This article may require copy editing for Needs copy-editing to introduce a neutral tone. You can assist by editing it.(March 2014)
This is a list of Ig Nobel Prize winners from 1991 to the present day.
A parody of the Nobel Prizes, the Ig Nobel Prizes are given each year in early October — around the time the recipients of the genuine Nobel Prizes are announced — for ten achievements that "first make people laugh, and then make them think." Commenting on the 2006 awards, Marc Abrahams, editor of Annals of Improbable Research, co-sponsor of the awards, said: "The prizes are intended to celebrate the unusual, honour the imaginative – and spur people's interest in science, medicine and technology." All prizes are awarded for real achievements (except for three in 1991 and one in 1994 due to an erroneous press release).
Chemistry – Jacques Benveniste, prolific proselytizer and dedicated correspondent of Nature, for his persistent "discovery" that water, H2O, is an intelligent liquid, and for demonstrating to his satisfaction that water is able to remember events long after all traces of those events have vanished (see water memory, his proposed explanation for homeopathy).
Medicine – Alan Kligerman, deviser of digestive deliverance, vanquisher of vapor, and inventor of Beano, for his pioneering work with anti-gas liquids that prevent bloat, gassiness, discomfort and embarrassment.
Pedestrian technology: Paul DeFanti, "wizard of structures and crusader for public safety, for his invention of the Buckybonnet, a geodesic fashion structure that pedestrians wear to protect their heads and preserve their composure".
Physics: Thomas Kyle, for his discovery of "the heaviest element in the universe, Administratium".
Art – Presented jointly to Jim Knowlton, modern Renaissance man, for his classic anatomy poster "Penises of the Animal Kingdom," and to the U.S. National Endowment for the Arts, for encouraging Mr. Knowlton to extend his work in the form of a pop-up book.
Biology – Dr. Cecil Jacobson, relentlessly generous sperm donor, and prolific patriarch of sperm banking, for devising a simple, single-handed method of quality control.
Chemistry – Ivette Bassa, constructor of colourful colloids, for her role in the crowning achievement of 20th century chemistry, the synthesis of bright blue Jell-O.
Economics – The investors of Lloyd's of London, heirs to 300 years of dull prudent management, for their bold attempt to ensure disaster by refusing to pay for their company's losses.
Literature – Yuri Struchkov (ru), unstoppable author from the Institute of Organoelement Compounds in Moscow, for the 948 scientific papers he published between the years 1981 and 1990, averaging more than one every 3.9 days.
Medicine – F. Kanda, E. Yagi, M. Fukuda, K. Nakajima, T. Ohta, and O. Nakata of the Shiseido Research Center in Yokohama, for their pioneering research study "Elucidation of Chemical Compounds Responsible for Foot Malodour," especially for their conclusion that people who think they have foot odor do, and those who don't, don't.
Nutrition – The utilizers of SPAM, courageous consumers of canned comestibles, for 54 years of undiscriminating digestion.
Biology – Presented jointly to Paul Williams Jr. of the Oregon State Health Division and Kenneth W. Newel of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, bold biological detectives, for their pioneering study, "Salmonella Excretion in Joy-Riding Pigs".
Chemistry – Presented jointly to James Campbell and Gaines Campbell of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, dedicated deliverers of fragrance, for inventing scent strips, the odious method by which perfume is applied to magazine pages.
Consumer Engineering – Presented to Ron Popeil, incessant inventor and perpetual pitchman of late night television, for redefining the industrial revolution with such devices as the Veg-O-Matic, the Pocket Fisherman, Mr. Microphone, and the Inside-the-Shell Egg Scrambler.
Literature – Presented to T. Morrison, E. Topol, R. Califf, F. Van de Werf, P. W. Armstrong, and their 972 co-authors, for publishing a medical research paper which has one hundred times as many authors as pages. The authors are from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Medicine – Presented to James F. Nolan, Thomas J. Stillwell, and John P. Sands, Jr., medical men of mercy, for their painstaking research report, "Acute Management of the Zipper-Entrapped Penis".
Peace – The Pepsi-Cola Company of the Philippines, for sponsoring a contest to create a millionaire, and then announcing the wrong winning number, thereby inciting and uniting 800,000 riotously expectant winners, and bringing many warring factions together for the first time in their nation's history.
Visionary Technology – Presented jointly to Jay Schiffman of Farmington Hills, Michigan, crack inventor of AutoVision, an image projection device that makes it possible to drive a car and watch television at the same time, and to the Michigan State Legislature, for making it legal to do so.
Biology – Presented to W. Brian Sweeney, Brian Krafte-Jacobs, Jeffrey W. Britton, and Wayne Hansen, for their breakthrough study, "The Constipated Serviceman: Prevalence Among Deployed US Troops," and especially for their numerical analysis of bowel movement frequency.
Economics – Presented to Juan Pablo Dávila of Chile, tireless trader of financial futures and former employee of the state-owned company Codelco, for instructing his computer to "buy" when he meant "sell". He subsequently attempted to recoup his losses by making increasingly unprofitable trades that ultimately lost 0.5 percent of Chile's gross national product. Davila's relentless achievement inspired his countrymen to coin a new verb, "davilar", meaning "to botch things up royally".
Entomology – Presented to Robert A. Lopez of Westport, NY, valiant veterinarian and friend of all creatures great and small, for his series of experiments in obtaining ear mites from cats, inserting them into his own ear, and carefully observing and analyzing the results.
Literature – Presented to L. Ron Hubbard, ardent author of science fiction and founding father of Scientology, for his crackling Good Book, Dianetics, which is highly profitable to mankind, or to a portion thereof.
