List of Internet top-level domains

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This is a list of Internet top-level domains (TLDs). A top-level domain is a domain name in the Domain Name System that is a direct subdomain of the DNS root zone. The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).[1] In an initiative to expand the domain name space, IANA is considering approval of several proposed top-level domains. As of October 2014, there are 735 active top-level domains and a handful of retired ones which are no longer functional.

Original top-level domain[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and pre-date the creation of ICANN in 1998.[2]

NameEntityAdministrator[3]NotesIDNDNSSEC
.comcommercialVerisignThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name, to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense.YesYes
.orgorganizationPublic Interest RegistryThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some.YesYes
.netnetworkVerisignThis is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites.YesYes
.intinternational organizationsInternet Assigned Numbers AuthorityThe .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs which are endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, there are a few grandfathered domain names that do not meet these criteria.NoNo
.eduU.S. higher educationEducause (via Verisign)The .edu TLD is limited to specific educational institutions such as, but not limited to, primary schools, middle schools, secondary schools, colleges, and universities. In the US, its usability was limited in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies maintained by the United States Department of Education. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names.NoYes
.govU.S. national and state government agenciesGeneral Services Administration (via Verisign)The .gov TLD is limited to governmental entities and agencies in the U.S.NoYes
.milU.S. militaryUnited States Department of DefenseThe .mil TLD is limited to use by the United States military.NoYes

Infrastructure top-level domain[edit]

InfrastructureEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.arpaAddress and Routing Parameter AreaOriginally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD.NoYes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

Note: the country code domain system was created in the early days of the Domain Name System, and pre-dates ICANN.

