List of Greek and Latin roots in English

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The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English.

Some of those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.

A[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ab-, a-, abs-, au-away fromLatinababnormal, abrasion, absent, abstain, abstraction, auference, aversion
acer-, acri-bitter, sharp, sourLatinacer (acris), acerbus, acereacerbic, acrid, acrimony, exacerbate
acet-sour, vinegarLatinacetumacetate, acetic, acetone, acetum
acid-acidic, sourLatinacidusacidiferous, acidifiant, acidity, acidosis, acidulation
acr-, acro-height, summit, tipGreekἄκρος (akros) "high", "extreme"acrobatics, acromegaly, acronym, acrophobia, acropolis
acu-, acut-sharp, pointedLatinacutus, past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle"accurate, acerose, acupuncture, acute, acutifoliate
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, am-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-movement to or toward; in addition toLatinad "to", "toward"accept, adapt, affect, agglomerate, aggrandize, aggregate, aggression, annectent, approximate, ascend
adip-fatLatinadeps, adipis "fat"adipocellular, adipose
aero-air, atmosphereGreekἀήρ (aēr) "air"aerie, aeriferous, aerobic, aerodynamic, aeronautics, aeroplane, aerorrhachia, aerosol, aerotitis
aesthet-feeling, sensationGreekαἰσθητικός (aisthētikos) "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthanesthai) "to perceive"aesthetics, anaesthetic
aether-, ether-upper pure, bright airLatinaetherether, ethereal
aev-, ev-ageLatinaevumage, coeval, eon, eternal, longevity, medieval, primeval
ag-, -ig-, act-do, go, moveLatinagere, actusact, action, agenda, agent, agile, agitate, ambiguous, castigate, cogent, cogitate, cogitation, excogitate, mitigate, navigate
ag-, -agogueleadGreekἄγειν (agein) (cognate with Latin agere)agony, antagonist, antagonize, demagogue, pedagogue, pedagogy, stragegy, synagogue
agri-, -egri-fieldLatinager, agris "field, country"agriculture, peregrine
agro-fieldGreekἀγρός (agros) "field"agroforestry, agronomy
alac-cheerfulLatinalaceralacrity, allegro
alb-dull whiteLatinalbusalbedo, albino, albumen
alg-painGreekalgosanalgesic, arthralgia, neuralgia
ali-, alter-otherLatinaliusalias, alibi, alien, alter, alternate, altruism
alt-high, deepLatinaltus, altitudoaltimeter, altitude
am-, amat-love, likingLatinamāre, amatus, amoramateur, amatory, amenity, amoration, amorous, enamoured
ami-, amic-, imic-friendLatinamicusamiable, amicable, amity, enemy, enmity, inimical
ambi-, am-, amb-, ambo-, an-both, on both sidesLatinambiambidexterity, ambient, ambiguous, ambit, ambition, ambivalent, amboceptor, amputation, ancipital, andante
ambul-to walkLatinambulareambulance, ambulatory, preamble
amph-, amphi-both, on both sides of, both kindsGreekἀμφί (amphi) "on both sides"amphibian, amphibolic, amphoterism
ampl-ample, abundant, bountiful, largeLatinamplusample, amplify, amplitude
an-, a-, am-, ar-not, withoutGreekGreek ἀν-/ἀ- "not"anaerobic, anhydrous, ambrosia, arrhythmia, atheism, atypical
ana-, am-, an-again, against, back, upGreekἀνά (ana)anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anarrhexis, anion, anode
andr-male, masculineGreekἀνήρ (anér)androgen, android, polyandrous, polyandry
anem-, anemo-windGreekἄνεμος (anemos)anemometer
anim-breath, life, spiritLatinanima "breath"animal, animation
ann-, -enn-year, yearlyLatinannus "year"anniversary, annual, centennial, millennium, perennial
ant-, anti-against, opposed to, preventiveGreekἀντί (anti) "against"antagonist, antagonize, antibiotic, antipodes, antirrhinum
ante-, anti-before, in front of, prior to; oldLatinante "before", "against"; see also antiquus "old"antebellum, antediluvian, anticipate, antiquarian, antiquated, antique, antiquity
anth-, antho-flowerGreekἄνθος (anthos) "flower"anther, anthology
anthrac-coalGreekἄνθραξ (anthraks)anthracycline, anthracite, anthrax,
anthrop-, anthropo-humanGreekἄνθρωπος (anthropos) "man"anthropology, anthropomorphic, misanthrope, philanthropy
ap-, apo-away from, separate, at the farthest pointGreekἀπό (apo) "from, away, un-, quite"aphelion, apocrine, apocryphal, apogee, apostasy, apostate, aporrhinosis
aper-openLatinaperireaperture, overt, overture
aqu-, aqua-, aque-, aqui-waterLatinaquaaquamarine, aquarium, aqueduct, aquifer
ara-plow, tillLatinărārearable
arbit-judgeLatinarbiter (from ad "to" + baetere "to come, go")arbiter, arbitrage, arbitrary, arbitration
arcan-boxLatinarcanusarcane, arcanum
arch-, arche-, archi-rulerGreekἀρχή (archē) "rule" (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-)anarchy, archangel, archetype, architect, autarchy, monarchy, matriarchy, patriarchy, oligarchy
archae-, arche-ancientGreekἀρχαῖος (arkhaios) "ancient" from arkhē "beginning"archaeology, archaic, archaism
arct-Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to coldGreekἄρκτος (arktos) "bear"Arctic Ocean
ard-heat, glow, passionLatinardere "to burn"ardent, ardor, arson
