit]

InfrastructureEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.arpaAddress and Routing Parameter AreaOriginally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. "Address and Routing Parameter Area" is an example of a backronymNoYes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

Note: the country code domain system was created in the early days of the Domain Name System, and pre-dates ICANN.

NameEntityExplanationNotesIDNDNSSECSLDIPv6
.ac Ascension Island Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official British academic domain .ac.uk.YesYesYes
.ad Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required [3][4] NoYes
.ae United Arab Emirates   NoYes
.af Afghanistan   YesYes
.ag Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft, a legal entity form similar to a corporation limited by shares) YesYes
.ai Anguilla   NoYes
.al Albania Citizenship no longer required NoNo
.am Armenia Also unofficially used by AM Radio Stations or related business YesYes
.an Netherlands AntillesLocal presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on October 10, 2010; NoYes
.ao Angola   No 
.aq AntarcticaAntarctiqueDefined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. NoYes
.ar Argentina  Yes[a 1]NoNo
.as American Samoa   NoYes
.at Austria   YesYes
.au Australia Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. NoNo
.aw ArubaAruba, West IndiesRestricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens NoYes
.ax Åland   NoYes
.az Azerbaijan   NoYes
.ba Bosnia and Herzegovina  NoYes
.bb Barbados   NoYes
.bd Bangladesh   NoNo
.be Belgium Also unofficially used in the canton of Berne, SwitzerlandYesYesYes
.bf Burkina Faso   NoYes
.bg Bulgaria  Yes[a 2]YesYes
.bh Bahrain   NoYes
.bi Burundi   NoYes
.bj Benin   NoYes
.bm Bermuda Local corporate registration required NoYes
.bn Brunei   NoNo
.bo Bolivia   NoYes
.br Brazil Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[5]Yes[6]YesNo[a 3]
.bs Bahamas   NoYes
.bt Bhutan   NoNo
.bv Bouvet Island Not in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no).NoNoNo
.bw Botswana   NoYes
.by BelarusByelorussiaalso unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany YesYes
.bz Belize   YesYes
.ca Canada Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. YesYes
.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australian territory: do not confuse with Cocos islands in Guam. Also used as a free domain service to the public as cc.cc, cu.cc or cz.cc domain.) YesYes
.cd Democratic Republic of the Congo   NoYes
.cf Central African Republic   NoYes
.cg Republic of the Congo   NoYes
.ch  SwitzerlandConfoederatio Helvetica (Latin) Yes[a 4]YesYes
.ci Côte d'Ivoire   NoYes
.ck Cook Islands   NoYes
.cl Chile  YesYesYes
.cm Cameroon A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. NoYes
.cn People's Republic of China A local company in China is required to register a domain name. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs. YesYes
.co Colombia Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register. YesYes
.cr Costa Rica   YesYes
.cs CzechoslovakiaThis ccTLD was deleted around January 1995. The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code CS was later assigned to Serbia and Montenegro but that country continued to use the ccTLD .yu instead. NoNo
.cu Cuba   NoYes
.cv Cape Verde   NoYes
.cw Curaçao   NoUnknown
.cx Christmas Island   YesYes
.cy Cyprus   NoNo
.cz Czech Republic  No[a 5]YesYes
.dd East GermanyDeutsche Demokratische RepublikWas proposed, but never implemented due to German re-unification. NoNo
.de GermanyDeutschlandGerman postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed.Yes[a 6]YesYes
.dj Djibouti   NoYes
.dk Denmark  Yes[a 7]YesYes
.dm Dominica   NoYes
.do Dominican Republic   NoYes
.dz AlgeriaDzayer  NoYes
.ec Ecuador   NoYes
.ee EstoniaEestiAnyone can register but local administrative contact is required.Yes[a 8]YesYes
.eg Egypt   NoYes
.eh Western Sahara .eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root. No 
.er Eritrea Inactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains. NoNo
.es SpainEspaña  NoYes
.et Ethiopia   NoNo
.eu European Union Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use.Yes[a 9]YesYes