NameEntityExplanationNotesIDNDNSSECSLDIPv6
.ac Ascension Island Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official British academic domain .ac.uk.YesYesYesYes
.ad Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required [4][5] YesYes
.ae United Arab Emirates   NoYes
.af Afghanistan   YesYes
.ag Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft, a legal entity form similar to a corporation limited by shares) YesYes
.ai Anguilla   NoYes
.al Albania Citizenship no longer required NoNo
.am Armenia Also unofficially used by AM radio stations or related business YesYes
.an Netherlands AntillesLocal presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on October 10, 2010; NoYes
.ao Angola   NoUnknown
.aq AntarcticaAntarctiqueDefined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. NoYes
.ar Argentina  Spanish[cctld 1]NoNo
.as American Samoa   NoYes
.at Austria   YesYes
.au Australia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and most have a minimum 2 year registration period.[6] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. NoNo
.aw ArubaAruba, West IndiesRestricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens YesYes
.ax Åland   NoYes
.az Azerbaijan   NoYes
.ba Bosnia and Herzegovina  NoYes
.bb Barbados   NoYes
.bd Bangladesh   NoNo
.be Belgium Also unofficially used in the canton of Bern, SwitzerlandYesYesYes
.bf Burkina Faso   NoYes
.bg Bulgaria  Cyrillic[citation needed]YesYes
.bh Bahrain   NoYes
.bi Burundi   NoYes
.bj Benin   NoYes
.bm Bermuda Local corporate registration required NoYes
.bn Brunei   NoNo
.bo Bolivia   NoYes
.br Brazil Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[7]Yes[8]YesNo[cctld 2]
.bs Bahamas   NoYes
.bt Bhutan   NoNo
.bv Bouvet Island Not in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no).NoNoNo
.bw Botswana   NoYes
.by BelarusByelorussiaalso unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany YesYes
.bz Belize   YesYes
.ca Canada Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements.French[cctld 3]YesYes
.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Also used as a free domain service to the public as cc.cc, cu.cc or cz.cc domain. YesYes
.cd Democratic Republic of the Congo   NoYes
.cf Central African Republic   NoYes
.cg Republic of the Congo   NoYes
.ch  SwitzerlandConfoederatio Helvetica (Latin) Yes[cctld 4]YesYes
.ci Côte d'Ivoire   NoYes
.ck Cook Islands   NoYes
.cl Chile  YesYesYesYes
.cm Cameroon A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. NoYes
.cn People's Republic of China A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid ID copy of PRC. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs. YesYes
.co Colombia Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register. YesYes
.cr Costa Rica   YesYes
.cs Czechoslovakia
 Serbia and Montenegro
This ccTLD was deleted around January 1995.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code CS was later assigned to Serbia and Montenegro but that country continued to use the ccTLD .yu instead.
Serbia and Montenegro split in 2006, with Serbia assigned .rs and Montenegro .me
 NoNo
.cu Cuba   NoYes
.cv Cape Verde   NoYes
.cw CuraçaoCuraçao, West Indies  NoUnknown
.cx Christmas Island   YesYes
.cy Cyprus   NoNo
.cz Czech Republic  No[cctld 5]YesYes
.dd East GermanyDeutsche Demokratische RepublikWas proposed, but never implemented due to German re-unification. NoNo
.de GermanyDeutschlandGerman postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed.Yes[cctld 6]YesYes
.dj Djibouti   NoYes
.dk Denmark  Yes[cctld 7]YesYes
.dm Dominica   NoYes
.do Dominican Republic   NoYes
.dz Algeriaal-Djaza'er  NoYes
.ec Ecuador   NoYes
.ee EstoniaEestiAnyone can register but local administrative contact is required.Yes[cctld 8]YesYes
.eg Egypt   NoYes
.eh Western Sahara .eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root. No 
.er Eritrea Inactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains. NoNo
.es SpainEspaña  NoYes
.et Ethiopia   NoNo
.eu European Union Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use.Yes[cctld 9]YesYes
.fi Finland Restricted to legal and natural persons residing in Finland.Yes[cctld 10]YesYes
.fj Fiji   NoYes
.fk Falkland Islands   NoNo
.fm Federated States of Micronesia Also unofficially used by FM radio stations or related business NoYes
.fo Faroe IslandsFøroyar  YesYes
.fr France Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]Yes[cctld 12]YesYes
.ga Gabon   NoYes
.gb United KingdomGreat BritainDeprecated.[10] The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk. NoNo
.gd Grenada   NoYes
.ge Georgia Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[11]NoNoYes
.gf French GuianaGuyane française No 
.gg Guernsey   NoYes
.gh Ghana   NoNo
.gi Gibraltar   YesYes
.gl Greenland Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use, to be implemented in 2014 YesYes
.gm The Gambia   NoYes
.gn Guinea A local contact is required YesNo
.gp Guadeloupe Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin NoYes
.gq Equatorial GuineaGuinée équatoriale  No 
.gr Greece  Yes[cctld 13]YesYes
.gs South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands   YesYes
.gt Guatemala  YesNoYes
.gu Guam   NoNo
.gw Guinea-Bissau   NoYes
.gy Guyana   NoYes
.hk Hong Kong Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.YesNoYes
.hm Heard Island and McDonald Islands   NoYes
.hn Honduras   YesYes
.hr CroatiaHrvatska  YesYes
.ht Haiti  YesNoYes
.hu Hungary Restricted to Hungarian companies, organisations and citizens NoYes
.id Indonesia Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and will be open to general registration on August 17, 2014.[12]YesPartial[13]Yes
.ie Ireland In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[14][15]NoNoYes
.il Israel  YesNoNo
.im Isle of Man   NoYes
.in India Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). YesYes
.io British Indian Ocean Territory Used unofficially by technology companies/startups/web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output which is useful for domain hacks. YesYes
.iq Iraq   Partial[13]Yes
.ir Iran  YesNoYes
.is IcelandÍsland YesYesYes
.it Italy Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union.Yes[cctld 14]NoYes
.je Jersey   NoYes
.jm Jamaica   NoNo
.jo Jordan   NoYes
.jp Japan Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. YesYes
.ke Kenya   YesNo
.kg Kyrgyzstan   YesYes
.kh CambodiaKhmer, former Kâmpŭchea  NoNo
.ki Kiribati   YesYes
.km ComorosKomori  NoYes
.kn Saint Kitts and Nevis   NoYes
.kp Democratic People's Republic of Korea   NoNo
.kr Republic of Korea  YesYesYes
.kw Kuwait   NoNo
.ky Cayman Islands Restricted to qualified Cayman entities[16] NoYes
.kz Kazakhstan   NoYes
.la Laos Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[17] YesYes
.lb Lebanon Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon YesNo
.lc Saint Lucia   YesYes
.li Liechtenstein Also used by Long IslandYesYesYes
.lk Sri LankaLanka  YesYes
.lr Liberia   Partial[13]No
.ls Lesotho   NoNo
.lt Lithuania  YesYesYes
.lu Luxembourg  YesYesYes
.lv Latvia  YesYesYes
.ly Libya   NoYes
.ma MoroccoMarocAlso used as a free domain service to the public as cu.ma Partial[13]Yes
.mc Monaco Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco NoYes
.md Moldova Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. NoYes
.me Montenegro   YesYes
.mg Madagascar   NoYes
.mh Marshall Islands   No 
.mk MacedoniaMakedonijaRestricted to registration with a company in Macedonia NoYes
.ml Mali   NoYes
.mm Myanmar   YesNo
.mn Mongolia The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. YesYes
.mo MacauMacaoSpecial administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.[18] NoYes
.mp Northern Mariana Islands   NoYes
.mq Martinique  NoNo
.mr Mauritania   NoYes
.ms Montserrat   NoYes
.mt Malta   NoNo
.mu Mauritius   NoYes
.mv Maldives   NoYes
.mw Malawi   NoYes
.mx Mexico   NoYes
.my Malaysia Restricted to registration by an individual or company in MalaysiaYes[cctld 15]YesYes
.mz Mozambique   NoNo
.na Namibia   YesYes
.nc New Caledonia   YesYes
.ne Niger   NoYes
.nf Norfolk Island   YesYes
.ng Nigeria   NoYes
.ni Nicaragua   NoNo
.nl NetherlandsNederlandFirst official country code TLD.[19]NoYesYes
.no Norway Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address.YesNoYes
.np   Nepal   NoNo
.nr Nauru Also used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr. NoYes
.nu Niue Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now".YesYesYes
.nz New Zealand  Māori[cctld 16]YesNo
.om Oman Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. NoNo
.pa Panama   NoNo
.pe Peru  Yes[cctld 17]YesYes
.pf French PolynesiaPolynésie françaiseWith Clipperton Island NoYes
.pg Papua New Guinea   NoNo
.ph Philippines   NoYes
.pk Pakistan Operated by PKNIC since 1992 NoYes
.pl Poland  Yes[cctld 18]YesYes
.pm Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]YesYes
.pn Pitcairn Islands   NoYes
.pr Puerto Rico   YesYes
.ps State of Palestine[20] West Bank and Gaza Strip. NoYes
.pt Portugal  PortugueseYesYesYes[21]
.pw PalauPelew  YesYes
.py Paraguay   NoNo
.qa Qatar   NoNo
.re Réunion Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]Yes[cctld 12]YesYes
.ro Romania   NoYes
.rs SerbiaRepublika Srbija  NoYes
.ru Russia See also .su, still in use, and .рф. YesYes
.rw Rwanda   NoYes
.sa Saudi Arabia Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[22] NoYes
.sb Solomon IslandsBritish Solomon Islands  YesNo
.sc Seychelles   YesYes
.sd Sudan   NoYes
.se Sweden  Yes[cctld 19]YesYes
.sg Singapore   NoYes
.sh Saint Helena  Yes[cctld 20]YesYes
.si Slovenia Yes[cctld 21]YesYes
.sj Svalbard and
 Jan Mayen Islands
 Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no).NoYes[23]No
.sk SlovakiaRestricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens NoYes
.sl Sierra Leone   NoYes
.sm San Marino Domain name must be same as company name or trademark NoYes
.sn Senegal   NoYes
.so Somalia Relaunched on November 1, 2010NoNoYes
.sr Suriname   NoYes
.ss South Sudan Removed from the root DNS zone in April 2013 No
.st São Tomé and Príncipe   NoYes
.su Soviet Union Still in use.Yes[cctld 22]YesYes
.sv El Salvador   NoNo
.sx Sint Maarten   YesNo
.sy Syria   NoYes
.sz Swaziland Registration is restricted to Swaziland organizations with Swaziland Trading Licenses. NoNo
.tc Turks and Caicos Islands .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' is TC. NoYes
.td ChadTchadChadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only. NoYes
.tf French Southern and Antarctic LandsTerres australes et antarctiques françaisesSeldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]Yes[cctld 12]YesYes
.tg Togo   NoYes
.th Thailand  YesYesNo
.tj Tajikistan   NoYes
.tk Tokelau Also used as a free domain service to the public. Used in the Netherlands because tk ('te koop') means 'for sale' in Dutch. NoYes
.tl East TimorTimor-LesteOld code .tp is still in use. NoYes
.tm Turkmenistan  Yes[cctld 23]YesYes
.tn Tunisia   YesYes
.to Tonga Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or TocantinsYesNoYes
.tp East TimorTimor PortuguêsISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned but .tp is still in use. NoYes
.tr Turkey .nc.tr used by Northern CyprusYes[cctld 24]NoYes
.tt Trinidad and Tobago   YesYes
.tv Tuvalu Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. YesYes
.tw Taiwan Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan, Province of China."[24]Yes[cctld 25]YesYes
.tz Tanzania Must have a presence in Tanzania YesNo
.ua UkraineУкраїна/UkrainaUkrainian trademark required YesYes
.ug Uganda   YesYes
.uk United Kingdom The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code for the UK. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[10] YesYes
.us United States of AmericaFormerly commonly used by US State and local governments, see also .gov TLD YesYes
.uy Uruguay 2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[25] NoYes
.uz Uzbekistan   NoYes
.va  Vatican CityVaticanoLimited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State) NoNo
.vc Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   Partial[13]Yes
.ve Venezuela   NoNo
.vg British Virgin Islands   NoYes
.vi United States Virgin Islands   NoYes
.vn Vietnam  Yes[cctld 26]NoYes
.vu Vanuatu   NoYes
.wf Wallis and Futuna Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]Yes[cctld 12]YesYes
.ws SamoaFormerly Western SamoaMarketed to be used in general WebSitesYesNoYes
.ye Yemen   NoNo
.yt Mayotte Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11]Yes[cctld 12]YesYes
.yu SFR Yugoslavia
 FR Yugoslavia
 After renaming of FR Yugoslavia, used for the  State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. .cs was assigned for the State union, but never used. .yu has not been used after dissolution of the State Union in 2010. NoNo
.za South AfricaZuid-Afrika  NoNo
.zm Zambia   NoNo
.zr Zaire Zaire renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997.
.zr was removed in 2001
 NoUnknown
.zw Zimbabwe   NoNo