ardu-difficultLatinarduus "high, steep"arduous
argent-silverLatinargentumargent, Argentina
areta-virtueGreekἀρετή (aretē)aretaic
arid-be dryLatinārēre "be dry or parched"arid
arist-excellenceGreekἄριστος (aristos)aristocracy
art-artLatinars, artisartist, artillery, artisan, inert, inertia
arthr-jointGreekἄρθρον (arthron)arthritis, arthropod
asin-assLatinasinusasinine, ass, easel
asper-roughLatinasper "rough"asperity, exasperate
aster-, astr-star, star-shapedGreekἄστρον (astron) "star"aster, asterisk, asteroid, astrology, astronomy, astronaut
athl-prizeGreekἄθλος (athlos) "contest, feat"athlete, triathlon, pentathlon
-athroid-gathered or lumped togetherGreekαθροίζω (athroidzo) "I gather together"hypoathroid, epiathroid
auda-daringLatinaudax "brave, bold, daring", from audere "to dare"audacious, audacity
audi-hearing, listening, soundLatinaudire "to hear"audible, audio, audiology, audition, auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct-grow, increaseLatinaugēre, auctus "to increase"auction, augend, augment, augmentation, augur, augury, august, author, auxiliary, inauguration
aur-relating to gold, or gold-coloredLatinaurum "gold"aureate, aureole
auri-, aus-relating to the earLatinauris "ear"auricle, aurinasal, auscultate, auscultation
aut-, auto-, autor-self; directed from withinGreekαὐτός (autos) "self", "same"autarchy, autocracy, autograph, automatic, automobile, autonomy
ave-desireLatinavere "crave, long for"avarice, avaricious, ave, avid, avidity
avi-, au-birdLatinavisauspice, auspicious, avian, aviary, aviation,
axi-axisLatinaxisaxis, axisymmetry
axi(o)-meritGreekἄξιος (axios) "worth"axiology, axiom

B[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
bac-rod-shapedLatinbaculumbaculiform, baculum
bal-, bol-throwGreekballeinball, ballista, ballistic, devil, diabolic, hyperbole, metabolism, parable, problem, symbol
bar-weight, pressureGreekβάρος (baros)barograph, barometer, barostat
basi-, bas-, basio-, basir-, baso-at the bottomGreekβάσις (basis) "step", from βαίνω (bainō), "I walk, march"base, basic, basis, basicranial, basioglossal, basirrhinal, basommatophoric, basolateral, debase
bathy-, batho-deep, depthGreekβαθύς (bathús, bathýs)batholith, bathymetry, bathyscaphe, bathysphere
be-, beat-blessLatinbeare, beatusbeatification
bell-, belli-warLatinbellum, belliantebellum, bellicose, belligerent, rebellion
ben-good, wellLatinbene (adverb)beneficence, benefit, benevolent, benign, benignant, benignity
bi-, bin-, bis-twoLatinbis, "twice"; bini, "in twos"bicycle, biennial, bifocal, bigamy, binary, binoculars, biscotti
bib-drinkLatinbibere, bibitusbib, beer, beverage, imbibe
bibl-bookGreekβιβλίον (biblíon) "book"bible, bibliography
bio-, bi-lifeGreekβίος (bíos) "life"biodiversity, biography, biohazard, biology, biome, biometric, biosphere
blenn-, blenno-, blennor-slimeGreekβλέννος (blennos)blennadenitis, blennophobia, blennosperma, blennorrhagia
blast-, blasto-germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleusGreekβλασταίνω (blastainō), "I put forth shoots"blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast, blastocardia, blastochyle
bon-goodLatinbonusbonify, bonitary
bore-northLatin from Greekborealis "northern" from Βορέας (Boreas) "the north wind"borealis
botan-plantGreekβοτάνη, βότανον (botanē, botanon)botanic, botanist, botanology, botany
bov-, bu-cow, oxLatinbos (genitive bovis) "ox, cow"beef, boor, bovine, bucinator muscle
brachi-, brachio-armLatinbracchiumbrachiferous, brachial artery, brachiocubital
brachi-, brachio-, brachion-, brachioni-, brachior-armGreekβραχίων (brakhíōn)brachialgia, brachionerysipelas, brachionigraph, brachiorrhachidian, brachiosaurus
brachy-shortGreekβραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs)brachycephaly, brachydactyly
brady-, bradys-slowGreekβραδύς (bradús, bradýs)bradycardia, bradysuria
branchi-gillGreekβράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion)branchiopod, nudibranch
brev-brief, short (time)Latinbrevis, breviareabbreviate, brevextensor, brevicaudate, brevity, brief
bromat-, bromato-, broma-, bromo-foodGreekβρῶμα (brōma)bromatium, bromateccrisis, bromatherapy, bromatology, bromography
brom-oatsGreekβρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, brómē) "oats"brome, Bromus, Bromus ramosus
brom-stenchGreekβρῶμος (brōmos) "stench, clangor"bromate, bromide, bromine
bronch-windpipeGreekβρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos)bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchus
bront-, bronto-thunderGreekβροντή (brontē)Brontosaurus, brontology, brontophobia
bucc-cheek, mouth, cavityLatinbuccabuccal, buccilingual, buccolingual
bulb-bulbousLatinbulbusbulbiform, bulbiparous, bulboartrial, bulborrhexis, bulbous, bulbule
bull-bubble, flaskLatinbullire, bullabullectomy, bulliferous, ebullient, ebullism
burs-pouch, purseLatinbursabursa, bursalogy, bursar, bursary, bursectomy, bursiform, disburse

C[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
cac-, caco-, kako-, kaki-badGreekκακός (kakos)cachexia, cacography, cacophony, cacorrhacitis, kakistocracy