Mathematics – Presented to The Southern Baptist Church of Alabama, mathematical measurers of morality, for their county-by-county estimate of how many Alabama citizens will go to Hell if they don't repent.
Medicine – Two prizes. First, to Patient X, formerly of the US Marine Corps, valiant victim of a venomous bite from his pet rattlesnake, for his determined use of electroshock therapy. At his own insistence, automobile spark plug wires were attached to his lip, and the car engine revved to 3,000 rpm for five minutes. Second, to Dr. Richard C. Dart of the Rocky Mountain Poison Center and Dr. Richard A. Gustafson of The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, for their well-grounded medical report, "Failure of Electric Shock Treatment for Rattlesnake Envenomation."
Psychology – Presented to Lee Kuan Yew, former Prime Minister of Singapore, for his thirty-year study of the effects of punishing three million citizens of Singapore whenever they spat, chewed gum, or fed pigeons.
Apocryphal achievements, no longer officially listed
Physics – Presented to The Japanese Meteorological Agency, for its seven-year study of whether earthquakes are caused by catfish wiggling their tails. This winner is not officially listed, as it was based on what turned out to be erroneous press accounts.
Literature – Presented to David B. Busch and James R. Starling, of Madison, Wisconsin, for their research report, "Rectal Foreign Bodies: Case Reports and a Comprehensive Review of the World's Literature." The citations include reports of, among other items: seven light bulbs; a knife sharpener; two flashlights; a wire spring; a snuff box; an oil can with potato stopper; eleven different forms of fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs; a jeweler's saw; a frozen pig's tail; a tin cup; a beer glass; and one patient's remarkable ensemble collection consisting of spectacles, a suitcase key, a tobacco pouch and a magazine.
Medicine – Presented to Marcia E. Buebel, David S. Shannahoff-Khalsa, and Michael R. Boyle, for their study entitled "The Effects of Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing on Cognition."
Nutrition – Presented to John Martinez of J. Martinez & Company in Atlanta, for Luak Coffee, the world's most expensive coffee, which is made from coffee beans ingested and excreted by the luak, a bobcat-like animal native to Indonesia.
Physics – Presented to Dominique M.R. Georget, R. Parker, and Andrew C. Smith of Norwich, England, for their rigorous analysis of soggy breakfast cereal. It was published in the report entitled "A Study of the Effects of Water Content on the Compaction Behaviour of Breakfast Cereal Flakes."
Psychology – Presented to Shigeru Watanabe, Junko Sakamoto, and Masumi Wakita, of Keio University, for their success in training pigeons to discriminate between the paintings of Picasso and those of Monet.
Public Health – Presented to Martha Kold Bakkevig of Sintef Unimed in Trondheim, Norway, and Ruth Nielsen of the Technical University of Denmark, for their exhaustive study, "Impact of Wet Underwear on Thermoregulatory Responses and Thermal Comfort in the Cold."
Biodiversity – Presented to Chonosuke Okamura of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory in Nagoya, Japan, for discovering the fossils of dinosaurs, horses, dragons, and more than one thousand other extinct "mini-species", each of which is less than 0.25 mm in length.
Biology – Presented jointly to Anders Bærheim and Hogne Sandvik of the University of Bergen, Norway, for their report, "Effect of Ale, Garlic, and Soured Cream on the Appetite of Leeches."
Economics – Presented to Dr. Robert J. Genco of the University at Buffalo for his discovery that "financial strain is a risk indicator for destructive periodontal disease."
Literature – Presented to the editors of the journal Social Text for publishing a paper composed under deceptive pretenses that couched an absurd but theoretically specialized argument about the nature of gravity in a mire of academic buzzwords associated with humanities departments. (See Sokal Affair for details).
Biology – Presented to T. Yagyu and his colleagues from the University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland, the Kansai Medical University in Osaka, Japan, and the Neuroscience Technology Research in Prague, Czech Republic, for measuring people's brainwave patterns while they chewed different flavors of gum.
Literature – Presented to Doron Witztum, Eliyahu Rips, and Yoav Rosenberg of Israel, and to Michael Drosnin of the United States, for their claimed statistical discovery of a hidden code in the Bible.
Literature – Presented to Dr. Mara Sidoli of Washington, DC, for her illuminating report, "Farting as a Defence Against Unspeakable Dread".
Medicine – Presented to Patient Y and to his doctors, Caroline Mills, Meirion Llewelyn, David Kelly, and Peter Holt, of Royal Gwent Hospital, in Newport for the cautionary medical report, "A Man Who Pricked His Finger and Smelled Putrid for 5 Years."
Science Education – Presented to Dolores Krieger, Professor Emerita, New York University, for demonstrating the merits of therapeutic touch, a method by which nurses manipulate the energy fields of ailing patients by carefully avoiding physical contact with those patients.
Statistics – Presented to Jerald Bain of Mt. Sinai Hospital in Toronto and Kerry Siminoski of the University of Alberta, for their carefully measured report, "The Relationship Among Height, Penile Length, and Foot Size".
Chemistry – Presented to Takeshi Makino, president of The Safety Detective Agency in Osaka, Japan, for his involvement with S-Check, an infidelity detection spray that wives can apply to their husbands' underwear.
Managed Health Care – Presented to George Blonsky and Charlotte Blonsky of New York City and San Jose, California, for inventing a device (U.S. Patent 3,216,423) to aid women in giving birth: the woman is strapped onto a circular table, and the table is then rotated at high speed.