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (November 17, 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  3. ^ "About Internationalized Domain Names" (PDF). Cira.ca. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  4. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  5. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[9]
  6. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  7. ^ (January 1, 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details
  8. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from June 13, 2011 [1]
  9. ^ Supported characters (latin, greek, cyrillic): see details
  10. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (latin): see details
  11. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs". .
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs". Afnic.fr. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  13. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details
  14. ^ "Idn: un successo". Nic.it. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  15. ^ ".my Domain Registry". Domainregistry.my. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  16. ^ details http://www.dnc.org.nz/story/faq-domain-names-macrons-idns details. Retrieved July 26, 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ (8 December 2007): see details
  18. ^ details http://www.dns.pl/IDN/idn_intro_eng.html details. Retrieved 11 September 2003.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  20. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.sh. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  21. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  22. ^ (28 April 2008) see details
  23. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.tm. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  24. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  25. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  26. ^ "TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

Full List of ICANN TLDs

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.abogadolawyers ("abogado" is Spanish for lawyer) ? ? ?
.academyacademic institutesOpen TLDYesYes
.accountantsaccountants and accounting firmsOpen TLDYesYes
.actoractorsOpen TLDYesYes
.aeroair-transport industryMust verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register.NoNo
.agencybusiness associationsOpen TLDYesYes
.archiarchitects and architect firms[26]Restricted to individuals and organizations that can verify participation in architecture industry.[27]UnknownYes
.associatesbusiness associationsOpen TLDYesYes
.attorneyattorneys and legal organizationsProbably restricted to licensed attorneys and legal organizations[citation needed]UnknownYes
.audiostereo/sound systems, musicOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.barbars and pubsOpen TLDYesYes
.bargainscoupons and online sellersOpen TLDYesYes
.beerbeerOpen TLDUnknownYes
.bidauctionsOpen TLDYesYes
.bikebicyclesOpen TLDFrench, Spanish[29]Yes
.biobiodiversity, biographiesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.bizbusinessOpen TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken.Yes[30]Yes
.blackthose who like black[31]Open TLDYesYes
.blackfridayBlack Friday, retailOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.bluethose who like blue[32]Open TLDYesYes
.boutiquespecialized businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.buildconstruction industryOpen only to businesses within the construction industry[33]YesYes
.buildersconstruction workersOpen TLDYesYes
.buzzmarketing and social networkingOpen TLDYesYes
.cabcabs and taxi companiesOpen TLDYesYes
.cameracamera-related businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.campcamps and campingOpen TLDYesYes
.capitalfinancial firmsOpen TLDYesYes
.cardsgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.carehealthcare industryOpen TLDYesYes
.careersEmploymentOpen TLDYesYes
.cashfinancialOpen TLDYesYes
.cateringFood serviceOpen TLDYesYes
.centergeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.ceoCEOsBusiness owners and leaders only[34]UnknownYes
.cheapResellersOpen TLDYesYes
.christmasChristmasOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.churchchurchesOpen TLDYesYes
.citygeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.claimsretail, auctionsOpen TLDYesYes
.cleaningCleaning servicesOpen TLDYesYes
.clinichealthcare clinicsOpen TLDYesYes
.clothingApparelOpen TLDYesYes
.clubgroups, organizations, assembliesOpen TLD[35]Spanish[30]Yes
.codescomputer and/or encryption code enthusiastsOpen TLDYesYes
.coffeecafés and coffee aficionadosOpen TLDYesYes
.collegeEducationalOpen TLDYesYes
.communitysocial groups, neighborhoodsOpen TLDYesYes
.companybusiness associationsOpen TLDYesYes
.computerTechnologyOpen TLDYesYes
.condosReal estateOpen TLDYesYes
.constructionConstruction industryOpen TLDYesYes
.consultinghired advisorsOpen TLDYesYes
.contractorsRemodeling and independent businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.cookingsharing recipesOpen TLDYesYes
.coolGeneral interestsOpen TLDYesYes
.coopCooperativesThe .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles.NoNo
.countrygeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.creditFinancial institutionsOpen TLDYesYes
.creditcardFinancial institutionsOpen TLDYesYes
.cruisesCruise businesses and travelOpen TLDYesYes
.danceDance studios and companiesOpen TLDYesYes
.dateOnline datingOpen TLDUnknownYes
.datingOnline datingOpen TLDYesYes
.dealsonline shopping and couponingOpen TLDYesYes
.democratDemocractic Party politicsOpen TLDYesYes
.dentaldentistsOpen TLDYesYes
.desiHindustani for the peoples and cultures of South AsiaSee also DesiUnknownYes
.diamondsdiamond and jewelry industryOpen TLDYesYes
.digitalgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.directgeneralOpen TLDUnknownYes
.directorygeneral directoryOpen TLDYesYes
.discountgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.domainsdomain registriesOpen TLDYesYes
.educationeducational institutesOpen TLDYesYes
.emailEmailOpen TLDYesYes
.engineeringengineering firmsOpen TLDYesYes
.enterprisesbusiness associationsOpen TLDYesYes
.equipmentequipment-related businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.estatereal estate businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.eventshappeningsOpen TLDYesYes
.exchangegeneric tradeOpen TLDYesYes
.expertgeneric expertiseOpen TLDYesYes
.exposedgeneral interestOpen TLDYesYes
.failgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.farmfarms and agricultureOpen TLDYesYes
.financefinancialOpen TLDYesYes
.financialfinancialOpen TLDYesYes
.fishfishing businesses, sports, and interestsOpen TLDYesYes
.fishingfishing businesses, sports, and interestsOpen TLDYesYes
.fitnessFitness and exerciseOpen TLDYesYes
.flightsairline businesses and travelOpen TLDYesYes
.floristfloristsOpen TLDYesYes
.fooweb developmentOpen TLD[36]UnknownYes
.foundationcharitable organizationsOpen TLDYesYes
.fundfinancialOpen TLDYesYes
.furniturefurniture businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.futbolsoccerOpen TLDYesYes
.galleryphoto and art galleriesOpen TLDYesYes
.giftgift-givingOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.glassWindows and pipesOpen TLDYesYes
.globalgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.gopRepublican Party politicsOpen TLDSpanish[37]Yes
.graphicsGraphicsOpen TLDYesYes
.gratisSpanish for "free"Open TLDYesYes
.gripeOpinion sitesOpen TLDYesYes
.guideHelp sitesOpen TLDYesYes
.guitarsGuitarsOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.guruGeneric expertiseOpen TLDFrench, Spanish[38]Yes
.hausGerman for "house"Open TLDYesYes