cad-, -cid-, cas-fallLatincadere, casusaccident, cadaver, cadence, cascade, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis-cut, killLatincaedere, caesuscaesura, democide, exorcise, genocide, germicide, homicide, incisor, scissors
cal-callLatincalarecalendar, claim, class, conciliate, conciliatory, council, intercalate, nomenclature
calc-stoneLatin and Greekfrom Latin calx (genitive calcis) "lime", from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble", "limestone"calcite, calcitrant, calcium, calculate, calculus, chalicothere, chalk, recalcitrant
cali-, call-, calli-, calo-beautifulGreekκαλός (kalos) "beautiful"; κάλλος (kallos) "beauty"calisthenics, calligraphy, calophyllous, kaleidoscope
calor-, calo-, calori-heatLatincalor "heat"caldron, caloric, calorie, calorigenic, calorimeter
calum-trick, lie, deceiveLatincalumnia "slander, trickery", from calvi' "to trick, deceive"calumnious, calumny, cavil, challenge
calyp-coverGreekκαλύπτειν (kaluptein)apocalypse
camer-vaultLatincamerabicameral, camera
camp-fieldLatincampus "field", "level ground"camp, campaign, campicolous, campimetry, campus, champion
can-dogLatincaniscanine, Canis Major
can-reed, rodGreekκάννα (kanna)cane, canister, canon
can-, -cin-, cant-singLatincantare frequentative of canereaccent, cantata, canto, cantor, chant, enchant, recant
cand-, cend-glowing, iridescentLatincandere "to be white or glisten"candela, candid, candle, candor, incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept-hold, takeLatincapere, captus "take or hold" (vowel changes from a to i in compounds)capable, capacious, captive, caption, captivate, capture, conception, except, forceps, incipient, intercept, recipient
capit-, -cipit-headLatincaput, capitiscapital, capitulate, capitulation, captain, decapitate, precipitation, recap, recapitulate
capr-goatLatincaper (genitive capri) "goat", also capreolus "wild goat"cab, caper, caprice, Capricorn, caprine
caps-box, caseLatincapsacapsule
carbo-coalLatincarbo, carboniscarbohydrate, carbon
carcer-jailLatincarcer, carcerareincarceration
carcin-cancer (disease)Latin from GreekLatin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos) "crab"carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi-relating to the heartGreekκαρδιά (kardia)cardiograph, cardiology, electrocardiogram
cardin-hingeLatincardo, cardiniscardinal
carn-, carni-fleshLatincaro, carniscarnage, carnal, carnival, carnivore, charnel, incarnadine, incarnate, reincarnation
carp-fruitGreekκαρπός (karpos) "fruit"carpology
carp-wristGreekκαρπός (karpos) "wrist"carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cast-pure, cutLatincastrare and castus, from kes- (to cut)caste, castigate, castrate, chaste, chastity, incest
cata-, cat-, catar-downGreekκατά (katá) "down"catabolic, catacomb, catalyst, catarrhine, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation
caten-chainLatincatenacatenary, concatenation
cathar-pureGreekκαθαρός (katharos)catharsis
caud-tailLatincaudacaudal, coda
caus-, -cus-cause or motiveLatincausaaccuse, because, causal, causative, cause, excuse
caust-, caut-burnGreekκαίειν (kaiein)calm, caustic, cauterize, holocaust
cav-hollowLatincavuscave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess-move, yield, go, surrenderLatincedere, cessusaccede, cede, concede, precede, procedure, proceed, procession, recede, secede, succeed, success
cel-hideLatincelare "to hide"ceiling, clandestine, conceal, occult
celer-quickLatinceler, celerareacceleration, celerity
cen-newGreekκαινός (kainos)Cenozoic
cen-emptyGreekκενός (kenos)cenotaph
cen-commonGreekκοινός (koinos)cenobite
cens-to assessLatincenserecensure, census
cent-hundredLatincentumcent, centennial, centurion, percent
centen-hundred eachLatincentenicentenarian, centenary
centesim-hundredthLatincentesimuscentesimal, centesimation
centr-centerGreekκέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur"eccentric
centri-centerLatincentrumcentral, center, concentrate, concentric, centrifugal, centripetal
cephal-headGreekκεφαλή (kephalē)cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram-clayGreekκέραμος (keramos)ceramic
cerat-hornGreekκέρας (keras), κέρατος (keratos)keratin, triceratops
cern-, cer-siftLatincernere "to sift, separate"ascertain, certain, concern, concert, decree, discern, excrement, secern, secret
cervic-relating to the neck, relating to the cervixLatincervix, cervicis "neck"cervix, cervical
ceter-otherLatinceteruset cetera
chir-of the hand or handsGreekχείρ (kheir) "hand"chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
chelon-relating to a turtleGreekχελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise"chelonia
chlor-greenGreekχλωρός (khlōros)chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
chore-relating to danceGreekχορεία (khoreia) "dancing in unison" from χορός (khoros) "chorus"choreography, chorus
chord-cordLatin and Greekchorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē)chordata, cord
chrom-colorGreekχρῶμα (chrōma)chromatic, chrome, chromium, chromosome, monochrome, polychrome