.fi Finland Restricted to legal and natural persons residing in Finland.Yes[a 10]YesYes
.fj Fiji   NoYes
.fk Falkland Islands   NoNo
.fm Federated States of Micronesia (Also unofficially used by FM Radio Stations or related business) NoYes
.fo Faroe IslandsFøroyar  YesYes
.fr France Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 11]Yes[a 12]YesYes
.ga Gabon   NoYes
.gb United KingdomGreat BritainDeprecated.[8] The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk. NoNo
.gd Grenada   NoYes
.ge Georgia Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[9]NoNoYes
.gf French GuianaGuyane française No 
.gg Guernsey   NoYes
.gh Ghana   NoNo
.gi Gibraltar   YesYes
.gl Greenland (Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use, to be implemented in 2014) YesYes
.gm The Gambia   NoYes
.gn Guinea A local contact is required YesNo
.gp Guadeloupe Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin NoYes
.gq Equatorial GuineaGuinée équatoriale  No 
.gr Greece  Yes[a 13]YesYes
.gs South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands   YesYes
.gt Guatemala  YesNoYes
.gu Guam   NoNo
.gw Guinea-Bissau   NoYes
.gy Guyana   NoYes
.hk Hong Kong Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.YesNoYes
.hm Heard Island and McDonald Islands   NoYes
.hn Honduras   YesYes
.hr CroatiaHrvatska  NoYes
.ht Haiti  YesNoYes
.hu Hungary Restricted to Hungarian companies, organisations and citizens NoYes
.id Indonesia Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and will be open to general registration on August 17, 2014.[10]YesPartial[11]Yes
.ie Ireland In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[12][13]NoNoYes
.il Israel  YesNoNo
.im Isle of Man   NoYes
.in India Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). YesYes
.io British Indian Ocean Territory   YesYes
.iq Iraq   Partial[11]Yes
.ir Iran  YesNoYes
.is IcelandÍsland YesYesYes
.it Italy Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union.Yes[a 14]NoYes
.je Jersey   NoYes
.jm Jamaica   NoNo
.jo Jordan   NoYes
.jp Japan Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. YesYes
.ke Kenya   YesNo
.kg Kyrgyzstan   YesYes
.kh CambodiaKhmer, former Kâmpŭchea  NoNo
.ki Kiribati   YesYes
.km ComorosKomori  NoYes
.kn Saint Kitts and Nevis   NoYes
.kp Democratic People's Republic of Korea   NoNo
.kr Republic of Korea  YesYesYes
.kw Kuwait   NoNo
.ky Cayman Islands Restricted to qualified Cayman entities[14] NoYes
.kz Kazakhstan   NoYes
.la Laos Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[15] YesYes
.lb Lebanon Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon YesNo
.lc Saint Lucia   YesYes
.li Liechtenstein Also used by Long IslandYesYesYes
.lk Sri LankaLanka  YesYes
.lr Liberia   Partial[11]No
.ls Lesotho   NoNo
.lt Lithuania  YesYesYes
.lu Luxembourg  YesYesYes
.lv Latvia  YesYesYes
.ly Libya   NoYes
.ma MoroccoMaroc  Partial[11]Yes
.mc Monaco Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco NoYes
.md Moldova Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. NoYes
.me Montenegro   YesYes
.mg Madagascar   NoYes
.mh Marshall Islands   No 
.mk MacedoniaMakedonijaRestricted to registration with a company in Macedonia NoYes
.ml Mali   NoYes
.mm Myanmar   YesNo
.mn Mongolia The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. YesYes
.mo MacauMacaoSpecial administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.[16] NoYes
.mp Northern Mariana Islands   NoYes
.mq Martinique  NoNo
.mr Mauritania   NoYes
.ms Montserrat   NoYes
.mt Malta   NoNo
.mu Mauritius   NoYes
.mv Maldives   NoYes
.mw Malawi   NoYes
.mx Mexico   NoYes
.my Malaysia Restricted to registration by an individual or company in MalaysiaYes[a 15]YesYes
.mz Mozambique   NoNo
.na Namibia   YesYes
.nc New Caledonia   YesYes
.ne Niger   NoYes
.nf Norfolk Island   YesYes
.ng Nigeria   NoYes
.ni Nicaragua   NoNo
.nl Netherlands First official country code TLD.[17]NoYesYes
.no Norway Restricted to registration by a company in Norway. Individuals in the country can only register under .priv.no. NoYes
.np   Nepal   NoNo
.nr Nauru Also used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr. NoYes
.nu Niue Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now".YesYesYes