Medicine – Presented to Dr. Arvid Vatle of Stord, Norway, for carefully collecting, classifying, and contemplating which kinds of containers his patients chose when submitting urine samples.
Economics – Presented to The Reverend Sun Myung Moon, for bringing efficiency and steady growth to the mass marriage industry, with, according to his reports, a 36-couple wedding in 1960, a 430-couple wedding in 1968, an 1800-couple wedding in 1975, a 6000-couple wedding in 1982, a 30,000-couple wedding in 1992, a 360,000-couple wedding in 1995, and a 36,000,000-couple wedding in 1997.
Medicine – Presented to Willibrord Weijmar Schultz, Pek van Andel, and Eduard Mooyaart of Groningen, the Netherlands, and Ida Sabelis of Amsterdam, for their illuminating report "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Male and Female Genitals During Coitus and Female Sexual Arousal."
Peace – Presented to The Royal Navy, for ordering its sailors to stop using live cannon shells, and to instead just shout "Bang!"
Biology – Presented to Norma E. Bubier, Charles G.M. Paxton, Phil Bowers, and D. Charles Deeming of the United Kingdom, for their report "Courtship Behaviour of Ostriches Towards Humans Under Farming Conditions in Britain".
Mathematics – Presented to K.P. Sreekumar and G. Nirmalan of Kerala Agricultural University, India, for their analytical report "Estimation of the Total Surface Area in Indian Elephants".
Medicine – Presented to Chris McManus of University College London, for his excruciatingly balanced report, "Scrotal Asymmetry in Man and in Ancient Sculpture".
Peace – Presented to Keita Sato, President of Takara Co., Dr. Matsumi Suzuki, President of Japan Acoustic Lab, and Dr. Norio Kogure, Executive Director, Kogure Veterinary Hospital, for promoting peace and harmony between the species by inventing Bow-Lingual, a computer-based automatic dog-to-human language translation device.
Chemistry – Presented to Yukio Hirose of Kanazawa University, for his chemical investigation of a bronze statue, in the city of Kanazawa, that fails to attract pigeons due to its arsenic content.
Economics – Presented to Karl Schwärzler and the nation of Liechtenstein, for making it possible to rent the entire country for corporate conventions, weddings, bar mitzvahs, and other gatherings.
Engineering – Presented to John Paul Stapp, Edward A. Murphy, Jr., and George Nichols, for jointly giving birth in 1949 to Murphy's Law, the basic engineering principle that "If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, someone will do it" (or, in other words: "If anything can go wrong, it will").
Interdisciplinary Research – Presented to Stefano Ghirlanda, Liselotte Jansson, and Magnus Enquis of Stockholm University, for their inevitable report "Chickens Prefer Beautiful Humans."
Literature – Presented to John Trinkaus, of the Zicklin School of Business, New York City, for meticulously collecting data and publishing more than 80 detailed academic reports about things that annoyed him, such as:
What percentage of young people wear baseball caps with the peak facing to the rear rather than to the front;
What percentage of pedestrians wear sport shoes that are white rather than some other color;
What percentage of swimmers swim laps in the shallow end of a pool rather than the deep end;
What percentage of automobile drivers almost, but not completely, come to a stop at one particular stop-sign;
Peace – Presented to Lal Bihari, of Uttar Pradesh, India, for a triple accomplishment: First, for leading an active life even though he has been declared legally dead; second, for waging a lively posthumous campaign against bureaucratic inertia and greedy relatives; and third, for creating the Association of Dead People. Lal Bihari overcame the handicap of being dead, and managed to obtain a passport from the Indian government so that he could travel to Harvard to accept his Prize. However, the U.S. government refused to allow him into the country. His friend Madhu Kapoor therefore came to the Ig Nobel Ceremony and accepted the Prize on behalf of Lal Bihari. Several weeks later, the Prize was presented to Lal Bihari himself in a special ceremony in India.
Physics – Presented to Jack Harvey, John Culvenor, Warren Payne, Steve Cowle, Michael Lawrance, David Stuart, and Robyn Williams of Australia, for their irresistible report "An analysis of the forces required to drag sheep over various surfaces".
It has been suggested that the study of this phenomenon has had major political consequences. Following the sensational stranding of a Soviet submarine deep inside Swedish waters on 27 October 1981, the Swedish navy initiated a large-scale campaign to guard Swedish territorial waters from the perceived threat of infiltration by foreign submarines, despite the Soviets consistently asserting that the stranding had occurred due to navigational errors. The "submarine hunts", which lasted throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, have been a heavily debated issue in Sweden, as to whether or not there ever was any factual substance to the claims of Soviet infiltration. One widely reported piece of "evidence" were several sound recordings of what the Swedish navy suspected to be foreign submarines. Oceanographers and marine biologists were invited to study the recordings and would eventually find that the sounds heard were most probably produced not by submarines, but in fact were the noises made when herring passed gas. In a reportage by the Swedish science magazine "Vetenskapens värld" ("World of science") televised on 16 April 2012, it's suggested that these findings were important in putting an end to the costly "submarine hunts" which had continued for more than a decade, with Ig Nobel laurate Håkan Westerberg guessing that this would have saved Swedish tax payers hundreds of millions in SEK.
Chemistry – Presented to The Coca-Cola Company of Great Britain, for using advanced technology to convert liquid from the River Thames (via a drinking water tap in Sidcup) into Dasani, a brand of bottled water, which for precautionary reasons has been made unavailable to consumers.