chron-timeGreekχρόνος (chronos)anachronism, chronic, chronicle, chronology, chronometer, synchronize
chrys-goldGreekχρυσός (khrusos)chrysalis, chrysolite
cili-eyelashLatinciliumcilia, supercilious
cine-motionGreekκινέω (kineō)cinema
ciner-ashLatincinis, cinerisincineration
cing-, cinct-girdLatincingere, cinctussuccinct
circ-circle, ringLatincirculus, circuscircle, circular, circulate, circus
circum-aroundLatincircumcircumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumscribe
cirr-orangeGreekκιρρός (kirros)cirrhosis
cirr-curl, tentacleLatincirruscirrus
cit-call, startLatincitare, frequentative of cierecitation, cite, excite, incite, solicit, solicitous
civ-citizenLatinciviscivic, civil, civilian, civility, civilization
clad-branchGreekκλάδος (klados)clade
clam-cry outLatinclamareacclaim, claim, clamor, exclamation, proclamation, reclamation
clar-clearLatinclarus, clarareclarity, clear, declaration
clast-brokenGreekκλαστός (klastos)iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus-close, shutLatinclaudere, claususclause, claustrophobia, conclude, exclude, exclusive, include, occlusion, occult, recluse, seclude
clav-keyGreekκλείς (kleis) "key" from κλείειν, (kleiein) "to close"clavichord, clavicle, conclave
cleist-closedGreekκλειστός (kleistos)cleistogamy
cleithr-bar, keyGreekκλεῖϑρον (kleithron)cleithrum
clement-mildLatinclemens, clementisclemency, inclement
clin-bedGreekκλίνη (klinē)clinic
clin-lean, reclineLatin-clinaredecline, declination, incline, inclination, recline
cochl-snail, spiral shellGreekκόχλος (kochlos)cochlea
cogn-knowLatincognoscere (see also gnoscere)cognition, cognitive, cognizance, cognizant, cognoscenti, connoisseur, incognito, recognize,
coel-hollowGreekκοῖλος (koilos)blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
col-strainLatincolare, columcolander, coulee, percolate
coll-hillLatincolliscolliculus
coll-neckLatincollumaccolade, collar
color-colorLatincolorcoloration, coloratura, tricolor
comi-friendly, kindLatincomis "courteous, kind"comity
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor-with, togetherLatincum (from older form quom)coagulate, collide, compress, connect, connote, contain, corrode, quondam
con-coneGreekκῶνος (kōnos)conic, conical, conoid
condi-seasonLatincondirecondiment
contin-containLatincontinere (see also tenere)contain, content, contents, continence, continent, continue, countenance
contra-againstLatincontracontraband, contraception, contradict, contraindicate, contrast, contravene
copi-plentyLatincopiacopious, copy, cornucopia
copr-dungGreekκόπρος (kopros)coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
copul-bondLatincopula "that which binds"copula, copulation, couple
cor-, cord-heartLatincor, cordisaccord, cordial, core, concord, courage, discord, discordant, encourage, record
corac-ravenGreekκόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos)coracoid
cori-hide, leatherLatincorium, coriiexcoriate
corn-hornLatincornucornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron-crownLatincorona, coronarecorona, coronation
corp-, corpor-bodyLatincorpus, corporiscorporation, corporal, corporeal, corpse, corpulent, corpuscle, incorporate
cortic-barkLatincortex, corticiscortical, corticosteriod
cosm-universeGreekκόσμος (kosmos)cosmic, cosmonaut, cosmopolitan, cosmos, microcosm
cosmet-the art of dress and ornamentGreekκοσμητική (kosmetike) from κόσμος (kosmos)cosmetics, cosmetology
cost-ribLatincostacostal
cotyl-cupGreekκοτύλη (kotulē)cotyledon
-cracy, -cratgovernment, rule, authorityGreekκράτος (kratos)aristocracy, autocracy, bureaucracy, democracy, plutocracy, technocracy, theocracy
crani-skullGreekκρανίον (kranion)cranium
crass-thickLatincrassuscrassitude
crea-makeLatincreare, creatuscreation, creature, creole, procreation, recreation
cred-believe, trustLatincredere, creditusaccreditation, credence, credentials, credibility, credible, credit, creditor, credo, credulity, credulous, creed, discredit, incredible, incredulous, miscreant, recreant
crep-boot, shoeGreekκρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos)crepidoma
cresc-, crease, cru-, crew-grow, riseLatincrescereaccretion, accrue, concrete, crescendo, crescent, crew, decrease, increase, recruit
cribr-sieveLatincribrum, cribrarecribble, cribrate
cric-ringGreekκρίκος (krikos)cricoid
crisp-curledLatincrispuscrepe, crispate
crist-crestLatincristacristate
crit-, crisi-judge, separateGreekκρίνειν (krinein), κρίσις (krisis)crisis, criterion, critic, critical, diacritic, endocrine, hypocrisy
cross-fringe, tasselGreekκροσσός (krossos)crossopterygii
cruc-crossLatincrux, cruciscrucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur-leg, shankLatincrus, cruriscrural
-crywail, shriekLatincritare, from quiritarecry, decry, descry
crypt-hiddenGreekκρύπτειν (kruptein) "to hide", κρυπτός (kruptos)apocryphal, cryptic, cryptography
cten-combGreekκτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos)ctenophore
cub-cubeGreekκύβος (kubos)cubic, cuboid
cub-lieLatincubareincubation, succuba
