List of Indian spices

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Indian spices

Indian spices include a variety of spices grown across the Indian subcontinent (a sub-region of South Asia). With different climates in different parts of the country, India produces a variety of spices, many of which are native to the Subcontinent, while others were imported from similar climates and have since been cultivated locally for centuries.

Spices are used in different forms - whole, chopped, ground, roasted, sauteed, fried and as topping. They blend food to extract the nutrients and bind them in a palatable form. Some spices are added at the end as a flavouring and are typically heated in a pan with ghee or cooking oil before being added to a dish. Lighter spices are added last, and spices with strong flavour should be added first. Curry is not a spice, but a term used by western people and refers to any dish in Indian cuisine that contains several spices blended together and could be with a gravy base or a dry item.

List of Indian spices[edit]

Below is a list of spices and other flavouring substances commonly used in India.

ImageStandard EnglishIndian EnglishHindiMarathiGujaratiTamilMalayalamTeluguKannadaBengaliUrduNotes
Alkanet[disambiguation needed] rootRatin jotरातीं जोटरक्तमूळরতনজোট
AniseSeeds.jpgAniseed[1]Suwa or Shopaसुव्वा / शोपचक्रिफुलસૂવાసోంపుದೊಡ್ಡ ಸೋಂಪುমৌরিسونف
Ferula assa-foetida - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-061.jpgAsafoetidaHingहींगहिंगહિંગபெருங்காயம்കായം/പെരുംകായംఇంగువಇಂಗುহিংہنگIntensely aromatic - related to Truffle and Garlic
Red capsicum and cross section.jpgYellow pepperLaal simala MirchiRed capcicumகுடை மிளைகாய்മഞ്ഞ കാപ്സികംದೊಣ್ಣೆ ಮೆಣಸುহলুদ ক্যাপসিকামپیلی مرچ
BlackCardamom.jpgBlack cardamomKali Elaichiकाली इलाइचीवेलचीએલચોകറുപ്പ് ഏലക്കనల్ల ఏలకులుবড় এলাচالائچیکالیVery earthy and darkly aromatic. A much used in North Indian curries.
White pepper whole.JPGWhite pepperSafed Mirchiसफ़ेद मिर्चपांढरी मिरीவெள்ளை மிளகுവെള്ള കുരുമുളക്తెల్ల మిరియాలు,ಬಿಳಿಮೆಣಸು/ಬಿಳಿ ಕಾಳುಮೆಣಸುসাদা মরিচسفید مرچ
Black Pepper Grains.jpgBlack pepperKali Mirchiकाली मिर्चकाळी मिरीમરીமிளகுകുരുമുളക്నల్ల మిరియాలు,ಕರಿಮೆಣಸು/ಕಾಳುಮೆಣಸುগোল মরিচ gol morichمرچکالیLargest producer is the southern Indian state of Kerala.
Black pepper.jpgPeppercornsKali Mirchकाली मिर्चकाळी मिरीmariமிளகுകുരുമുളക്miriyalu, మిరియాలుಕರಿಮೆಣಸು/ಕಾಳುಮೆಣಸುগোল মরিচمرچکالی