.hiphopHip hop cultureOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.hivAIDS and HIVOpen TLDUnknownYes
.holdingsreal estate or financial businessOpen TLDYesYes
.holidayholiday gift industryOpen TLDYesYes
.horsehorse-related businesses and interestOpen TLDYesYes
.hostnetwork companiesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.housereal estate and construction businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.immobilienGerman for "real estate"Open TLDGerman[30]Yes
.industriesindustrial businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.infoinformationOpen TLDYesYes
.inkcreative printing or tattooing[39]Open TLDYesYes
.instituteEstablished business associationsOpen TLDYesYes
.insureInsurance companiesOpen TLDYesYes
.internationalinternational entitiesOpen TLDYesYes
.investmentsfinancialOpen TLDYesYes
.jetztGerman for "now"Open TLDYesYes
.jobsEmploymentFor websites with job opportunities and job listings.[40]NoNo
.juegosSpanish for "games"Open TLDYes[28]Yes
.kaufenGerman for "buy"Open TLDGerman[30]Yes
.kitchenfood industry and remodelingOpen TLDYesYes
.kimpeople named KimOpen TLD
Kim is a common first name in the US and is also the most common Korean surname.
UnknownYes
.landreal estateOpen TLDYesYes
.lawyerlawyers and legal organizationsProbably restricted to licensed lawyers and legal organizations[citation needed]UnknownYes
.leasefinancingOpen TLDYesYes
.lifegeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.lightinglightingOpen TLDYesYes
.limitedgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.limolimousine businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.linkconnecting to information[41]Open TLDYes[28]Yes
.loansBanks and lendersOpen TLDYesYes
.ltdacompanies in South AmericaDomains are limited to registered LTDAs (like LLCs) in Brazil, Columbia, Chile, and Ecuador.[42]UnknownYes
.luxurybusinesses catering to the wealthyOpen TLDYesYes
.maisonFrench for "house"Open TLDYesYes
.managementbusiness managementOpen TLDYesYes
.marketingmarketing servicesOpen TLDYesYes
.mediageneral media interestsOpen TLDYesYes
.menurestaurantsOpen TLDYesYes
.mobimobile devicesMust be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards.YesNo
.modaItalian and Spanish for "fashion"Open TLDSpanish[30]Yes
.moeJapanese otaku cultureThe word “moe” (in Japanese: “萌え”; pronounced as “moh-ay”) is a slang word rooted deep in the Japanese Otaku culture. It has often been used to mean a particular type of “adorable” or “cute” towards fictional characters, people, animals, etc.[43]YesYes
.museummuseumsMust be verified as a legitimate museum.Latin script[30]Yes
.nameindividuals, by nameOpen TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter.Yes[30]Yes
.ninjageneral expertiseOpen TLDYesYes
.onlonlineOpen TLDUnknownYes
.OOOGeneralOpen TLDNoYes
.organicorganic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc.Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[44]UnknownYes
.partnersbusinessesOpen TLDYesYes
.partsmanufacturing and consumer autoOpen TLDYesYes
.photophotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.photographyphotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDYesYes
.photosphotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDYesYes
.picsphotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.picturesphotography and photo-sharingOpen TLDYesYes
.pinkthose who like pinkOpen TLDYesYes
.placegeneralOpen TLDUnknownYes
.plumbingplumbing businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.postpostal servicesThe .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[45]No[46]Yes
.presspublishing and journalismOpen TLDUnknownYes
.proprofessionsCurrently, .pro is reserved for licensed or certified professionals worldwide. A professional seeking to register a .pro domain must provide their registrar with the appropriate credentials.NoNo
.productionsstudio/art businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.productsretail or whole-sale businessesOpen TLDUnknownYes
.propertiesreal estateOpen TLDYesYes
.pubbars and pubsOpen TLDYesYes
.recipesrecipes and cookingOpen TLDYesYes
.redthose who like red[47]Open TLD
Also Spanish variant of .net
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
YesYes
.reiseGerman for "travel"Open TLDLatin script[30]Yes
.reisenGerman for "travel"Open TLDGerman[30]Yes
.renRenren usersRestricted TLD[48]UnknownYes
.rentalsshort-term ownershipOpen TLDYesYes
.repairgeneral repair/maintenance businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.reportbusiness servicesOpen TLDYesYes
.republicanRepublican Party politicsOpen TLDUnknownYes
.restrestaurantsOpen TLDYes[49]Yes
.reviewsPublic reviewsOpen TLDYesYes
.richbusinesses catering to the wealthyOpen TLDUnknownYes
.rocksgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.rodeoRodeo interestOpen TLDYesYes
.schuleGerman for "school"Open TLDUnknownYes
.servicesbusiness servicesOpen TLDYesYes
.sexyadult entertainmentOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.shikshaeducation entities in India"Shiksha" is Hindi for "education".UnknownYes
.shoesshoesOpen TLDYesYes
.singlesonline datingOpen TLDYesYes
.socialgeneral interestOpen TLDYesYes
.solarsolar-powerOpen TLDYesYes
.solutionsbusiness servicesOpen TLDYesYes
.soySpanish for "I am"Open TLDSpanishYes
.spacespaceOpen TLDUnknownYes
.suppliesmanufacturing industriesOpen TLDYesYes
.supplymanufacturing industriesOpen TLDYesYes
.supporthelp pagesOpen TLDFrench, Spanish[50]Yes
.surfSurfingOpen TLDUnknownYes
.surgeryhealthcare industryOpen TLDYesYes
.systemstechnologyOpen TLDYesYes
.tattootattoo aficionadosOpen TLDYes[28]Yes
.taxfinancialOpen TLDYesYes
.technologytechnologyOpen TLDYesYes
.telInternet communication servicesA contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System.Yes[51]No
.tiendaSpanish for "shop", "store"Open TLDSpanishYes
.tipsgeneral help topicsOpen TLDYesYes
.todaygeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.toolsmanufacturing industriesOpen TLDYesYes
.towngeneric geographicOpen TLDYesYes
.toystoy businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.tradebusinessesOpen TLDYesYes
.trainingtraining and how-tosOpen TLDYesYes
.traveltravel and tourism industry related sitesMust be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity.NoNo
.universityyoung adults, university lifeOpen TLDYesYes
.unoSpanish websites targeting Latino consumersOpen TLDSpanishYes
.vacationstravelOpen TLDYesYes
.versicherungGerman for "insurance"Open TLDLatin script[30]Yes
.venturesfunding for start-upsOpen TLDYesYes
.viajesSpanish for "travel"Open TLDSpanishYes
.villasreal estate and/or travel businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.visioneye-care businessesOpen TLDYesYes
.vodkaVodka-related businesses and interestOpen TLDYesYes
.votingpolling sitesOpen TLDLatin and Cyrillic scriptsYes
.voyagetravelOpen TLDYesYes
.wanggeneralOpen TLD
Wǎng is a pinyin of 网 (web).[52]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
UnknownYes
.watchWatchesOpen TLDYesYes
.webcamWeb cam shows and video sharingOpen TLDYesYes
.websitegenericOpen TLDUnknownYes
.wedengaged couples and wedding-oriented businessesThis TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with prohibitive third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[53]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[54]
NoYes
.wikiwikis"An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation"YesYes
.worksGeneral interestsOpen TLDYesYes
.wtfgeneralOpen TLDYesYes
.xxxadult entertainment (pornography)For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography.YesNo
.xyzgeneralOpen TLDYes[55]Yes
.zonegeneralOpen TLDYesYes