Biology – Presented jointly to Benjamin Smith of the University of Adelaide, Australia and the University of Toronto, Canada and the Firmenich perfume company, Geneva, Switzerland, and ChemComm Enterprises, Archamps, France; Craig Williams of James Cook University and the University of South Australia; Michael Tyler of the University of Adelaide; Brian Williams of the University of Adelaide; and Yoji Hayasaka of the Australian Wine Research Institute; for painstakingly smelling and cataloging the peculiar odors produced by 131 different species of frogs when the frogs were feeling stressed.
Economics – Presented to Gauri Nanda of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for inventing Clocky, an alarm clock that runs away and hides, repeatedly, thus ensuring that people get out of bed, and thus theoretically adding many productive hours to the workday.
Literature – Presented to the Internet entrepreneurs of Nigeria, for creating and then using e-mail to distribute a bold series of short stories, thus introducing millions of readers to a cast of rich characters—General Sani Abacha, Mrs. Mariam Sanni Abacha, Barrister Jon A Mbeki Esq., and others—each of whom requires just a small amount of expense money so as to obtain access to the great wealth to which they are entitled and which they would like to share with the kind person who assists them. (See advance fee fraud.)
Nutrition – Presented to Dr. Yoshiro Nakamatsu of Tokyo, Japan, for photographing and retrospectively analyzing every meal he has consumed during a period of 34 years (and counting).
Peace – Presented jointly to Claire Rind and Peter Simmons of University of Newcastle, in the UK, for electrically monitoring the activity of a brain cell in a locust while that locust was watching selected highlights from the movie Star Wars.
Physics – Presented jointly to John Mainstone and Thomas Parnell of the University of Queensland, Australia, for patiently conducting the so-called pitch drop experiment that began in the year 1927—in which a glob of congealed black tar pitch has been slowly dripping through a funnel, at a rate of approximately one drop every nine years.
Biology: Marie-Christine Cadiergues, Christel Joubert, and Michel Franc, for discovering that fleas that live on dogs jump higher than fleas that live on cats.
Chemistry: Sheree Umpierre, Joseph Hill, and Deborah Anderson, for discovering that Coca-Cola is an effective spermicide, and C.Y. Hong, C.C. Shieh, P. Wu, and B.N. Chiang for accidentally proving it is not.
Cognitive science: Toshiyuki Nakagaki, Hiroyasu Yamada, Ryo Kobayashi, Atsushi Tero, Akio Ishiguro, and Ágota Tóth, for discovering that slime molds can solve puzzles.
Physics: Aamir Shezad Attari and Douglas Smith, for proving that heaps of string or hair will inevitably tangle.
Biology: Fumiaki Taguchi, Song Guofu, and Zhang Guanglei of Kitasato University Graduate School of Medical Sciences in Sagamihara, Japan, for demonstrating that kitchen refuse can be reduced more than 90% in mass by using bacteria extracted from the feces of giant pandas.
Literature: An Garda Síochána for writing and presenting more than 50 traffic tickets to a Polish individual, by the name of "Prawo Jazdy". Mr. "Jazdy" was widely thought to be the most frequent driving offender in Ireland, until an investigation uncovered the fact that Prawo Jazdy is the Polish term for "Driving License".
Medicine: Donald L. Unger of Thousand Oaks, California, US, for investigating a possible cause of arthritis of the fingers, by diligently cracking the knuckles of his left hand but not his right hand every day for 60 years.
Peace: Stephan Bolliger, Steffen Ross, Lars Oesterhelweg, Michael Thali, and Beat Kneubuehl of the University of Bern, Switzerland, for determining whether it is better to be hit on the head with a full bottle of beer or with an empty bottle.
Public Health: Elena N. Bodnar, Raphael C. Lee, and Sandra Marijan of Chicago, US, for inventing a bra that can be quickly converted into a pair of gas masks—one for the wearer and one to be given to a needy bystander.
Veterinary medicine: Catherine Douglas and Peter Rowlinson of Newcastle University, UK, for showing that cows with names give more milk than cows that are nameless.
Biology: Libiao Zhang, Min Tan, Guangjian Zhu, Jianping Ye, Tiyu Hong, Shanyi Zhou, and Shuyi Zhang of China, and Gareth Jones of the University of Bristol, UK, for scientifically documenting fellatio in fruit bats.
Management: Alessandro Pluchino, Andrea Rapisarda, and Cesare Garofalo of the University of Catania, Italy, for demonstrating mathematically that organizations would become more efficient if they promoted people at random.
Physics: Lianne Parkin, Sheila Williams, and Patricia Priest of the University of Otago, New Zealand, for demonstrating that, on icy footpaths in wintertime, people slip and fall less often if they wear socks on the outside of their shoes.
Public Health: Manuel Barbeito, Charles Mathews, and Larry Taylor of the Industrial Health and Safety Office, Fort Detrick for determining by experiment that microbes cling to bearded scientists.
Transportation Planning: Toshiyuki Nakagaki, Atsushi Tero, Seiji Takagi, Tetsu Saigusa, Kentaro Ito, Kenji Yumiki, Ryo Kobayashi of Japan, and Dan Bebber, Mark Fricker of the UK, for using slime mold to determine the optimal routes for railroad tracks.
Chemistry: Makoto Imai, Naoki Urushihata, Hideki Tanemura, Yukinobu Tajima, Hideaki Goto, Koichiro Mizoguchi and Junichi Murakami for determining the ideal density of airborne wasabi (pungent horseradish) to awaken sleeping people in case of a fire or other emergency, and for applying this knowledge to invent the wasabi alarm.
Literature: John Perry of Stanford University for his Theory of Structured Procrastination, which states: "To be a high achiever, always work on something important, using it as a way to avoid doing something that's even more important."