culin-kitchenLatinculinaculinary
culp-blame, faultLatinculpaculpable, culprit, exculpate
cune-wedgeLatincuneuscuneiform
cur-, cura-care forLatincura, curareaccurate, curative, curator, cure, curious, manicure, pedicure, secure, sinecure
curr-, curs-run, courseLatincurrere, cursusconcur, concurrent, corridor, courier, course, currency, current, cursive, cursor, cursory, discourse, excursion, incur, occur, recur, recursion, recursive, succor
curv-bentLatincurvus "crooked, curved", from curvare "to bend"cavort, curb, curvature, curve
cuspid-lance, pointLatincuspis, cuspidisbicuspid
cult-, col-cultivate, till, inhabitLatincolerecolony, cult, cultivate, cultivation, culture
cut-skinLatincutiscutaneous, cuticle
cyan-blueGreekκυανός (kuanos)cyanide
cycl-circularGreekκύκλος (kuklos)bicycle, cycle, cyclic, cyclone, cyclops, unicycle
cylind-rollGreekκύλινδρος (kulindros)cylinder
cyn-dogGreekκύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos)cynology, cynosure
cyst-capsuleGreekκύστις (kustis)cystic
cyt-cellGreekκύτος (kutos)cnidocyte, cytoplasm

D[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
dactyl-digit, finger, toeGreekδάκτυλος (dáktulos)dactylology, polydactyly, pterodactyl
daman-to tameGreekadamas "untameable, invincible"adamant, adamantine, Damian
damn-, -demn-to inflict loss uponLatindamnārecondemn, damnation, indemnify
de-down, away from, removingLatindecay, declare, decline, decompose, dedicate, deduce, defend, deletion, delineate, delude, demarcate, dementia, depress, derogatory, desecrate, descend, destroy, detract
deb-oweLatindebere, debitusdebit, debt
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek-tenGreekδέκα (deka), tendecade, decagram, decahedron, Decalogue, decameter
decim-tenth partLatindecimus, tenth; from decem, tendecimal, decimate
decor-ornamentLatindecorus "fit, proper" and decorare "to decorate", from decor "beauty, ornament" and decus "ornament"decor, decorate, decorous, decorum
del-deleteLatindelere (from + linere)delete, deletion, indelible
delt-shaped like a ΔGreekδέλτα (délta)deltoid
dem-peopleGreekδῆμος (dēmos)demagogue, democracy, demography, endemic, epidemic
den-ten eachLatindenidenarius, denary, denier, dinar, dinero, dinheiro
dendr-resembling a treeGreekδένδρον (déndron); akin to δρύς (drys) "tree"dendric, dendrite, dendrochronology, rhododendron
dens-thickLatindensuscondense, dense, density
dent-toothLatindens, dentisdental, dentifrice, dentures
der-skinGreekδέρειν (dérein), δέρμα, δέρματος (dérma, dérmatos)Dermaptera, dermatology, dermis, ectoderm, endoderm, epidermis, hypodermic, mesoderm, scleroderma, taxidermy, xeroderma
deuter-secondGreekδεύτερος (deúteros)deuteragonist, Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexi-rightGreekδεξιός (deksiós)Dexiarchia
dexter-rightLatindexterdexterity, dextrose
di-twoGreekδι- (di-)dicot, diode, dipole
dia-apart, throughGreekδιά (diá)diagram, dialysis, diameter
dic-, dict-say, speak, proclaimLatindīcere, dictus, dictarebenediction, condition, contradict, dictate, dictation, dictator, diction, dictionary, dictum, edict, indictment, interdiction, malediction, predict, prediction, valediction, verdict
dida-teachGreekδιδάσκειν (didáskein)autodidact, Didache, didact, didactic
digit-fingerLatindigitusdigital
dino-terrible, fearfully greatGreekδεινός (deinós)dinosaur
dipl-double; twofoldGreekδιπλός (diplós)diploid, diploma, diplosis
doc-, doct-teachLatindocere, doctusdocile, doctor, doctrine, document, indoctrinate, indoctrination
dodec-twelveGreekδώδεκα (dōdeka)dodecahedron, dodecasyllabic
dog-, dox-opinion, tenetGreekδόξα (dóxa) "opinion", from δοκεῖν (dokeîn) "to appear, seem, think", δόγμα (dógma)dogma, dogmatic, dogmatism, doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox
dol-painLatindolere "to grieve", also dolus "grief" and dolor "pain"condolence, dol, doleful, dolorous, indolence
dom-houseLatindomusdame, dome, domestic, domicile
domin-masterLatindominus "master"; (from domus "house")danger, domain, dominant, dominate, domination, domineer, dominion, domino, dungeon, predominant
domit-tameLatindomitare, frequentative of domaredaunt, domitable, indomitable
don-giveLatindōnum, donarecondone, donate, donation, donor, pardon
dorm-sleepLatindormiredormant, dormitory
dors-backLatindorsumdorsal, dorsum, dossier, endorse
drom-runGreekδραμεῖν (drameîn), δρόμος (drómos)anadromous, catadromous, diadromous, heterodromous, hippodrome, palindrome, syndrome
du-twoLatinduodeuce, dual, duality, duo, duplex, duplicity
dub-doubtfulLatindubiusdoubt, dubiety, dubious
duc-, duct-leadLatinducere, ductusabduce, abduct, adduce, adduct, conduce, deduce, induce, introduce, produce, reduce, seduce, traduce
dulc-sweetLatindulcisbillet-doux, dolce, dulcet, dulcian, dulcimer
dur-hardLatindurus, duraredurable, duration, duress, endure, obduracy, obdurate, obduration
dy-twoGreekδύο (dúo)dyad, dyadic
dyna-powerGreekδύναμαι (dúnamai)dynamic, dynamism, dynamite, dynamo, dynasty, heterodyne
dys-badly, illGreekδυσ- (dus-)dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy

E[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ec-outGreekἐκ (ek)eccentric, ecstasy, ecstatic
ecclesi-assembly, congregationGreekἐκκλησία (ekklēsiā) from ἐκκαλέω (ekkaleō) "I summon" or "I call out"Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical
eco-houseGreekοἶκος (oikos)ecology, economics, economy, ecumenism
ecto-outsideGreekἐκτός (ektos)ectoderm
ed-, es-eatLatinedere, esusedible, obesity
eg-goatGreekαἴξ, αἰγός (aix)egophony
ego-self, I (first person)Latin, Greekego, ἐγώegocentric
eiren-peaceGreekεἰρήνη (eirene) "peace"eirenic, irenic, irenology
electr-amberGreekἤλεκτρον (elektron)electron, electricity
elem-, alm-pityGreekἐλεημοσύνη (eleemosyne)almoner, alms, eleemosynary
em-, empt-buyLatinemere, emptusexemption, preempt, redeem
eme-vomitGreekἐμεῖν, ἔμετος (emein, emetos)emesis, emetic
emul-striving to equal, rivalingLatinaemulus, aemulareemulator
en-, em-inGreekἐν (en)emphasis, enclitic, enthusiasm
encephal-brainGreekἐγκέφαλος (enkephalos)encephalopathy
endo-inside, withinGreekἔνδον (endon)endocardial, endocrine, endocytosis, endoskeleton, endosperm
engy-narrowGreekἐγγύς (engys)Engystomops
ennea-nineGreekἐννέα (ennea)ennead, enneagon, enneode
ens-swordLatinensisensiform
eo-, eos-dawn, eastGreekἨώς/Ἕως (ēṓs)Eocene
ep-, epi-uponGreekἐπί (epi)ephemeral, epicenter, epidemic, epistemic, epitaph, epithet, epoch
equ-, -iqu-even, equal, levelLatinaequusequal, equanimity, equate, Equator, equilibrium, equinox, equipoise, equity, equivalence, equivocal, equivocate, iniquity
equ-horseLatinequusequestrian
erg-workGreekέργον (ergon)allergy, energy, erg, ergometer, ergonomics, ergophobia, liturgy, metallurgy, organ, surgeon, synergy
erot-(sexual) loveGreekἔρως, ἔρωτος (erōs, erōtos)erogenous, erotic
err-strayLatinerrareaberration, err, errant, erroneous, error
erythr-redGreekἐρυθρός (eruthros)erythrocyte
eso-withinGreekἔσω (esō)esoteric
eth-custom, habitGreekἦθος (ēthos)ethology
ethm-sieve, siftGreekἠθμός (ēthmos); ἤθειν (hethein)ethmoid
ethn-people, race, tribe, nationGreekἔθνος (ethnos)ethnarch, ethnic
etym-trueGreekἔτυμος (etumos)etymology
eu-well, goodGreekεὖ (eu)euphoria, euthanasia
eur-wideGreekεὐρύς (eurus)Europe, eurypterid
ex-, e-, ef-from, outLatinexexclude, exist, exit, extend, extrude
exo-outsideGreekἔξω (eksō)exoskeleton, exothermic
extra-outerLatinextra, extraneus and exterusestrange, exterior, extra, extraordinary, strange
extrem-outermost, utmostLatinextremusextreme, extremity, extremophile

F[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
fab-beanLatinfabafaba bean
fac-, fact-, -fect-, -feat, -feit, -fic-, -ifydo, makeLatinfacere, factusaffair, affect, affectation, amplify, artifact, artifice, benefactor, benefice, benefit, confection, counterfeit, defeat, defect, disaffect, edifice, effect, effective, effectual, face, facile, facsimile, fact, faction, factitious, factor, factory, fake, fashion, feasible, feat, feature, feckless, fiat, forfeit, infect, laissez-faire, malefaction, manufacture, modify, office, olfaction, perfect, proficient, prolific, rarefy, refectory, sacrifice, scientific, suffice, surfeit, traffic
falc-sickleLatinfalx, falcisdefalcation, falcate, falciform, falchion, falcon
fall-, fallac-, fals-false, deceiveLatinfallere, falsus, fallax, fallacisdefault, fail, fallacious, fallacy, fallible, false, falsetto, falsify, falsity, fault
famili-a close attendantLatinfamulusfamiliarity, family
fari-, fat-say, speakLatinfari, see also fateriaffable, bifarious, confess, fable, fame, fascinate, fate, infant, nefarious, preface, profess
fasc-bundleLatinfascisfasciculation, fascism
fatu-foolish, uselessLatinfatuusfatuous, infatuation
feder-treaty, agreement, contract, league, pactLatinfoederare, from foedus (genitive foederis); see also fides "faith"confederacy, confederation, federal, federate, federation
fel-catLatinfeles, felisFelinae, feline
felic-happy, merryLatinfelix, felicisfelicity
fell-suckLatinfellarefellation
femin-women, femaleLatinfeminafemininity
femor-thighLatinfemur (genitive femoris)femoral, femur
fend-, fens-strikeLatinfendere, -fensusdefend, fend, offend, offense
fenestr-windowLatinfenestradefenestration
fer-to bear, carryLatinferreaquifer, circumference, confer, conifer, defer, differ, ferry, fertile, infer, Lucifer, offer, prefer, refer, suffer, transfer, vociferous
ferv-boil, glowLatinfervereferment, fervent, fervid, fervor, perfervid
feroc-fierceLatinferox, ferocisferocity
ferr-ironLatinferrumferrous
fet-stinkLatinfeterefetid, fetor
fic-figLatinficusFicus, fig
fict-, fig-to form, shapeLatinfingere "to touch, handle; devise; fabricate, alter, change"dough, effigy, feign, fiction, fictitious
fid-, fis-faith, trustLatinfides "faith, trust", from fidere "to trust"confidante, confidence, confident, diffident, faith, fealty, fidelity, fiduciary, infidel, perfidious, perfidy
fil-threadLatinfilumdefile, filament, file, filigree, fillet, profile
fili-sonLatinfiliusaffiliation
fin-endLatinfinisaffinity, confine, define, final, finale, finance, fine, finish, finite, infinite, refine