Internationalized generic top-level domains[edit]

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and will allow second-level IDNs.

DNS NameIDNLanguageScriptTransliterationEnglish TranslationNotesDNSSEC
xn--ngbc5azd[56]شبكة.ArabicArabicshabaka"network"Open TLDYes
xn--q9jyb4c[56].みんなJapaneseJapanese (Hiragana)minna"everyone"Open TLD [57]Yes
xn--3ds443g[56].在线ChineseChinese (Simplified)zàixiàn"online"Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 internationalized subdomains for localities.[58]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[56].中文网ChineseChinese (Simplified)Zhōngwén wǎng"(written) Chinese (language) network"Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[58]
Yes
xn--6frz82g[56].移动ChineseChinese (Simplified)yídòng"movement" or "mobile"Open TLDYes
xn--ses554g[56].网址ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngzhǐ"network address" or "website"Open TLDYes
xn--io0a7i[56].网络ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngluò"network"Open TLDYes
xn--55qx5d[56].公司ChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)gōngsī"business organization" or "company"Open TLDYes
xn--d1acj3b[56].детиRussianCyrillic (Russian)dyeti"kids" or "children"Open TLDYes
xn--80asehdb[56].онлайнRussianCyrillic (Russian)onlain"online"Open TLDYes
xn--c1avg[56].оргRussianCyrillic (Russian)org"org" or "organization"Open TLDYes
xn--80aswg[56].сайтRussianCyrillic (Russian)sait"site"Open TLDYes