.nz New Zealand  Yes[a 16]YesNo
.om Oman Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. NoNo
.pa Panama   NoNo
.pe Peru  Yes[a 17]YesYes
.pf French PolynesiaPolynésie françaiseWith Clipperton Island NoYes
.pg Papua New Guinea   NoNo
.ph Philippines   NoYes
.pk Pakistan Operated by PKNIC since 1992 NoYes
.pl Poland  Yes[a 18]YesYes
.pm Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 11]YesYes
.pn Pitcairn Islands   NoYes
.pr Puerto Rico   YesYes
.ps State of Palestine[18] West Bank and Gaza Strip. NoYes
.pt Portugal  Yes[a 19]YesYesYes[19]
.pw PalauPelew  YesYes
.py Paraguay   NoNo
.qa Qatar   NoNo
.re Réunion Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 11]Yes[a 12]YesYes
.ro Romania   NoYes
.rs SerbiaRepublika Srbija  NoYes
.ru Russia See also .su, still in use, and .рф. YesYes
.rw Rwanda   NoYes
.sa Saudi Arabia Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[20] NoYes
.sb Solomon IslandsBritish Solomon Islands  YesNo
.sc Seychelles   YesYes
.sd Sudan   NoYes
.se Sweden  Yes[a 20]YesYes
.sg Singapore   NoYes
.sh Saint Helena  Yes[a 21]YesYes
.si Slovenia Yes[a 22]YesYes
.sj Svalbard and
 Jan Mayen Islands
 Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no).NoNoNo
.sk SlovakiaRestricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens NoYes
.sl Sierra Leone   NoYes
.sm San Marino Domain name must be same as company name or trademark NoYes
.sn Senegal   NoYes
.so Somalia Relaunched on November 1st, 2010NoNoYes
.sr Suriname   NoYes
.ss South Sudan Removed from the root DNS zone in April 2013 No
.st São Tomé and Príncipe   NoYes
.su Soviet Union Still in use.Yes[a 23]YesYes
.sv El Salvador   NoNo
.sx Sint Maarten   YesNo
.sy Syria   NoYes
.sz Swaziland Registration is restricted to Swaziland organizations with Swaziland Trading Licenses. NoNo
.tc Turks and Caicos Islands .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' is TC. NoYes
.td ChadTchadChadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only. NoYes
.tf French Southern and Antarctic LandsTerres australes et antarctiques françaisesSeldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 11]Yes[a 12]YesYes
.tg Togo   NoYes
.th Thailand  YesYesNo
.tj Tajikistan   NoYes
.tk Tokelau Also used as a free domain service to the public. Used in the Netherlands because tk ('te koop') means 'for sale' in Dutch. NoYes
.tl East TimorTimor-LesteOld code .tp is still in use. NoYes
.tm Turkmenistan  Yes[a 24]YesYes
.tn Tunisia   NoYes
.to Tonga Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or TocantinsYesNoYes
.tp East TimorTimor PortuguêsISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned but .tp is still in use. NoYes
.tr Turkey .nc.tr used by Northern CyprusYes[a 25]NoYes
.tt Trinidad and Tobago   YesYes
.tv Tuvalu Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. YesYes
.tw Taiwan Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan, Province of China."[21]Yes[a 26]YesYes
.tz Tanzania Must have a presence in Tanzania YesNo
.ua UkraineУкраїна/UkrainaUkrainian trademark required YesYes
.ug Uganda   YesYes
.uk United Kingdom The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code for the UK. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[8] YesNo
.us United States of AmericaFormerly commonly used by US State and local governments, see also .gov TLD YesYes
.uy Uruguay 2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[22] NoYes
.uz Uzbekistan   NoYes
.va  Vatican CityVaticanoLimited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State) NoNo
.vc Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   Partial[11]Yes
.ve Venezuela   NoNo
.vg British Virgin Islands   NoYes
.vi United States Virgin Islands   NoYes
.vn Vietnam  Yes[a 27]NoYes
.vu Vanuatu   NoYes
.wf Wallis and Futuna Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 11]Yes[a 12]YesYes
.ws SamoaFormerly Western SamoaMarketed to be used in general WebSitesYesNoYes
.ye Yemen   NoNo
.yt Mayotte Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 11]Yes[a 12]YesYes
.yu SFR Yugoslavia
 FR Yugoslavia
 After dissolution of Yugoslavia used for Serbia and Montenegro. Not used after 2010. NoNo
.za South AfricaZuid-Afrika  NoNo
.zm Zambia   NoNo
.zw Zimbabwe   NoNo