Black Cumin.jpgBlack Cumin not kala zeera/kalonjiShah Jeeraशाही जीराशहाजिरंகருஞ்சீரகம்കരിഞ്ജീരകംనల్ల జీలకర్ర,ಕರಿ ಜೀರಿಗೆশাহ্‌ জিরাشاہ زیرہSweet, floral and smokey cumin and anise-like flavour. Smaller in size than regular cumin. Often mistaken as Caraway seed. Though English translation is Black Cumin, the term black cumin is also used as English translation of Nigella sativa, kalonji
Illustration Capparis spinosa0.jpgCapersKachraकचरा, कब्र, करेरகரியல்మరాఠీ మొగ్గు, ముముదాటు,ಮರಾಠಿ ಮೊಗ್ಗುকাবরাکررalso known as Kabra, Karer in Hindi
Capsicum peperoncino.jpgCapsicumShimla Mirchशिमला मिर्चसिमला मिरची/भोपळी मिरचीದಪ್ಪ ಮೆಣಸಿನಯಕಾಯಿ/ದೊಣ್ಣೆ ಮೆಣಸಿನಕಾಯಿক্যাপসিকামشملہ مرچ
Celery seed.jpgCelery / radhuni seedAjmudअज्मुद,अज्मोदाअजमोदाরাঁধুনিخراسانی٬ اجوائن
Charoli.JPGCharoliChironjiचिरोंजीचारोळीચારોળીసార పప్పుಚರೋಳಿচিরনজিچرونجیa type of nut particularly used in making desserts
Indian bay leaf - tejpatta - indisches Lorbeerblatt.jpgIndian bay leaf, bay leafTej Pattaतेज पत्तातमालपत्रபட்டைകറുവാപട്ട ഇലబిర్యానీ ఆకుಮಸಾಲ ಎಲೆ/ಪುಲಾವ್ ಎಲೆতেজ পাতা tej pataتيزپاتBoth Indian bay leaf and bay leaf are similar and called as Tej Patta in Hindi. however, they are from two different species and have differences in taste
Cinnamon budsNaaga Kesharनाग केशरनाग केशरدارچینی
Canelle Cinnamomum verum Luc Viatour crop1.jpgCinnamonDalchiniदालचीनीदालचिनीતજஇலவங்கப்பட்டைകറുവപ്പട്ടదాల్చిన చెక్కಚಕ್ಕೆ/ದಾಲ್ಚಿನ್ನಿদারচিনি darchiniدارچینیGrown commercially in Kerala in southern India. Two types, cassia (common) and royal.
Citric acid glass bottle.jpgCitric acidSaji na phoolसजी न फूलlimboo na phoolسرکہ
ClovesDried.jpgClovesLaungलवंग / लौंगलवंगલવિંગகிராம்பு, இலவங்கம்ഗ്രാമ്പു/കരയാമ്പുలవంగంಲವಂಗলং/লবঙ্গ lông/lôbonggoلوںگAndhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are largest producers in India.
Coriander powderDhania powder/ Pisa Dhaniaधनिया पाउडर/पिसा धनियाधणे पावडरધાણાજીરુંகொத்தமல்லி பொடி, தனியாമല്ലിപ്പൊടിధనియాల పొడి,ಕೊತ್ತಂಬರಿ ಪುಡಿধনে গুঁড়াدھنیہ
Coriander.pngCoriander seedDhania/hara dhaniyaधनियाधणेકોથમીરவிதை கொத்தமல்லிമല്ലിధనియాలుಕೊತ್ತಂಬರಿ ಬೀಜধনে dhoneدھنیا
Piper cubeba - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-244.jpgCubebKebab Cheeni / Kabab Chiniकबाब चीनीनाकेश्वरസര്‍വസുഗന്ധിతోక మిరియాలుকাবাব চিনি kabab chiniکباب چینیTastes of Clove + Persistent Mild Numbing + Bitterness
Cumin seed grounded into ballsJeera Goliज़ीरा गोली'జీలకర్ర వుండ'
Sa cumin.jpgCumin seedJeeraज़ीराजिरंજીરુசீரகம்ജീരകംజీలకర్రಜೀರಿಗೆজিরা/গোটা জিরেزیرہSee Kali Jeera.