Geographic top-level domains[edit]

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.asiaAsia-Pacific regionThis is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific.Chinese, Japanese, Korean[30]Yes
.bayernBavaria, Germany[59]YesYes
.berlinBerlin, Germany[60]Latin and Cyrillic scripts[30]Yes
.brusselsBrussels, Belgium[61]Latin script[30]Yes
.bzhBrittany, FranceBreizh in Breton.[62]French[30]Yes
.capetownCape Town, South Africa[63]UnknownYes
.catCatalunya, SpainThis is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[64]Catalan[30]Yes
.cologneCologne, Germany[65]YesYes
.durbanDurban, South Africa[66]UnknownYes
.eusBasque, Spain and FranceEuskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[67]UnknownYes
.frlFriesland, Netherlands[68]UnknownYes
.galGalicia, SpainThis is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[69]UnknownYes
.hamburgHamburg, GermanyLatin script[30]Yes
.joburgJohannesburg, South Africa[70]UnknownYes
.kiwiNew Zealanders
(aka kiwis)
[71]Latin script[30]Yes
.koelnCologne, Germany[72]YesYes
.londonLondon, United Kingdom[73]YesYes
.melbourneMelbourne, Australia[74]UnknownYes
.moscowMoscow, Russia[75]YesYes
.nagoyaNagoya, Japan[76]Japanese[30]Yes
.nycNew York City, USA[77]Spanish[30]Yes
.parisParis, France[78]French[30]Yes
.quebecQuébec, Canada[79]UnknownYes
.ruhrRuhr, Germany[80]German[30]Yes
.scotScotland[81]UnknownYes
.tokyoTokyo, Japan[82]YesYes
.vegasLas Vegas, NV, USA[83]YesYes
.vlaanderenFlanders, Belgium[84]Latin script[30]Yes
.wienVienna, Austria[85]Latin script[30]Yes
.yokohamaYokohama, Japan[86]UnknownYes
.москва
(xn--80adxhks)
Moscow, Russia[87]Russian[30]Yes

Brand top-level domains[edit]

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC
.axaAXA[88]Yes[30]Yes
.bmwBMW[89]NoYes
.citicCITIC Group[90]NoYes
.frogansOP3FTSolely for use by the Frogans technology[91]Yes[30]Yes
.globoGrupo Globo[92]NoYes
.mangoMANGO[93]Latin script[30]Yes
.miniMini[94]NoYes
.monashMonash University[95][96]NoYes
.neustarNeustar[97]NoYes
.ovhOVH[98]French[30]Yes
.scbSiam Commercial BankThai[30]Yes
.yandexYandex[99]UnknownYes
.삼성
(xn--cg4bki)
Samsung[100]YesYes
.中信
(xn--fiq64b)
CITIC Group[101]YesYes

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

DNS nameIDN ccTLDCountryLanguageScriptTransliterationCommentsOther ccTLDDNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8jالجزائر. AlgeriaArabicArabic (Arabic)al Jaza'ir.dzNo
xn--54b7fta0cc.বাংলা BangladeshBengaliBengaliBanglaNot delegated.bdNo
xn--fiqs8s.中国 ChinaChineseChinese (Simplified)Zhōngguó.cnYes
xn--fiqz9s.中國 ChinaChineseChinese (Traditional)Zhōngguó.cnYes
xn--wgbh1cمصر. EgyptArabicArabic (Arabic)Masr [102].egNo
xn--node.გე GeorgiaGeorgianGeorgian (Mkhedruli)GENot delegated.geNo
xn--j6w193g.香港 Hong KongChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)Hoeng1 gong2 / Xiānggǎng.hkNo
xn--h2brj9c.भारत IndiaHindiDevanagariBhāratBecame available 27 Aug 2014 [103].inYes
xn--mgbbh1a71eبھارت. IndiaUrduArabic (Urdu)BhāratNot in use.inNo
xn--fpcrj9c3d.భారత్ IndiaTeluguTeluguBhārataNot in use.inNo
xn--gecrj9c.ભારત IndiaGujaratiGujaratiBhāratNot in use.inNo
xn--s9brj9c.ਭਾਰਤ IndiaPunjabiGurmukhīPā̀ratNot in use.inNo
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h.இந்தியா IndiaTamilTamilIntiyāNot in use.inNo
xn--45brj9c.ভারত IndiaBengaliBengaliBharôtNot in use.inNo
xn--mgba3a4f16aایران. IranPersianArabic (Persian)Īrān.irNo
xn--mgbayh7gpaالاردن. JordanArabicArabic (Arabic)al 'Urdun.joNo
xn--80ao21a.қаз KazakhstanKazakhCyrillic (Kazakh)qaz.kzNo
xn--d1alf.мкд Macedonia (F.Y.R.o.)MacedonianCyrillic (Macedonian)mkdNot delegated.mk
xn--mgbx4cd0abمليسيا. MalaysiaMalayArabic (Jawi)MalaysiaNot in use.myYes
xn--l1acc.мон MongoliaMongolianCyrillic (Mongolian)monNot in use.mnYes
xn--mgbc0a9azcgالمغرب. MoroccoArabicArabic (Arabic)al Maghrib.maNo
xn--mgb9awbfعمان. OmanArabicArabic (Arabic)OmanNot in use.omNo
xn--mgbai9azgqp6jپاکستان. PakistanUrduArabic (Urdu)PakistanNot delegated.pkNo
xn--ygbi2ammxفلسطين. State of PalestineArabicArabic (Arabic)Filastīn.psNo
xn--wgbl6aقطر. QatarArabicArabic (Arabic)Qatar.qaNo
xn--p1ai.рф RussiaRussianCyrillic (Russian)rf.ruYes
xn--mgberp4a5d4arالسعودية. Saudi ArabiaArabicArabic (Arabic)as-Sa'ūdiyyah.saNo
xn--90a3ac.срб SerbiaSerbo-Croatian (Serbian)Cyrillic (Serbian)srb.rsNo
xn--yfro4i67o.新加坡 SingaporeChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)Xīnjiāpō.sgNo
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd.சிங்கப்பூர் SingaporeTamilTamilCinkappūr.sgNo
xn--3e0b707e.한국 South KoreaKoreanHangulHan-guk.krYes
xn--fzc2c9e2c.ලංකා Sri LankaSinhalaSinhalaLanka.lkPartial[13]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a.இலங்கை Sri LankaTamilTamilIlangai.lkPartial[13]
xn--mgbpl2fhسودان. SudanArabicArabic (Arabic)SudanNot delegated.sdNo
xn--mgbtf8flسوريا. SyriaArabicArabic (Arabic)Sūryā.syNo
xn--kprw13d.台湾 TaiwanChineseChinese (Simplified)Táiwān.twYes
xn--kpry57d.台灣 TaiwanChineseChinese (Traditional)Táiwān.twYes
xn--o3cw4h.ไทย ThailandThaiThaiThai.thYes
xn--pgbs0dhتونس. TunisiaArabicArabic (Arabic)Tūnis.tnNo
xn--j1amh.укр UkraineUkrainianCyrillic (Ukrainian)ukr.uaNo
xn--mgbaam7a8hامارات. United Arab EmiratesArabicArabic (Arabic)Imārāt.aeNo
xn--mgb2ddesاليمن. YemenArabicArabic (Arabic)al YemenNot delegated.yeNo