Mathematics: Dorothy Martin of the USA (who predicted the world would end in 1954), Pat Robertson of the USA (who predicted the world would end in 1982), Elizabeth Clare Prophet of the USA (who predicted the world would end in 1990), Lee Jang Rim of Korea (who predicted the world would end in 1992), Credonia Mwerinde of Uganda (who predicted the world would end in 1999), and Harold Camping of the USA (who originally predicted the world would end on 6 September 1994, and later predicted that the world will end on 21 May 2011, which preceded his final prediction on 21 October 2011), for teaching the world to be careful when making mathematical assumptions and calculations.
Medicine: Mirjam Tuk, Debra Trampe and Luk Warlop, and jointly to Matthew Lewis, Peter Snyder, Robert Feldman, Robert Pietrzak, David Darby and Paul Maruff for demonstrating that people make better decisions about some kinds of things – but worse decisions about other kinds of things – when they have a strong urge to urinate.
Psychology: Karl Halvor Teigen of the University of Oslo, Norway, for trying to understand why, in everyday life, people sigh.
Physics: Philippe Perrin, Cyril Perrot, Dominique Deviterne, Bruno Ragaru and Herman Kingma for trying to determine why discus throwers become dizzy, and why hammer throwers don't, in their paper "Dizziness in discus throwers is related to motion sickness generated while spinning".
Public safety: John Senders of the University of Toronto, Canada, for conducting a series of safety experiments in which a person drives an automobile on a major highway while a visor repeatedly flaps down over his face, blinding him.
Medicine: Emmanuel Ben-Soussan and Michel Antonietti, for advising doctors who perform colonoscopies how to minimize the chance that their patients will explode.
Neuroscience: Craig Bennett, Abigail Baird, Michael Miller, and George Wolford, for demonstrating that brain researchers, by using complicated instruments and simple statistics, can see meaningful brain activity anywhere – even in a dead salmon.
Peace: The SKN Company, for converting old Russian ammunition into new diamonds.
Physics: Joseph Keller, Raymond Goldstein, Patrick Warren, and Robin Ball, for calculating the balance of forces that shape and move the hair in a human ponytail.
Psychology: Anita Eerland, Rolf Zwaan, and Tulio Guadalupe for their study "Leaning to the Left Makes the Eiffel Tower Seem Smaller".
Archaeology: Brian Crandall and Peter Stahl, for parboiling a dead shrew, and then swallowing the shrew without chewing, and then carefully examining everything excreted during subsequent days — all so they could see which bones would dissolve inside the human digestive system, and which bones would not.
Biology/Astronomy: Marie Dacke, Emily Baird, Marcus Byrne, Clarke Scholtz, and Eric Warrant, for discovering that when dung beetles get lost, they can navigate their way home by looking at the Milky Way.
Chemistry: Shinsuke Imai, Nobuaki Tsuge, Muneaki Tomotake, Yoshiaki Nagatome, Toshiyuki Nagata, and Hidehiko Kumagai, for discovering that the biochemical process by which onions make people cry is even more complicated than scientists previously realized.
Medicine: Masateru Uchiyama, Xiangyuan Jin, Qi Zhang, Toshihito Hirai, Atsushi Amano, Hisashi Bashuda and Masanori Niimi, for assessing the effect of listening to opera, on mice which have had heart transplant operations.
Probability: Bert Tolkamp, Marie Haskell, Fritha Langford, David Roberts, and Colin Morgan, for making two related discoveries: First, that the longer a cow has been lying down, the more likely that cow will soon stand up; and Second, that once a cow stands up, you cannot easily predict how soon that cow will lie down again.
Physics: Alberto Minetti, Yuri Ivanenko, Germana Cappellini, Nadia Dominici, and Francesco Lacquaniti, for discovering that some people would be physically capable of running across the surface of a pond — if those people and that pond were on the moon.
Psychology: Laurent Bègue, Brad Bushman, Oulmann Zerhouni, Baptiste Subra, and Medhi Ourabah, for confirming, by experiment, that people who think they are drunk also think they are attractive.
Public Health: Kasian Bhanganada, Tu Chayavatana, Chumporn Pongnumkul, Anunt Tonmukayakul, Piyasakol Sakolsatayadorn, Krit Komaratal, and Henry Wilde, for the medical techniques described in their report "Surgical Management of an Epidemic of Penile Amputations in Siam" — techniques which they recommend, except in cases where the amputated penis had been partially eaten by a duck.
Safety Engineering: The late Gustano Pizzo, for inventing an electro-mechanical system to trap airplane hijackers — the system drops a hijacker through trap doors, seals him into a package, then drops the encapsulated hijacker through the airplane's specially-installed bomb bay doors, whence he parachutes to earth, where police, having been alerted by radio, await his arrival. (U.S. Patent 3,811,643)
Arctic Science: Eigil Reimers and Sindre Eftestøl, for testing how reindeer react to seeing humans who are disguised as polar bears. 
Art: Marina de Tommaso, Michele Sardaro, and Paolo Livrea, for measuring the relative pain people suffer while looking at an ugly painting, rather than a pretty painting, while being shot [in the hand] by a powerful laser beam. 
Biology: Vlastimil Hart, Petra Nováková, Erich Pascal Malkemper, Sabine Begall, Vladimír Hanzal, Miloš Ježek, Tomáš Kušta, Veronika Němcová, Jana Adámková, Kateřina Benediktová, Jaroslav Červený and Hynek Burda, for carefully documenting that when dogs defecate and urinate, they prefer to align their body axis with Earth's north-south geomagnetic field lines. 