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.academyprivate academic institutesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.aeroair-transport industryMust verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register.NoNo
.agencybusinessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.bargainscoupons and online sellersOpen TLDUnknownYes
.bikebicyclesOpen TLDFrench, Spanish[23]Yes
.bizbusinessThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken.NoYes
.bluethose who like blueOpen TLDUnknownYes
.boutiquebeauty-care businessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.buildconstruction industryOpen only to businesses within the construction industry[24]UnknownYes
.buildersconstruction workersOpen TLDUnknownYes
.buzzmarketing and social networkingOpen TLDUnknownYes
.cabcabs and taxi companiesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.cameracamera-related businessesOpen TLDNoYes
.campcamps and campingOpen TLDUnknownYes
.careersJob boardsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.catCatalan languageThis is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.YesYes
.centergeneralOpen TLDUnknownYes
.ceoCEOsChief Executive only[25]UnknownYes
.cheapresellersOpen TLDUnknownYes
.christmasChristmasOpen TLDUnknownYes
.clothingclothingOpen TLDNoYes
.clubclubs, organizations, assembliesOpen TLD[26]NoYes
.codescomputer and/or encryption code enthusiastsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.coffeecafés and coffee aficionadosOpen TLDUnknownYes
.companycompaniesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.computertechnologyOpen TLDUnknownYes
.constructionconstruction industryOpen TLDNoYes
.contractorscontractorsOpen TLDNoYes
.coolGeneral interestsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.coopcooperativesThe .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles.NoNo
.diamondsdiamond and jewelry industryOpen TLDUnknownYes
.directorygeneral directoryOpen TLDNoYes
.domainsdomain registriesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.educationeducational institutesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.emailEmailOpen TLDUnknownYes
.enterprisesbusinessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.equipmentequipment-related businessesOpen TLDNoYes
.estatereal estate businessesOpen TLDNoYes
.eusBasque languageThis is a TLD for Web sites in the Basque language.UnknownNo
.expertgenericOpen TLDUnknownYes
.farmfarms and agricultureOpen TLDUnknownYes
.floristfloristsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.galGalician language
.galleryphoto and art galleriesOpen TLDNoYes
.giftgift-givingOpen TLDYes[27]Yes
.glasswindow-related businessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.graphicsgraphicsOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.guitarsguitarsOpen TLDYes[29]Yes
.gurugenericOpen TLDFrench, Spanish[30]Yes
.holdingsreal estate or financial businessOpen TLDNoYes
.holidayholiday gift industryOpen TLDUnknownYes
.housereal estate and construction businessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.infoinformationThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register.YesYes
.instituteinstitutesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.internationalinternational entitiesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.jobscompaniesThe .jobs TLD is designed to be added after the names of established companies with jobs to advertise. At this time, owners of a "company.jobs" domain are not permitted to post jobs of third party employers.NoNo
.kitchenfood industryOpen TLDNoYes
.kimpeople named KimOpen TLD
Kim is a common first name in the US and is also the most common Korean surname.
UnknownYes
.landreal estateOpen TLDNoYes
.lightinglightingOpen TLDNoYes
.limolimousine businessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.linkconnecting to information[31]Open TLDYes[32]Yes
.managementbusiness managementOpen TLDUnknownYes
.marketingmarketing servicesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.menurestaurantsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.mobimobile devicesMust be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards.NoNo
.museummuseumsMust be verified as a legitimate museum.YesYes
.nameindividuals, by nameThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter.YesYes
.onlonlineOpen TLDUnknownYes
.photophotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDYes[33]Yes
.photographyphotographyOpen TLDNoYes
.photosphotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDUnknownYes
.picsphotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDYes[34]Yes
.pinkthose who like pinkOpen TLDUnknownYes
.plumbingplumbing businessesOpen TLDNoYes
.postpostal servicesThe .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[35]No[36]Yes
.proprofessionsCurrently, .pro is reserved for licensed or certified professionals worldwide. A professional seeking to register a .pro domain must provide their registrar with the appropriate credentials.NoNo
.recipesrecipes and cookingOpen TLDUnknownYes
.redthose who like the color redOpen TLD
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
UnknownYes
.repairgeneral repair/maintenance businessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.richbusinesses catering to the wealthyOpen TLDUnknownYes
.sexygeneral (intended for adult entertainment (pornography))Open TLDYes[37]Yes
.shikshaeducation entities in India"Shiksha" is Hindi for "education".UnknownYes
.shoesshoesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.singlesonline datingOpen TLDNoYes
.solarsolar-powerOpen TLDUnknownYes
.solutionsBusiness servicesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.supporthelp pagesOpen TLDFrench, Spanish[38]Yes
.systemstechnologyOpen TLDUnknownYes
.tattootattoo aficionadosOpen TLDYes[39]Yes
.technologytechnologyOpen TLDNoYes
.telInternet communication servicesA contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System.Yes[40]No
.tipsgeneral help topicsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.todaygeneralOpen TLDNoYes
.trainingtraining and how-tosOpen TLDUnknownYes
.traveltravel and tourism industry related sitesMust be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity.NoNo
.unoSpanish websitesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.venturesfunding for start-upsOpen TLDNoYes
.viajesSpanish for "travel"Open TLDSpanishYes
.voyagetravelOpen TLDUnknownYes
.watchWatchesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.wedengaged couples and wedding-oriented businessesThis TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with prohibitive third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[41]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[42]
NoYes
.wikiwikis"An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation"UnknownYes
.worksGeneral interestsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.xxxadult entertainment (pornography)For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography.NoNo
.zonegeneralOpen TLDUnknownYes