Source:[104]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Test TLDs[edit]

ICANN created a set of top-level Internationalized domain names in October 2007 for the purpose of testing the use of IDNA in the root zone and within those domains. These testing domains were abolished on 31 October 2013.[105] Each of these TLDs encoded a word meaning "test" in the respective language.[106][107]

Each of these domains contained only one site with the word "example" encoded in the respective script and language. These example.test sites were test wikis used by ICANN.

DNS NameIDNTransliterationLanguageScriptURL of the test site
(archived at the Wayback Machine)
xn--kgbechtvإختبارik͡htibārArabicArabichttp://مثال.إختبار
xn--hgbk6aj7f53bbaآزمایشیậzmạy̰sẖyPersianPerso-Arabichttp://مثال.آزمایشی
xn--0zwm56d测试cèshìChineseSimplified Chinesehttp://例子.测试
xn--g6w251d測試cèshìChineseTraditional Chinesehttp://例子.測試
xn--80akhbyknj4fиспытаниеispytánijeRussianCyrillichttp://пример.испытание
xn--11b5bs3a9aj6gपरीक्षाparīkṣāHindiDevanagarihttp://उदाहरण.परीक्षा
xn--jxalpdlpδοκιμήdokiméGreekGreekhttp://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή
xn--9t4b11yi5a테스트teseuteuKoreanHangulhttp://실례.테스트
xn--deba0adטעסטtestYiddishHebrewhttp://בײַשפּיל.טעסט
xn--zckzahテストtesutoJapaneseKatakana[108]http://例え.テスト
xn--hlcj6aya9esc7aபரிட்சைpariṭcaiTamilTamilhttp://உதாரணம்.பரிட்சை