Economics: ISTAT — the Italian government's National Institute of Statistics, for proudly taking the lead in fulfilling the European Union mandate for each country to increase the official size of its national economy by including revenues from prostitution, illegal drug sales, smuggling, and all other unlawful financial transactions between willing participants. 
Medicine: Ian Humphreys, Sonal Saraiya, Walter Belenky and James Dworkin, for treating "uncontrollable" nosebleeds, using the method of nasal-packing-with-strips-of-cured-pork. 
Nutrition: Raquel Rubio, Anna Jofré, Belén Martín, Teresa Aymerich, and Margarita Garriga, for their study titled "Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Infant Faeces as Potential Probiotic Starter Cultures for Fermented Sausages." 
Physics: Kiyoshi Mabuchi, Kensei Tanaka, Daichi Uchijima and Rina Sakai, for measuring the amount of friction between a shoe and a banana skin, and between a banana skin and the floor, when a person steps on a banana skin that's on the floor. 
Psychology: Peter K. Jonason, Amy Jones, and Minna Lyons, for amassing evidence that people who habitually stay up late are, on average, more self-admiring, more manipulative, and more psychopathic than people who habitually arise early in the morning. 
Public Health: Jaroslav Flegr, Jan Havlíček and Jitka Hanušova-Lindova, and to David Hanauer, Naren Ramakrishnan, Lisa Seyfried, for investigating whether it is mentally hazardous for a human being to own a cat. 
^"Home" (in Russian). Ineos.ac.ru. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
^Kanda, F.; Yagi, E.; Fukuda, M.; Nakajima, K.; Ohta, T.; Nakata, O. (1990). "Elucidation of chemical compounds responsible for foot malodour". The British journal of dermatology122 (6): 771–776. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1990.tb06265.x. PMID2369557. edit
^Investigators, T. G. (1993). "An International Randomized Trial Comparing Four Thrombolytic Strategies for Acute Myocardial Infarction". New England Journal of Medicine329 (10): 673–682. doi:10.1056/NEJM199309023291001. PMID8204123.edit
^Robert W Faid. 1988. Gorbachev! Has the Real Antichrist Come? Tulsa, Okla : Victory House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-932081-19-3
^Busch, D. B.; Starling, J. R. (1986). "Rectal foreign bodies: case reports and a comprehensive review of the world's literature". Surgery100 (3): 512–519. PMID3738771. edit
^Shannahoff-Khalsa, D. S.; Boyle, M. R.; Buebel, M. E. (1991). "The effects of unilateral forced nostril breathing on cognition". The International journal of neuroscience57 (3–4): 239–249. doi:10.3109/00207459109150697. PMID1938166. edit
^Georget, D. M. R.; Parker, R.; Smith, A. C. (1994). "A study of the effects of water content on the compaction behaviour of breakfast cereal flakes". Powder Technology81: 189. doi:10.1016/0032-5910(94)02882-6.edit
^Bakkevig, M. K.; Nielsen, R. (1994). "Impact of wet underwear on thermoregulatory responses and thermal comfort in the cold". Ergonomics37 (8): 1375–1389. doi:10.1080/00140139408964916. PMID7925261.edit
^Yagyu, T.; Kondakor, I.; Kochi, K.; Koenig, T.; Lehmann, D.; Kinoshita, T.; Hirota, T.; Yagyu, T. (1998). "Smell and taste of chewing gum affect frequency domain eeg source localizations". International Journal of Neuroscience93 (3–4): 205–216. doi:10.3109/00207459808986426. PMID9639238.edit
^Witztum, D.; Rips, E.; Rosenberg, Y. (1994). "Equidistant Letter Sequences in the Book of Genesis". Statistical Science9: 429. doi:10.1214/ss/1177010393.edit
^Charnetski, C. J.; Brennan Jr, F. X.; Harrison, J. F. (1998). "Effect of music and auditory stimuli on secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA)". Perceptual and motor skills87 (3 Pt 2): 1163–1170. doi:10.2466/pms.1998.87.3f.1163. PMID10052073. edit
^Marazziti, D.; Akiskal, H. S.; Rossi, A.; Cassano, G. B. (1999). "Alteration of the platelet serotonin transporter in romantic love". Psychological Medicine29 (3): 741–745. doi:10.1017/S0033291798007946. PMID10405096.edit
^Kruger, J; Dunning, D (1999). "Unskilled and unaware of it: how difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments". Journal of personality and social psychology77 (6): 1121–34. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061. PMID10626367. edit
^Wyatt, JP; McNaughton, GW; Tullett, WM (1993). "The collapse of toilets in Glasgow". Scottish medical journal38 (6): 185. PMID8146638. edit
^Kopczuk, W.; Slemrod, J. (2003). "Dying to Save Taxes: Evidence from Estate-Tax Returns on the Death Elasticity". Review of Economics and Statistics85: 256. doi:10.1162/003465303765299783.edit
^Sherman, L. W. (1975). "An ecological study of glee in small groups of preschool children". Child Development46 (1): 53–61. doi:10.2307/1128833. PMID1132281. edit
^Andrade, C.; Srihari, B. S. (2001). "A preliminary survey of rhinotillexomania in an adolescent sample". The Journal of clinical psychiatry62 (6): 426–431. doi:10.4088/JCP.v62n0605. PMID11465519. edit
^Bubier, N. E.; Paxton, C. G. M.; Bowers, P.; Deeming, D. C. (1998). "Courtship behaviour of ostriches ( Struthio camelus ) towards humans under farming conditions in Britain". British Poultry Science39: 477. doi:10.1080/00071669888629.edit
