From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article
|Part of a series of articles on|
|Priesthood in Judaism|
|Kohen · Recognition of priestly descent|
This page gives one list (partly traditional) of the High Priests of Ancient Israel up to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Because of a lack of historical data, this list is incomplete and there may be gaps.
The office did not always pass directly from father to son. The high priests, like all Jewish priests, belonged to the Aaronic line. The Bible mentions the majority of high priests before the captivity, but does not give a complete list of office holders. Lists would be based on various historical sources. In several periods of gentile rule, high priests were appointed and removed by kings. Still, most high priests came from the Aaronic line. One exception is Menelaus, who may not have been from the Tribe of Levi at all, but from the Tribe of Benjamin.
|I Chronicles 5:30-40 in Hebrew Bible||Book of Ezra 7:1-5||Josephus||Seder 'Olam Zuta||Important priests in the Tanakh|
|According to the Samaritans, Shesha is inserted, said to be the son of Abishua and father to Bukki.|
|Zerahiah||Zerahiah||Eli||Eli||Eli, descendant of Ithamar, son of Aaron |
|Zadok||Zadok||Zadok||Zadok||Zadok, son of Ahitub (son of Amariah, son of Meraioth, son of Zerahiah, son of Uzzi — 1 Chr 6:6-8) of the line of Eleazar, High Priest during the reign of King Solomon and the construction of the First Temple|
|Ahimaaz||Ahimaaz||Ahimaaz||Ahimaaz||Ahimaaz, son of Zadok, High Priest during the reign of King Solomon|
|Azariah||Azariah||Azariah||Azariah||Azariah, son of Ahimaaz ("prince" during Solomon's reign — 1 Ki 4:2)|
|Johanan||-||Joram||Joash||Johanan, son of Azariah|
|-||-||Isus||Jehoiarib||Jehoiarib, head of a family of priests|
|-||-||Axioramos||Jehoiada||Jehoiada, brother-in-law of King Ahaziah|
|Ahitub||-||Urias||Urijah||Uriah, priest (2 Ki 16:10; Isaiah 8:2)|
|Meraioth||-||Nerias||Neria||Azariah III, son of Johanan, son of Azariah II (c. 715 BC — 1 Chr 6:9, 2 Chr 31:10)|
|Shallum||Shallum||Shallum||Shallum||Shallum, son of Zadok|
|Hilkiah||Hilkiah||Elcias||Hilkiah||Hilkiah, priest at the time of King Josiah.|
|Azariah IV||Azariah IV||Azaros||Azariah IV||Azariah IV, son of Hilkiah (1 Chr 6:13)|
|Seriah||Seriah||Sareas||Seriah||Seriah, son of Azariah IV (2 Ki 25:18)|
Some name Jehozadak, son of Seriah, as a high priest prior to being sent to captivity in Babylonia, which however is a misreading of biblical references to "Joshua, son of Jehozadak, the high priest." Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi) wrote that Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the [High] Priest, "does not [mean] that Jehozadak ever served in the high priesthood, for he was exiled to Babylon in the days of Jeconiah, as it is written: And Jehozadak went when… exiled etc.," but Joshua his son was the High Priest when they ascended from Babylon during the time of the Second Temple. Now why was Azariah the son of Seraiah the scholar not the High Priest, but [instead] his nephew Joshua the son of Jehozadak? This is the reason: because Joshua ascended with Zerubbabel many days and years before Ezra ascended.
A genealogy from Aaron through Eleazar to Jehozadak can be found in 1 Chronicles, chapter 6. As in several biblical genealogies, some names may be omitted. Therefore it is uncertain whether high priests mentioned elsewhere (such as Jehoiada and Jehoiarib) are simply omitted or did not belong to the unbroken male line in this genealogy. During the later time of the judges, the office went to Itamar's descendants for a period, the first known and most notable high priest being Eli. After Abiathar was expelled, the office returned to the line of Eleazar. It is not sure whether all those mentioned in the genealogy between Zadok and Jehozadak were high priests. From Solomon's time until the captivity, Josephus names 18 high priests, while Seder 'Olam Zuta names 19.
The five descendants of Joshua are mentioned in Nehemiah, chapter 12, 10f. The chronology given above, based on Josephus, however is not undisputed, with some alternatively placing Jaddua during the time of Darius II and some supposing one more Johanan and one more Jaddua in the following time, the latter Jaddua being contemporary of Alexander the Great.
Inter-Sacerdotium: It is unknown who held the position of High Priest of Jerusalem between Alcimus' death and the accession of Jonathan. Josephus, in Jewish Antiquities XX.10, relates that the office was vacant for six years, but this is indeed highly unlikely, if not impossible. In religious terms, the High Priest was a necessary part of the rites on the Day of Atonement - a day that could have not been allowed to pass uncelebrated for so long so soon after the restoration of the Temple service. Politically, Israel's overlords probably would not have allowed a power vacuum to last that length of time.
In another passage (XII.10 §6, XII.11 §2) Josephus suggests that Judas Maccabeus, the brother of Jonathan, held the office for three years, succeeding Alcimus. However, Judas actually predeceased Alcimus by one year. The nature of Jonathan's accession to the high priesthood makes it unlikely that Judas held that office during the inter-sacerdotium. The Jewish Encyclopedia tries to harmonise the contradictions found in Josephus by supposing that Judas held the office "immediately after the consecration of the Temple (165-162), that is, before the election of Alcimus"
It has been argued that the founder of the Qumran community, the Teacher of Righteousness (Moreh Zedek), was High Priest (but not necessarily the sole occupant) during the inter-sacerdotium and was driven off by Jonathan. This view is based on sources from the Qumran, that portray the teacher as a figure of authority usually associated with the high priest, however, without clearly spelling out names or events.