Murraya koenigii leaves - curry leaves.jpgCurry tree or sweet neem leafKadipatta (Currypatta)करीपत्ता / कढ़ीपत्ताकढीपत्ताમીઠો લિમડોகறிவேப்பிலைകറിവേപ്പിലకరివేప ఆకు,ಕರಿಬೇವು/ಕರಿಬೇವಿನ ಎಲೆকারিপাতাکریاپاتCannot retain flavour when dried. Only use fresh.
Fennel seed.jpgFennel seedSaunf/Sanchalसौंफ / संचलबडीशेपvariyaliபெருஞ்சீரகம்/சோம்புജീരകം/പെരുംജീരകംసోంపుಸೋಂಪುমৌরি mouriسوںف
Qasuri Methi.JPGFenugreek leafKasoori Methi Driedकसूरी मेथीकसुरी मेथीકસુરી મેથીவெந்தய கீரைഉലുവ ഇല (ഉണക്കിയത്)మెంతి ఆకులు, menthi aakuluಕಸ್ತೂರಿ ಮೆಂತ್ಯশুক্নো মেথি পাতা sukno methi pataقصوری میتھی
Fenugreek leafMethi leavesमेथी पत्तामेथीची पानंவெந்தய கீரைഉലുവ ഇലమెంతి ఆకులు,ಮೆಂತ್ಯದ ಸೊಪ್ಪುমেথি পাতা methi pataمیتھی
Fenugreek-methi-seeds.jpgFenugreek seedMethi seedsमेथी दानामेथीचे दाणेவெந்தயம்ഉലുവమెంతులు,ಮೆಂತ್ಯದ ಬೀಜমেথি methiمیتھی دانہ
Four seedsChar Magajतरबूज खरबूज ककडी पैंठे के बीजતરબૂચ ખરબૂચ કાકડી પૈંઠા ના બીયાંমগজSeeds of Water melon, musk melon,cucumber and pumpkin
Assam-fruit-1-1.jpgGarcinia gummi-guttaKudampuliகொறுக்காய்ப்புளிകുടംപുളിগোম্বূজ gom boogeUsed in fish preparations of Kerala
Garam Masala new 2008-1.jpgGaram masalaGaram masala/Kadha Masalaगरम मसालागरम मसालाગરમ મસાલોகரம் மசாலாഗരം മസാലగరం మసాలాಗರಂ ಮಸಾಲಾগরম মশলা gôrom môshlaگرم مصالحہBlend of 8+ spices. Each family has their own secret recipe.
Garcinia indica - fruits, seeds, pulp and rinds.jpgGarcinia indicaKokumकोकम,कोकम,आमसूलકોકમಮುರುಗದ ಹಣ್ಣುকোকুমکوکم
GarlicBasket.jpgGarlicLahsunलहसुनलसूणલસણவெள்ளை பூண்டுവെളുത്തുള്ളിవెల్లుల్లి పాయ, vellulli paayaಬೆಳ್ಳುಳ್ಳಿরসুন roshunلہسن
Ingwer 2 fcm.jpgGingerAdrakअदरकआलंઆદુஇஞ்சிഇഞ്ചിఅల్లంಶುಂಠಿআদাادرک
Ginger powder.JPGDried gingerSonthसोंठसुंठસુંઠசுக்குചുക്ക്సొంఠిಒಣಶುಂಠಿশুকানো আদা গুড়োسونٹھmostly powdered
Cardamone.jpgGreen cardamomChhoti Elaichiछोटी इलाइचीवेलचीએલચીஏலக்காய்ഏലക്കఏలకులుಏಲಕ್ಕಿছোট এলাচچھوٹی الائچیMalabar variety is native to Kerala.
Indian Bedellium TreeGugul, Guggulगुगल, गु्ग्गलગુ્ગળমাকালVery earthy aromatic mostly used in religious
Phyllanthus officinalis.jpgIndian gooseberryAmlaआँवलाआवळाઆમળાநெல்லிக்காய்നെല്ലിക്കఉసిరి కాయ / పప్పుನೆಲ್ಲಿಕಾಯಿআমলকিآملا
Black Salt.jpgBlack saltKala Namak / Sanchalकाला नमक / संचलकाळं मीठસંચળஇந்துப்புഇന്തുപ്പ്నల్ల ఉప్పుಕರಿ ಉಪ್ಪುবিট নুন bit noonکالا نمکRock salt, but with very sulfury smell.
KalpasiPathar Ka Phoolपत्थर के फूलदगडफूलદગડફૂલகல்பசிకల్లుపచి,ಕಲ್ಲು ಹೂವುپتھر کا پھولAlso known as black stone flower
Liquiritiae radix suessholzwurzel.jpgLicorice powderJethimadhजेठीमधज्येष्ठमधજેઠીમધஅதிமதுரம்ഇരട്ടിമധുരം