^Silvers, V.; Kreiner, D. (1997). "The effects of pre-existing inappropriate highlighting on reading comprehension". Literacy Research and Instruction36 (3): 217. doi:10.1080/19388079709558240.edit
^Sreekumar, K. P.; Nirmalan, G. (1990). "Estimation of the total surface area in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus)". Veterinary research communications14 (1): 5–17. doi:10.1007/BF00346377. PMID2316192. edit
^Harvey, J. T.; Culvenor, J.; Payne, W.; Cowley, S.; Lawrance, M.; Stuart, D.; Williams, R. (2002). "An analysis of the forces required to drag sheep over various surfaces". Applied ergonomics33 (6): 523–531. doi:10.1016/S0003-6870(02)00071-6. PMID12507336. edit
^Simons, D. J.; Chabris, C. F. (1999). "Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events". Perception28 (9): 1059–1074. doi:10.1068/p2952. PMID10694957.edit
^Watson, J. (2004). "The Significance of Mr. Richard Buckley's Exploding Trousers: Reflections on an Aspect of Technological Change in New Zealand Dairy Farming between the World Wars". Agricultural History78 (3): 346–360. doi:10.1525/ah.2004.78.3.346.edit
^Smith, B. P. C.; Williams, C. R.; Tyler, M. J.; Williams, B. D. (2004). "A survey of frog odorous secretions, their possible functions and phylogenetic significance". Applied Herpetology2: 47. doi:10.1163/1570754041231587.edit
^Smith, B. P. C.; Tyler, M. J.; Williams, B. D.; Hayasaka, Y. (2003). "Chemical and olfactory characterization of odorous compounds and their precursors in the parotoid gland secretion of the green tree frog, Litoria caerulea". Journal of Chemical Ecology29 (9): 2085–2100. doi:10.1023/A:1025686418909. PMID14584677.edit
^Gettelfinger, B.; Cussler, E. L. (2004). "Will humans swim faster or slower in syrup?". AIChE Journal50 (11): 2646. doi:10.1002/aic.10389.edit
^Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.; Bon, J.; Rossello, C. (1999). "Ultrasonic Velocity in Cheddar Cheese as Affected by Temperature". Journal of Food Science64 (6): 1038. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1999.tb12277.x.edit
^Oppenheimer, D. M. (2006). "Consequences of erudite vernacular utilized irrespective of necessity: problems with using long words needlessly". Applied Cognitive Psychology20 (2): 139. doi:10.1002/acp.1178.edit
^Rijckaert, G.; Bronswijk, J. E. M. H.; Linskens, H. F. (1981). "House-dust community (Fungi, mites) in different climatic regions". Oecologia48 (2): 183. doi:10.1007/BF00347961.edit
^Yamamoto, M.; Futamura, Y.; Fujioka, K.; Yamamoto, K. (2008). "Novel Production Method for Plant Polyphenol from Livestock Excrement Using Subcritical Water Reaction". International Journal of Chemical Engineering2008: 1. doi:10.1155/2008/603957.edit
^Toro, J. M.; Trobalon, J. B.; Sebastián-Gallés, N. �R. (2005). "Effects of Backward Speech and Speaker Variability in Language Discrimination by Rats". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes31 (1): 95–100. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.31.1.95. PMID15656730.edit
^Cadiergues, M. (2000). "A comparison of jump performances of the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis, 1826) and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835)". Veterinary Parasitology92 (3): 239–990. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00274-0.edit
^Hong, C. Y.; Shieh, C. C.; Wu, P.; Chiang, B. N. (1987). "The Spermicidal Potency of Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola". Human & Experimental Toxicology6 (5): 395–396. doi:10.1177/096032718700600508. PMID3679247.edit
^Miller, G.; Tybur, J.; Jordan, B. (2007). "Ovulatory cycle effects on tip earnings by lap dancers: economic evidence for human estrus?☆☆". Evolution and Human Behavior28: 375. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.06.002.edit
^Sims, D. (2005). "You Bastard: A Narrative Exploration of the Experience of Indignation within Organizations". Organization Studies26 (11): 1625. doi:10.1177/0170840605054625.edit
^Waber, R. L.; Shiv, B.; Carmon, Z.; Ariely, D. (2008). "Commercial Features of Placebo and Therapeutic Efficacy". Journal of the American Medical Association299 (9): 1016–1017. doi:10.1001/jama.299.9.1016. PMID18319411.edit
^Zampini, M.; Spence, C. (2004). "The Role of Auditory Cues in Modulating the Perceived Crispness and Staleness of Potato Chips". Journal of Sensory Studies19: 347. doi:10.1111/j.1745-459x.2004.080403.x.edit
^Taguchi, F. (2001). "Microbial treatment of kitchen refuse with enzyme-producing thermophilic bacteria from Giant Panda feces". Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering92 (6): 602–606. doi:10.1016/S1389-1723(01)80326-1.edit
^Bolliger, S.; Ross, S.; Oesterhelweg, L.; Thali, M.; Kneubuehl, B. (2009). "Are full or empty beer bottles sturdier and does their fracture-threshold suffice to break the human skull?". Journal of forensic and legal medicine16 (3): 138–142. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2008.07.013. PMID19239964.edit
^Whitcome, K. K.; Shapiro, L. J.; Lieberman, D. E. (2007). "Fetal load and the evolution of lumbar lordosis in bipedal hominins". Nature450 (7172): 1075–1078. doi:10.1038/nature06342. PMID18075592.edit
^US 7255627 "Garment device convertible to one or more facemasks"