Internationalized generic top-level domains[edit]

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and will allow second-level IDNs.

DNS NameIDNLanguageTransliterationEnglish TranslationNotesDNSSEC
xn--q9jyb4c[43].みんなJapaneseminna"everyone"Open TLD [44]Yes
xn--3ds443g[45].在线Chinesezàixiàn"online"Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[46]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[47].中文网ChineseZhōngwén wǎng"Chinese network"Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[48]
Yes
xn--6frz82g[49].移动Chineseyídòng"mobile"Open TLDYes

Geographic top-level domains[edit]

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.asiaAsia-Pacific regionThis is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific.YesYes
.berlinBerlin, Germany[50]UnknownYes
.kiwiNew Zealanders (aka kiwis)[51]UnknownYes
.londonLondon, United Kingdom[52]UnknownYes
.nycNew York City, United States[53]UnknownYes

Brand top-level domains[edit]

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.neustarNeustar[54]NoYes

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (November 17, 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ in addition to ASCII, only Cyrillic letters from the Bulgarian language are accepted
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  4. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  5. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[7]
  6. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  7. ^ (January 1, 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details
  8. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from June 13, 2011 [1]
  9. ^ Supported characters (latin, greek, cyrillic): see details
  10. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (latin): see details
  11. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs". .
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  12. ^ a b c d e Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs
  13. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details
  14. ^ [2], [3]
  15. ^ .my Domain Registry
  16. ^ (July 26, 2010) for Māori macrons ā, ē, ī, ō and ū. See details
  17. ^ (8 December 2007): see details
  18. ^ (11 September 2003): see details
  19. ^ (1 July 2005) for Portuguese characters
  20. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  21. ^ IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain
  22. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  23. ^ (28 April 2008) see details
  24. ^ IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain
  25. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  26. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  27. ^ TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet

29.^ (Oktobar 2013) see details

30.^ (November 2013) look see details

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

DNS nameIDN ccTLDCountryTransliterationScriptCommentsOther ccTLDDNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8jالجزائر. Algeriaal Jaza'irArabic.dzNo
xn--54b7fta0cc.বাংলা BangladeshBanglaBengaliNot delegated.bdNo
xn--fiqs8s.中国 ChinaZhōngguóSimplified Chinese.cnYes
xn--fiqz9s.中國 ChinaZhōngguóTraditional Chinese.cnYes
xn--wgbh1cمصر. EgyptMasr [55]Arabic.egNo
xn--node.გე GeorgiaGEGeorgianNot delegated.geNo
xn--j6w193g.香港 Hong KongHoeng1 gong2/XiānggǎngBoth Traditional and Simplified Chinese.hkNo
xn--h2brj9c.भारत IndiaBhāratDevanagariNot in use.inYes
xn--mgbbh1a71eبھارت. IndiaBhāratUrduNot in use.inNo
xn--fpcrj9c3d.భారత్ IndiaBhāratTeluguNot in use.inNo
xn--gecrj9c.ભારત IndiaBhāratGujaratiNot in use.inNo
xn--s9brj9c.ਭਾਰਤ IndiaBhāratGurmukhiNot in use.inNo
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h.இந்தியா IndiaInthiyaaTamilNot in use.inNo
xn--45brj9c.ভারত IndiaBhāratBengaliNot in use.inNo
xn--mgba3a4f16aایران. IranĪrānArabicNot in use.irNo
xn--mgbayh7gpaالاردن. Jordanal 'UrdunArabic.joNo
xn--80ao21a.қаз KazakhstanqazCyrillic.kzNo
xn--mgbx4cd0abمليسيا. MalaysiaMalaysiaArabicNot in use.myYes
xn--l1acc.мон MongoliamonMongolian Cyrillic.mnYes
xn--mgbc0a9azcgالمغرب. Moroccoal MaghribArabic.maNo
xn--mgb9awbfعمان. OmanOmanArabicNot in use.omNo
xn--mgbai9azgqp6jپاکستان. PakistanPakistanUrduNot delegated.pkNo
xn--ygbi2ammxفلسطين. State of PalestineFilastīnArabic.psNo
xn--wgbl6aقطر. QatarQatarArabic.qaNo
xn--p1ai.рф RussiarfCyrillic.ruYes
xn--mgberp4a5d4arالسعودية. Saudi Arabiaas-Sa'ūdiyyahArabic.saNo
xn--90a3ac.срб SerbiasrbCyrillic.rsNo
xn--yfro4i67o.新加坡 SingaporeXīnjiāpōBoth Traditional and Simplified Chinese.sgNo
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd.சிங்கப்பூர் SingaporeCinkappūrTamil.sgNo
xn--3e0b707e.한국 South KoreaHan-gukHangul.krYes
xn--fzc2c9e2c.ලංකා Sri LankaLankaSinhalese.lkPartial[11]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a.இலங்கை Sri LankaIlangaiTamil.lkPartial[11]
xn--mgbpl2fhسودان. SudanSudanArabicNot delegated.sdNo
xn--mgbtf8flسوريا. SyriaSūryāArabic.syNo
xn--kprw13d.台湾 TaiwanTáiwānSimplified Chinese.twYes
xn--kpry57d.台灣 TaiwanTáiwānTraditional Chinese.twYes
xn--o3cw4h.ไทย ThailandThaiThai script.thYes
xn--pgbs0dhتونس. TunisiaTūnisArabic.tnNo
xn--j1amh.укр UkraineukrCyrillic.uaNo
xn--mgbaam7a8hامارات. United Arab EmiratesImārātArabic.aeNo
xn--mgb2ddesاليمن. Yemenal YemenArabicNot delegated.yeNo

Notes[edit]

[56]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Test TLDs[edit]

ICANN created a set of top-level Internationalized domain names in October 2007 for the purpose of testing the use of IDNA in the root zone and within those domains. They are expected to be available for a limited evaluation period.[57][58] Each of these TLDs encodes a word meaning "test" in the respective language.[58][59]

Each of these domains contains only one site with the word "example" encoded in the respective script and language. These example.test sites are test wikis used by ICANN.

TLDTransliterationLanguageScriptLink to test site
DNS nameScript version
xn--kgbechtvإختبارik͡htibārArabicArabichttp://مثال.إختبار
xn--hgbk6aj7f53bbaآزمایشیậzmạy̰sẖyPersianPerso-Arabichttp://مثال.آزمایشی
xn--0zwm56d测试cèshìChineseSimplified Chinesehttp://例子.测试
xn--g6w251d測試cèshìChineseTraditional Chinesehttp://例子.測試
xn--80akhbyknj4fиспытаниеispytánijeRussianCyrillichttp://пример.испытание
xn--11b5bs3a9aj6gपरीक्षाparīkṣāHindiDevanagarihttp://उदाहरण.परीक्षा
xn--jxalpdlpδοκιμήdokiméGreekGreekhttp://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή
xn--9t4b11yi5a테스트teseuteuKoreanHangulhttp://실례.테스트
xn--deba0adטעסטtestYiddishHebrewhttp://בײַשפּיל.טעסט
xn--zckzahテストtesutoJapaneseKatakana[60]http://例え.テスト
xn--hlcj6aya9esc7aபரிட்சைpariṭcaiTamilTamilhttp://உதாரணம்.பரிட்சை

