List of Hawaii hurricanes

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Category 4 Hurricane Iniki, Hawaiʻi's most notable hurricane.

A Hawaiian hurricane is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Pacific Ocean and affects the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiʻi lies in the central Pacific, where about four or five tropical cyclones appear each year, although as many as eleven have occurred, such as in the 1992 and 1994 seasons; rarely do these storms actually affect Hawaiʻi. Tropical cyclone records were not kept before the 1950s. Earlier windstorms that struck Hawaiʻi were not labeled as hurricanes.[1]

List of tropical cyclones[edit]

Tracks of all the tropical cyclones to affect Hawaiʻi since 1949

This list contains every tropical cyclone that had a somewhat notable effect on the State of Hawaiʻi.

Pre–1950[edit]

1950s[edit]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

Tropical Storm Maggie

1980s[edit]

Hurricane Uleki near Hawaii and peak strength

1990s[edit]

Hurricane Emilia passing by Hawaiʻi as a Category 4 hurricane.

2000s[edit]

Radar image of Hurricane Jimena south of Hawaiʻi.

2010s[edit]

Listed by month[edit]

38 tropical cyclones have affected Hawaiʻi since 1949.

Number of recorded storms affecting Hawaiʻi
MonthNumber of storms
January
1
February
0
March
1
April
0
May
0
June
1
July
3
August
4
September
13
October
9
November
3
December
4

Deadliest storms[edit]

12 people have died in Hawaiʻi as a result of tropical cyclones since 1949.

NameYearNumber of deaths
Iniki19926
Estelle19862
Uleki19882
Hiki19501
Iwa19821

Hawaii's apparent immunity to most hurricanes[edit]

Hurricanes in the Central Pacific (140° W to 180 ° W) generally travel from east to west, however, some including Hurricanes Iwa (1982) and Iniki (1992) track in a northerly direction

The islands of Hawaii, with Kauai as the notable exception, appear to be remarkably immune from direct hurricane hits. The USGS states that "more commonly, near-misses that generate large swell and moderately high winds causing varying degrees of damage are the hallmark of hurricanes passing close to the islands."[30] This has also drawn media attention.[31][32]

One notion is that Hawaii’s volcanic peaks slow down or divert storms.[33] A partial source of this idea may be the long list of hurricanes in the above paragraphs that dissipated into tropical storms or depressions upon approaching the islands. Satellite images of hurricane Flossie's breakup when approaching Hawaii Island fueled this idea.[34] Another example may be hurricane Felicia which dropped from Category 4 down to a tropical depression with residual winds predicted at only 35 miles per hour (56 km/h).[35]

Snow on Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea after storm passes Hawaii Island.

Tropical Storm Flossie (no relation to Hurricane Flossie in 2007) provides still another example. On July 28, 2013, the storm appeared headed for a direct hit to the Big Island, home to Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa. Both mountains rise to elevations in excess of 13,000 feet above sea level, and as Flossie approached the island, its track shifted abruptly overnight and assumed a more northerly alignment, heading instead to the island of Maui on July 29.[36]

Wind data in particular supports the USGS assertion that hurricane damage has been low on all islands except for Kauai. Data collected by the Western Regional Climate Center show no hurricane-strength winds on any Hawaii Islands with the exception of Kauai.[37] Despite this data, FEMA classified all of Hawaii as being in a "Wind-Borne Debris Region".[38][39][40]

Before Hurricane Iniki in 1992, a standard homeowner's insurance policy with extended coverage provided hurricane coverage. Since Iniki, many insurance policies exclude hurricane and a separate hurricane policy is required to obtain hurricane coverage.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oahu Civil Defense Agency
  2. ^ a b c Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclones in the 1800s". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Tropical Cyclones During the Years 1900-1952 (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1900-52.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  4. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1957 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1957.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  5. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1958 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1958.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  6. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1959 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1959.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  7. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. 1963 Tropical Cyclones in the Central North Pacific (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1963.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  8. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. 1966 Tropical Cyclones in the Central North Pacific (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1966.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  9. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1970 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1970.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  10. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1971 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1971.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  11. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1972 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1972.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  12. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1976 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1976.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  13. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1978 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1978.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  14. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1982 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-29). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1982.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  15. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1983 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-30). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1983.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  16. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1985 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-32). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1985.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  17. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1986 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-33). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1986.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  18. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1988 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-35). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1988.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  19. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1989 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-36). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1989.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  20. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1991 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-38). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1991.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  21. ^ a b c Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-39). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1992.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  22. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1993 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-40). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1993.php. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  23. ^ a b c d Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1994 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-41). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1994.php. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
  24. ^ Hablutzel, Benjamin C; Weyman, James C; Rosendal, Hans E; Jendrowski, Paul A; Hoag, Jonathan D; Tanabe, Raymond M; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1999 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-46). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1999.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  25. ^ Kodama, Kevin R; Rosendal, Hans E; Hablutzelm Benjamin C; Jendrowski, Paul A; Eum, Daniel; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 2000 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/2000.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  26. ^ Nash, Andy; Craig, Tim; Farrell, Robert; Rosendal, Hans E; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 2003 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-51). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/2003.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  27. ^ Nash, Andy; Craig, Tim; Matsuda, Roy; Powell, Jeffery. The 2004 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-52). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/2004.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  28. ^ a b Nash, Andy; Proton, Victor; Farrell, Robert; Matsuda, Roy. 2005 Tropical Cyclones in the Central North Pacific (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-53). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/2005.php. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  29. ^ Kimberlain, Todd B; Wroe Derek; Knabb, Richard D; National Hurricane Center; Central Pacific Hurricane Center (2010-01-10). Hurricane Felicia (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 3. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-EP082009_Felicia.pdf. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
  30. ^ Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone published by the USGS Page 11
  31. ^ USA Today article Hurricanes rarely hit Hawaii By Jack Williams Posted 9/1/2003
  32. ^ Hawaii escaping hurricanes Posted 11/17/2009 original source Associated Press
  33. ^ Maui not ’immune’ to hurricane strike published by Maui News, May 22, 2007
  34. ^ Video of hurricane Flossie's breakup upon approach to Hawaii Island
  35. ^ US article: Hurricane Felicia strengthens, heads toward Hawaii, August 09, 2009
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ Western Regional Climate Center - Historic Wind Measurements
  38. ^ FEMA Definitions for Wind-Borne Debris Region
  39. ^ FEMA Definitions for Hurricane-Prone Region
  40. ^ FEMA - Wind zones in the United States

External links[edit]