find-, fiss-splitLatinfindere, fissusfission, fissure
firm-firm, strongLatinfirmus, firmareconfirmation, firmament
fistul-hollow, tubeLatinfistulafistula
fix-attachLatinfixare, frequentative of figereaffix, fix, fixation, fixture, prefix, suffix, transfix
fl-blowLatinflare, flatusflare, flatulence, flavor, flute, inflation, insufflation
flacc-flabbyLatinflaccus, flaccereflaccid
flav-yellowLatinflavusflavonoid
flect-, flex-bendLatinflectere, flexusdeflect, circumflex, flex, flexible, flexile, flexion, flexor, inflect, inflection, reflect, reflection, reflex
flig-, flict-strikeLatinflīgere, flictusafflict, conflict, inflict, profligacy, profligate
flor-flowerLatinflos, florisfloral, florid
flu-, fluv-, flux-flowLatinfluere, fluxusaffluent, confluence, effluent, fluctuate, fluctuation, fluency, fluent, fluid, fluidity, flush, fluvial, flux, influence, influx, superfluous
foc-hearthLatinfocusfocal, focus,
fod-, foss-digLatinfodere, fossusfossil
foen-hayLatinfoenumFoeniculum
foli-leafLatinfoliumdefoliant
font-springLatinfons, fontisfont, fontal, fontanelle
for-bore, drillLatinforare, foratusforalite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form-shapeLatinformaconform, deform, form, formal, formation, formula, formulate, inform, perform, reform, uniform
form-antLatinformicaformaldehyde, formic acid
fornic-vaultLatinfornix, fornicisfornication
fort-strongLatinfortisfort, forte, fortify, fortitude, fortress
fove-shallow round depressionLatinfoveafovea
fract-, frag-, frang-, -fring-breakLatinfrangere, fractusdefray, diffract, fractal, fraction, fractious, fracture, fragile, fragment, frangible, fray, infraction, infringe, refract, refractory, refrain
frater-, fratr-brotherLatinfraterfraternity
fric-, frict-rubLatinfricare, frictusdentifrice, friction
frig-coldLatinfrigerefrigid, frigorific
front-foreheadLatinfrons, frontisconfront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug-fruitLatinfrux, fructisfructose, frugivorous
fug-, fugit-fleeLatinfugerecentrifuge, fugacious, fugitive, refuge
fum-smokeLatinfumusfume, fumigation
fund-bottomLatinfundare "to found", from fundus "bottom, foundation"found, founder, foundation, fund, fundament, fundamental, fundamentalism, profound, profundity
fund-, fus-pourLatinfundere, fususconfound, diffusion, effusion, effusive, found, fusion, infusion, perfusion, profuse, profusion, refund, suffusion, transfusion
fulm-flashLatinfulmen "lightning flash"fulminant, fulminate, fulmination
fung-, funct-doLatinfungi, functusfunction, fungibility
fur-, furt-thief, stealLatinfur (genitive furis) "thief", furareferret, furtive
furc-forkLatinfurcabifurcation
fusc-darkLatinfuscusfuscous, obfuscate, obfuscation

G[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
galact-milkGreekγάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos)galactic
gam-legLatingambagam, gambit, gambol, gammon
gam-marriageGreekγάμος, γάμου (gamos, gamou)bigamy, endogamy, gamete, monogamy, polygamy
garg-chatterLatingarriregargantuan, gargle, gargoyle, garrulous, jargon
gastr-stomachGreekγαστήρ (gastēr)gastric, gastritis, gastroenterology, gastrointestinal, gastronomic, gastropod
ge-, geo-earthGreekγῆ (), γεω- (geō-)apogee, Geocentrism, geode, geography, geology, geometry, Pangea, perigee
gel-icy coldLatingelumgelatin, gelid
gen-begetLatingignere, genus (genitive generis), see also generarecongenial, engender, gender, generate, generation, genial, genius, genital, genitive, genteel, gentle, genuine, genus, indigenous, ingenious, ingenuous, primogenitor, progeny
gen-birth, beget, race, kindGreekγίγνεσθαι (gignesthai), and related γένος (genos); see also γενεά (genea)allergen, antigen, biogenesis, eugenics, gene, genealogy, genesis, genetic, genocide, gonad, heterogeneous, homogeneous, hydrogen, pathogen
germ-sproutLatingermen, germinisgerm, German, germane, germination
ger-, gest-bear, carryLatingerere, gestusagger, congest, digest, gerundive, gestation, register, suggest, vicegerent
glabr-hairlessLatinglaberglabrous
glaci-iceLatinglaciesglacier
gladi-swordLatingladiusgladiator
glia-glueGreekγλία (glía)glial
glob-sphereLatinglobusglobal, globe, globule
glori-gloryLatingloriaglorify
gloss-, glot-tongueGreekγλῶσσα (glóssa)epiglottis, glossary, polyglot
glutin-glueLatingluten, glutinisagglutination, glue, gluten
gnosc-, -gnit-knowLatingnoscereacquaint, cognition, cognitive, cognizance, cognizant, cognoscenti, connoisseur, ignorant, incognito, noble, note, recognize
gnost-knowGreekγιγνώσκειν (gignoskein)agnostic, diagnosis, Gnostic, prognosis
gon-corner, angleGreekγωνία (gōnía)goniometer, polygon
grad-, gred-, gress-walk, step, goLatingradi "to step", from gradus "step"aggression, egress, grade, gradual, graduate, progress, regress, transgress
gramm-writingGreekγράμμα (gramma)grammar, grammatic, telegram
gran-grainLatingranumgranary, granite, granola, granule
grand-grandLatingrandisgrandiloquous, grandiosity
graph-draw, writeGreekγραφή (graphē)autograph, graph, grapheme, graphene, graphic, graphite, graphology, photograph