^Bertenshaw, C.; Rowlinson, P. (2009). "Exploring Stock Managers' Perceptions of the Human–Animal Relationship on Dairy Farms and an Association with Milk Production". Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People & Animals22: 59. doi:10.2752/175303708X390473.edit
^Acevedo-Whitehouse, K. .; Rocha-Gosselin, A. .; Gendron, D. . (2010). "A novel non-invasive tool for disease surveillance of free-ranging whales and its relevance to conservation programs". Animal Conservation13 (2): 217–225. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00326.x.edit
^Pluchino, A.; Rapisarda, A.; Garofalo, C. (2010). "The Peter principle revisited: A computational study". Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications389 (3): 467. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2009.09.045.edit
^Rietveld, S.; Van Beest, I. (2007). "Rollercoaster asthma: when positive emotional stress interferes with dyspnea perception". Behaviour research and therapy45 (5): 977–987. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.07.009. PMID16989773.edit
^Gwynne, D. T.; Rentz, D. C. F. (1983). "Beetles on the Bottle: Male Buprestids Mistake Stubbies for Females (Coleoptera)". Australian Journal of Entomology22: 79. doi:10.1111/j.1440-6055.1983.tb01846.x.edit
^Tuk, M. A.; Trampe, D.; Warlop, L. (2011). "Inhibitory Spillover: Increased Urination Urgency Facilitates Impulse Control in Unrelated Domains". Psychological Science22 (5): 627–633. doi:10.1177/0956797611404901. PMID21467548.edit
^Lewis, M. S.; Snyder, P. J.; Pietrzak, R. H.; Darby, D.; Feldman, R. A.; Maruff, P. (2011). "The effect of acute increase in urge to void on cognitive function in healthy adults". Neurourology and Urodynamics30 (1): 183–187. doi:10.1002/nau.20963. PMID21058363.edit
^Philippe Perrin, C. P.; Perrot, C.; Deviterne, D.; Ragaru, B.; Kingma, H. (2000). "Dizziness in Discus Throwers is Related to Motion Sickness Generated While Spinning". Acta Oto-laryngologica120 (3): 390–395. doi:10.1080/000164800750000621. PMID10894415.edit
^Ladas, S. D.; Karamanolis, G.; Ben-Soussan, E. (2007). "Colonic gas explosion during therapeutic colonoscopy with electrocautery". World journal of gastroenterology : WJG13 (40): 5295–5298. PMID17879396. edit
^Ben-Soussan, E.; Antonietti, M.; Savoye, G.; Herve, S.; Ducrott??, P.; Lerebours, E. (2004). "Argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis is efficient but requires a perfect colonic cleansing to be safe". European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology16 (12): 1315–8. doi:10.1097/00042737-200412000-00013. PMID15618838.edit
^Eerland, A.; Guadalupe, T. M.; Zwaan, R. A. (2011). "Leaning to the Left Makes the Eiffel Tower Seem Smaller: Posture-Modulated Estimation". Psychological Science22 (12): 1511–1514. doi:10.1177/0956797611420731. PMID22123776.edit
^Crandall, B. D.; Stahl, P. W. (1995). "Human digestive effects on a micromammalian skeleton". Journal of Archaeological Science22 (6): 789. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(95)90008-X.edit
^Imai, S.; Tsuge, N.; Tomotake, M.; Nagatome, Y.; Sawada, H.; Nagata, T.; Kumagai, H. (2002). "Plant biochemistry: An onion enzyme that makes the eyes water". Nature419 (6908): 685. doi:10.1038/419685a. PMID12384686.edit
^Tolkamp, B. J.; Haskell, M. J.; Langford, F. M.; Roberts, D. J.; Morgan, C. A. (2010). "Are cows more likely to lie down the longer they stand?". Applied Animal Behaviour Science124: 1. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2010.02.004.edit
^Bègue, L.; Bushman, B. J.; Zerhouni, O.; Subra, B.; Ourabah, M. (2013). "'Beauty is in the eye of the beer holder': People who think they are drunk also think they are attractive". British Journal of Psychology104 (2): 225–234. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2012.02114.x. PMID23560668.edit
^Bhanganada, K.; Chayavatana, T.; Pongnumkul, C.; Tonmukayakul, A.; Sakolsatayadorn, P.; Komaratat, K.; Wilde, H. (1983). "Surgical management of an epidemic of penile amputations in siam". The American Journal of Surgery146 (3): 376. doi:10.1016/0002-9610(83)90420-8.edit
^Reimers, E.; Eftestøl, S. (2012). "Response Behaviors of Svalbard Reindeer TOwards Humans and Humans Disguised as Polar Bears on Edgeøya". Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research44 (4): 483. doi:10.1657/1938-4246-44.4.483.edit
^Hanauer, D. A.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Seyfried, L. S. (2013). "Describing the Relationship between Cat Bites and Human Depression Using Data from an Electronic Health Record". PLoS ONE8 (8): e70585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070585. PMID23936453.edit
^Humphreys, I.; Saraiya, S.; Belenky, W.; Dworkin, J. (2011). "Nasal Packing with Strips of Cured Pork as Treatment for Uncontrollable Epistaxis in a Patient with Glanzmann Thrombasthenia". Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology120 (11): 732. doi:10.1177/000348941112001107.editPMID 22224315
^Hanauer, D. A.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Seyfried, L. S. (2013). "Describing the Relationship between Cat Bites and Human Depression Using Data from an Electronic Health Record". PLoS ONE8 (8): e70585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070585. PMID23936453.edit