പൊടി

యష్టిమధుక్కంযশঠিমধু jjoshthi modhuملہٹی
Piper longum.jpgLong pepperPippaliपिप्पलिपिंपळीகண்டந்திப்பிலிപിപ്പലിఅనాసపువ్వుಹಿಪ್ಪಲಿপিপুলپپليان
Mango extractCamikiकामिकीআমশী
Sour dried mango powderAamchur/Amchoor powderआमचूर / अमचुरआमचूर / आंबोशीઆમચૂરআমচুড়آمچور
Mentha gracilis and rotundifolia MN 2007.JPGMintPudinaपुदीनापुदिनाફુદિનોபுதினாപുതിനపుదీనಪುದಿನপুদিনাپودینہ
Mustard.pngMustard seedSarsonसरसों,मोहरीகடுகுകടുക്ఆవాలు, సరసావాలు,ಸಾಸಿವೆসর্ষে, shorsheسرسوں
BrownMustardSeed.JPGBrown mustard seedRaiराईमोहरीraiகடுகுകടുക്ఆవాలు,ಸಾಸಿವೆরাই/ সর্ষে / সরিষা shor sayرائی
Nigella Sativa Seed.jpgNigella seedKalonjiकलोंजीकांद्याचे बीகருப்பு எள்నల్ల జీలకర్ర,ತಂಪಿನ ಬೀಜকালো জিরা kalo jiraکلونجی
Muscade.jpgNutmegJaiphalजैफल/जायफलजायफळજાયફળஜாதிக்காய்ജാതിക്കజాజికాయಜಾಕಾಯಿ/ಜಾಯಿಕಾಯಿজায়ফলجاۓپھلWhole nuts last forever. Powder, only a month.
Mace 1.JPGMaceJavitriजावित्रीजायपत्रीજાવંત્રીஜாதிக்காய்ജാതിപത്രിజాపత్రిಜಾಪಾತ್ರೆজয়িত্রিجاوتریMace is outer covering to nutmeg nut. Similar aroma.
Starr 080117-1577 Ocimum tenuiflorum.jpgHoly basilTulsiतुलसीतुळसતુલસીதுளசிതുളസിతులసి, తులసి ఆకుತುಳಸಿতুলসীتلسی
Panch-phoron.jpgPanch PhoronPanch Phoronपञ्च फोरनপাঁচ ফোড়ন pãch foṛonThis is a Bengali spice mix that combines aniseed, cumin, fenugreek, mustard and nigella
An opened pomegranate.JPGPomegranate seedAnardanaअनारदानाडाळींबदाणेદાડમ ના બીયાமாதுளம் விதைമാതളനാരങ്ങ കുരു/അല്ലിదానిమ్మ, గింజలుದಾಳಿಂಬೆ ಬೀಜআনারদানা/ বেদানার বীজانارداناDried not fresh. Is ground in Middle East.
Poppy seeds.jpgPoppy seedKhus Khusखस-खसखसखसખસખસகச கசாകസകസగసగసాలుಗಸಗಸೆপোস্ত postoخشحش
Saffron pulpKesar mari mariकेसर मिरी मिरी,குங்குமப்பூకుంకుమ పూల పొడిಕೇಸರಿಹೂকেশর মড়মড়িActually, safflower concentrate
Iran saffron threads.jpgSaffronKesar, mayurकेसर, जाफरानकेशरkesarகுங்குமப்பூകുങ്കുമ പുവ്కుంకుమ పువ్వు,ಕೇಸರಿজাফরান jafranزعفرانWorld's most expensive spice. Flavouring for rice.
SaltNamakनमकमीठmithooஉப்புഉപ്പ്ఉప్పు, uppuಉಪ್ಪುলবণ/নুন lôbon/nunنمک
Sa white sesame seeds.jpgSesame seedTilतिलतीळતલஎள்എള്ള്నువ్వులుಎಳ್ಳು/ಕರಿ ಎಳ್ಳುতিলتل
Illicium verum 2006-10-17.jpgStar aniseChakra Phoolचक्र फूल, बदल फुलचक्र फूलબાદીયાஅண்ணாச்சி மொக்குതക്കോലംఅనసపువ్వుಚಕ್ರ ಮೊಗ್ಗು /ಹೂವ್ವುতারা মৌরীباديان خطائىExotic, Chinese-influenced flavours
Tamarind2.jpgTamarindImliइमलीचिंचઆમલીபுளிപുളി/വാളന്‍പുളിచింతపండుಹುಣಸೆಹಣ್ಣುতেঁতুল tetulاملیProvides tartness in South Indian curries
Carom.jpgCarom/thymol seedAjwainअज़वाइनओवाઅજમોஓமம்അയമോദകംవాముಓಮಕಾಳುজোয়ানاجوائن
Turmericroot.jpgTurmericHaldiहल्दीहळदહળદરமஞ்சள்മഞ്ഞള്‍పసుపుಅರಿಶಿನ/ಹಳದಿহলুদ holudہلدیSource of "yellow color" in many curries.
Fresh basilTulsiतुलसीतुळसતુલસાதுளசிതുളസിతులసిತುಳಸಿতুলসীتُلسی
A scene of Coriander leaves.JPGFresh corianderHara dhaniyaहरा धनियाकोथिंबीरલીલી કોથમીરகொத்தமல்லி (இலை)മല്ലിയിലకొత్తిమీరಕೊತ್ತಂಬರಿ ಸೊಪ್ಪುধনে পাতাکوتمیر ھرا دھنیاFresh green leaves. AKA Cilantro.
Large Cayenne.jpgGreen chili pepperHari Mirchहरी मिर्चहिरवी मिरचीલીલું મરચુંபச்சை மிளகாய்പച്ച മുളക്పచ్చి మిరపకాయలుಹಸಿ ಮೆಣಸಿನಕಾಯಿকাঁচা মরিচ/ কাঁচা লঙ্কা
kãcha morich / kãcha lonka
ہری مرچ
Gum tragacanthKatira Goondकटीरा गोंदडिंकgundarকাতিলাکٹیراA thickener and coating for desserts
Harra (Terminalia chebula) hanging fruit at 23 Mile, Duars, WB W IMG 5902.jpgInknut Terminalia chebulaHarad / Harr /Haritakiहरदहिरडा/हरडाહરડેகடுக்காய்കടുക്കకరక చెట్టు,ಅಳಲೆಕಾಯಿহরিতকিحرر
Red chili pepperLal Mirchiलाल मिर्चलाल मिरचीલાલ મરચુંமிளகாய் வத்தல்വറ്റല്‍ മുളക്, ഉണക്ക മുളക്మిరప కాయలు,ಕೆಂಪು ಒಣಮೆಣಸಿನಕಾಯಿলাল মরিচ lal morichلال مرچ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ dictionary.reference.com: anise

External links[edit]