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IANA maintained list of top-level domains
  2. ^ Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591: Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". IETF. 
  3. ^ "Andorra Telecom trademark domain registration policy". 
  4. ^ "Andorra Telecom trade name registration policy". 
  5. ^ Domínios .br Registro.br
  6. ^ (May 9, 2005) for Portuguese (Brazilian) names: see Anúncio 04/05/2005
  7. ^ IDN – Internationalized Domain Names at nic.cz
  8. ^ a b Milton Mueller (2002), Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 79, ISBN 9780262632980 
  9. ^ Article 1.9 of Rules and Conditions for GE Domain Names Registration (Recent Georgian version has some updates not causing this article)
  10. ^ http://www.techinasia.com/shorter-id-domain-indonesia-year/
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone is not yet published.
  12. ^ "Domain chaos spikes e-business ambitions". Silicon Republic. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  13. ^ Information Technology Law: Professional Practice Guide, Dublin: Law Society of Ireland, 2004, p. 23 
  14. ^ ICTA: ky Domain Policies
  15. ^ The Official .LA Registry
  16. ^ http://www.quora.com/How-can-I-get-a-mo-domain-if-Im-not-in-Macau
  17. ^ (Dutch) SIDN registreert 3.000.000ste .nl-domeinnaam (SIDN registers 3 millionth .nl domain name), Official website of SIDN
  18. ^ Delegation Record for .PS
  19. ^ https://www.dns.pt/web/guest/content-display?content=2357237
  20. ^ "Beginning of the Landrush phase of second level domain under (.sa)". 
  21. ^ IANA Report – Delegation of the .台灣 and .台湾 (“Taiwan”) domains representing Taiwan, Province of China in Chinese to Taiwan Network Information Center).
  22. ^ "New rules for the registration of domain names under UY". 
  23. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/bike-external.pdf
  24. ^ http://www.dotbuild.co/register.php
  25. ^ http://nic.ceo/
  26. ^ http://nic.club/faq/
  27. ^ http://uniregistry.link/registry/idn-tables
  28. ^ http://www.iana.org/domains/idn-tables
  29. ^ http://uniregistry.link/registry/idn-tables
  30. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/guru-external.pdf
  31. ^ http://nic.link/
  32. ^ http://uniregistry.link/registry/idn-tables
  33. ^ http://uniregistry.link/registry/idn-tables
  34. ^ http://uniregistry.link/registry/idn-tables
  35. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies: Criteria for Registration". E17. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  36. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies:TLD String". E2. Retrieved 2013-01-01. "Only ASCII characters will be used" 
  37. ^ http://uniregistry.link/registry/idn-tables
  38. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/support-external.pdf
  39. ^ http://uniregistry.link/registry/idn-tables
  40. ^ Telnic. "IDN.tel". Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  41. ^ http://domainincite.com/16144-weirdest-new-gtld-launch-yet-wed-launches-with-a-single-registrar
  42. ^ http://www.atgron.wed/third-level-extensions.html
  43. ^ http://newgtlds.icann.org/en/program-status/delegated-strings
  44. ^ http://www.google.com/registry/
  45. ^ http://newgtlds.icann.org/en/program-status/delegated-strings
  46. ^ http://domainnamewire.com/2014/03/19/chinese-government-buys-20000-new-idn-domain-names/
  47. ^ http://newgtlds.icann.org/en/program-status/delegated-strings
  48. ^ http://domainnamewire.com/2014/03/19/chinese-government-buys-20000-new-idn-domain-names/
  49. ^ http://newgtlds.icann.org/en/program-status/delegated-strings
  50. ^ http://nic.berlin
  51. ^ https://hello.kiwi/about-us
  52. ^ http://nic.london
  53. ^ http://www.nic.nyc
  54. ^ http://www.nic.neustar/
  55. ^ دوت مصر ::: الصفحة الرئيسية
  56. ^ IDN ccTLD Fast Track String Evaluation Completion, ICANN
  57. ^ IANA Report on Delegation of Eleven Evaluative Internationalised Top-Level Domains
  58. ^ a b IDNwiki, IDN TLD evaluation gateway
  59. ^ My Name, My Language, My Internet: IDN Test Goes Live, 15 October 2007
  60. ^ http://例え.テスト, the domain of test page, contains also Kanji (Chinese character in Japanese () and Hiragana (). See also Japanese writing system.

External links[edit]