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IANA's list of TLDs in machine-readable format". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591: Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". IETF. 
  3. ^ "Root Zone Database". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "Andorra Telecom trademark domain registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Andorra Telecom trade name registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "Rules for .au Domains". 
  7. ^ "Domínios .br". Registro.br. 
  8. ^ (May 9, 2005) for Portuguese (Brazilian) names: see Anúncio 04/05/2005
  9. ^ "CZ.NIC - IDN - Internationalized domain names". Nic.cz. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Milton Mueller (2002), Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 79, ISBN 9780262632980 
  11. ^ Article 1.9 of Rules and Conditions for GE Domain Names Registration (Recent Georgian version has some updates not causing this article)
  12. ^ "Shorter .id domain will be available in Indonesia next year". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone is not yet published.
  14. ^ "Domain chaos spikes e-business ambitions". Silicon Republic. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  15. ^ Information Technology Law: Professional Practice Guide, Dublin: Law Society of Ireland, 2004, p. 23 
  16. ^ "ICTA: ky Domain Policies". Icta.ky. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  17. ^ ".LA - The Official .LA Registry". La. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "How can I get a .mo domain if I'm not in Macau?". Quora.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  19. ^ (Dutch) SIDN registreert 3.000.000ste .nl-domeinnaam (SIDN registers 3 millionth .nl domain name), Official website of SIDN
  20. ^ "Delegation Record for .PS". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  21. ^ "Notícias - dns.pt". Dns.pt. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  22. ^ "Beginning of the Landrush phase of second level domain under (.sa)". 
  23. ^ "TLD DNSSEC Report". ICANN Research. Retrieved 9 Sep 2014. 
  24. ^ "IANA — Report on the Delegation of the .台灣 and .台湾 ("Taiwan") domains representing Taiwan, Province of China in Chinese to Taiwan Network Information Center". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  25. ^ "New rules for the registration of domain names under UY" (PDF). Nic.org.uy. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  26. ^ ".ARCHI Online Visibility for Architects Worldwide". Retrieved 7 Oct 2014. 
  27. ^ ".ARCHI policies". Retrieved 7 Oct 2014. 
  28. ^ "Background of .bike" (PDF). Gtld.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "IANA — Repository of IDN Practices". iana.org. Retrieved 22 Sep 2014. 
  30. ^ "Why .BLACK?". Black/why-black. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  31. ^ "Why .BLUE?". Dotblue.blue. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  32. ^ "Dotbuild.co". Retrieved 2014-05-25. 
  33. ^ "dotCEO - Own Your .CEO Domain Name". Nic.ceo. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  34. ^ "DotClub FAQ - DotClub". Retrieved 2014-05-25. 
  35. ^ ".foo". Icannwiki.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  36. ^ "Resources - ICANN". Icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  37. ^ "Background of .Guru" (PDF). Gtld.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  38. ^ "Why .ink? - .ink". Nic.ink. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  39. ^ "What is .jobs?". Nic.jobs. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  40. ^ ".link Official - Uniregistry". Nic.link. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  41. ^ "Why choose .LTDA?". .LTDA advantages. 
  42. ^ "The .moe Domain is Here!". Nic.moe. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  43. ^ ".ORGANIC Eligibility". Retrieved 18 Sep 2014. 
  44. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies: Criteria for Registration". E17. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  45. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies:TLD String". E2. Retrieved 2013-01-01. "Only ASCII characters will be used" 
  46. ^ "Why .RED?". Get.red. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  47. ^ "New TLDs this week: .London, .Global and more". Domain Name Wire - Domain Name News & Views. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  48. ^ "CentralNic Account Manager". Manage.centralnic.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  49. ^ "Support" (PDF). Gtld.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  50. ^ Telnic. "IDN.tel". Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  51. ^ "Zodiac Holdings Limited". En.nic.wang. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  52. ^ "Weirdest new gTLD launch yet? .wed launches with a single registrar". DomainIncite - Domain Name News & Opinion. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  53. ^ ".WED Third Level Extensions". Atgron, Inc Introduces .WED. A New Top Level Domain for Your Wedding. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  54. ^ "Resources - ICANN". Icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Delegated Strings". Newgtlds.icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  56. ^ "Google Registry – Google". Google.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  57. ^ a b "Chinese government buys 20,000 new IDN domain names". Domain Name Wire - Domain Name News & Views. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  58. ^ (German) [2]
  59. ^ (German) berlin Top-Level-Domain. Nic.berlin. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  60. ^ ".brussels is now in the root! - DNS Belgium". Nic.brussels. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  61. ^ (French) [3]
  62. ^ "dotCapeTown - .CapeTown - The new domain extension for the City of Cape Town". Nic.capetown. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  63. ^ (Catalan) Fundació punt CAT | A Internet, el català és .cat. Registra ara un domini i identifica’t amb el teu .cat. Fundacio.cat. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  64. ^ "The New TLDS .koeln & .cologne" (PDF). Dot.cologne. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  65. ^ "dotDurban - .Durban - The new domain extension for the City of Durban". Nic.durban. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  66. ^ ".eus Domeinua - .eus - Euskara eta Euskal Kultura Interneten". Nic.eus. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  67. ^ (Dutch) frl Top-Level-Domain. Nic.frl. Retrieved on 2014-09-05.
  68. ^ "Dominio .gal". Dominio.gal. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  69. ^ "dotJoburg - .Joburg - The new domain extension for the City of Johannesburg". Nic.joburg. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  70. ^ "About". Hello.kiwi. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  71. ^ "The New TLDS .koeln & .cologne" (PDF). Dot.koeln. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  72. ^ "The New London Code" (PDF). Nic.london. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  73. ^ Twenty4. "nic.melbourne - Home page". nic.melbourne. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  74. ^ "About TLDs .MOSCOW and .МОСКВА - dotMoscow: .MOSCOW and .МОСКВА TLDs for Russian Capital". Nic.moscow. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  75. ^ "「.nagoya」名古屋のための新ドメイン - GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社". GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  76. ^ ".NYC Domain Name Extension - Official Website". .NYC - The Official Website for the Ultimate New York City Address. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  77. ^ [4][dead link]
  78. ^ ".QUEBEC". .QUEBEC. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  79. ^ ".ruhr". Dot.ruhr. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  80. ^ "Register .scot domains - Calico .scot domains - dotscot is the new Scottish top level domain". Calico.scot. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  81. ^ "「.tokyo」東京のための新ドメイン - GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社". GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  82. ^ "Dot Vegas, Inc.". Dot Vegas, Inc. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  83. ^ ".vlaanderen is now in the root! - DNS Belgium". Nic.vlaanderen. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  84. ^ ".wien: punktwien". Nic.wien. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  85. ^ "「.yokohama」横浜のための新ドメイン - GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社". GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  86. ^ http://nic.москва/
  87. ^ "dotAXA: AXA Group New Online Space" (PDF). Domains.axa. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  88. ^ "Home dotBMW registry operator". nic.bmw. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  89. ^ "中国中信集团有限公司". Nic.citic. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  90. ^ "Using the .frogans gTLD". Nic.frogans. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  91. ^ ".globo". Nic.globo. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  92. ^ "MANGO". Nic.mango. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  93. ^ "Home dotMINI registry operator". Nic.mini. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  94. ^ ".monash - Network Information Centre". Nic.monash. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  95. ^ "New gTLD Program : InitialEvaluation Report : Report Date: 10 May 2013" (PDF). Newgtlds.icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  96. ^ "Neustar Launches New TLD .Neustar". Nic.neustar. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  97. ^ "The New OVH Code" (PDF). Nic.ovh. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  98. ^ "This is .yandex" (PDF). Nic.yandex. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  99. ^ "WHOIS 서비스란?". Whois.nic. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  100. ^ "Nic.中信". nic.中信. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  101. ^ "دوت مصر ::: الصفحة الرئيسية". Dotmasr.eg. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  102. ^ "Launch of .भारत Domain name in Devanagari script by Hon'ble MCIT and Law & Justice Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad". Registry.in. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  103. ^ "Resources - ICANN". Icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  104. ^ "ICANN announcement". Icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  105. ^ [5][dead link]
  106. ^ "My Name, My Language, My Internet: IDN Test Goes Live - ICANN launches global test of Internationalized Domain Names". Icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  107. ^ http://例え.テスト, the domain of test page, contains also Kanji (Chinese character in Japanese: ) and Hiragana (). See also Japanese writing system.

External links[edit]