grat-thank, pleaseLatingratus, see also gratiacongratulate, grace, grateful, gratify, gratitude, gratuity, gratulate, ingrate, ingratiate
grav-heavyLatingravisaggravate, grave, gravitate, gravity
greg-flock, herdLatingrex, gregisaggregate, congregation, egregious, gregarian, gregarious, segregation
gubern-govern, pilotLatingubernaregubernatorial
gust-tasteLatingustusdisgust, gusto
gutt-dropLatinguttagutta, guttifer, guttiform
guttur-throatLatingutturguttural
gymn-nudeGreekγυμνός (gumnós)gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm
gyn-', gynaec-womanGreekγυνή, γυναικός (gunḗ, gunaikós)gynecology, gynodioecious, monogyny

H[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit-haveLatinhabere, habitushabit, prohibition
hadr-thickGreekἁδρός (hadros)hadrocodium, hadron
haem-, hem-bloodGreekαἷμα (haima)haemophilia, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hemorrhage, hemostat
hal-saltGreekἅλς, ἁλός (hals, halos)halite, halogen
hal-, -hel-breatheLatinhalare, halatusanhelation, inhale, halitosis
hapl-simple, singleGreekἁπλοῦς (haplous)haploid, haplotype
haur-, haust-drawLatinhaurire, haustusexhaustion
hedo-pleasureGreekἡδονή (hēdonē)hedonism
heli-sunGreekἥλιος (hēlios)heliocentric, heliograph, heliotrope, helium
hemer-dayGreekhemeraDecameron, ephemeral
hemi-halfGreekἥμισυς (hēmisus)hemicycle, hemisphere
hen-oneGreekἕν (hen)henad, hyphen
hendec-elevenGreekἕνδεκα (hendeka)hendecagon
hept-sevenGreekἑπτά (hepta)heptagon, heptathlon, heptode
her-, heir-heirLatinheres (genitive heredis)heir, heiress, hereditary, heredity, heritage, inherit
here-, hes-cling, stickLatinhaerere, haesusadhere, adhesive, cohere, coherent, cohesive, hesitate, inherent
herald-messenger, envoyLatinheraldusherald, heraldic, heraldry
herb-grassLatinherbaherbal, herbicide, herbivore
heres-, heret-take, chooseGreekαἴρω (hairein) "to take, choose"heresy, heretic, heretical
herp-creepGreekἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō, herpein)herpes, herpetology
heter-different, otherGreekἕτερος (heteros)heterochromatin, heterodoxy, heterogeneity, heterogeneous, heterosexual
heur-findGreekεὑρίσκω (heuriskō)heuristic
hex-sixGreekἕξ (hex)hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
hibern-wintryLatinhibernushibernation
hiem-winterLatinhiemshiemal
hier-sacredGreekἱερός (hieros)hierarchy, hieroglyphics
hipp-horseGreekἵππος (hippos)hippodrome, hippopotamus
hirsut-hairyLatinhirtus, hirsutushirsute
hispid-bristlyLatinhispidushispidity, hispidulous
histri-actorLatinhistrio, histrionishistrionic
hod-wayGreekὁδός (hodos)cathode, herpolhode, hodometer
hol-wholeGreekὅλος (holos)holistic, holography
hom-sameGreekὁμός (homos)homogeneous, homophone, homonym, homosexual, homozygous
homal-even, flatGreekὁμαλός (homalos) "even", from ὁμός (homos) "same"anomalous, anomaly
home-likeGreekὅμοιος (homoios)homeostasis
homin-humanLatinhomo, hominishominid
honor-esteemLatinhonos, honorishonorable, honorarium
hor-boundaryGreekὅρος (horos)aphorism, horizon
hor-hourGreekὥρα (hōra)horoscope
horm-that which excitesGreekὁρμή (hormē)hormone
hort-gardenLatinhortus, hortihorticulture
hospit-hostLatinhospes, hospitishospice, hospital, hospitality, inhospitable
host-enemyLatinhostishostile
hum-groundLatinhumus, humareexhume, exhumation, human, humane, humanity, humus, inhume
hyal-glassGreekὕαλος (hualos)hyaline, hyaloid
hydr-waterGreekὕδωρ (hudōr)dehydrate, hydrant, hydrate, hydraulics, hydrogen, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydrous
hygr-wetGreekὑγρός (hugros)hygrometer
hymen-skin or membraneGreekὑμήν (humēn)hymen, Hymenoptera
hyo-U-shapedGreekὑοειδής (huoeidēs)hyoid
hyp-underGreekὑπό (hupo)hypothermia, hypotonic
hyper-above, overGreekὑπέρ (huper)hyperbole, hypertonic
hypn-sleepGreekὕπνος (hupnos)hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotize
hyster-laterGreekὕστερος (husteros)hysteresis

I[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ichthy-fishGreekἰχθύς (ichthus)ichthyology
icos-twentyGreekεἴκοσι (eikosi)icosagon, icosahedron
id-shapeGreekεἶδος (eidos)idol
ide-idea; thoughtGreekιδέα (idea)ideogram, ideology
idio-peculiarityGreekἴδιος (idios) "private, personal, one's own"idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiosyncratic, idiot
ign-fireLatinignisigneous, ignite, ignition
imagin-copyLatinimāgō, imāginisimage, imagine
in- (1), il-, im-in, onLatininilluminate, import, incur, intend, invite
in- (2), il-, im-, ir-not, un- (negation)Latinin-illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
inan-empty, vainLatininanitio "emptiness" and inanitas "worthlessness", from inanire "to empty", from inanis "empty, void, worthless"inane, inanition, inanity
infra-below, underLatininfrainfrastructure
insul-islandLatininsulainsular, insulation
inter-among, betweenLatininter (preposition)intercollegiate, intermission, intersection
intra-withinLatinintraintramural
irasc-, irat-be angryLatinirasci "grow angry", from ira "anger"irascible, irate, ire
irid-rainbowLatinirisiridescent
is-, iso-equal, sameGreekἴσος (isos)isometric, isomorphic, isotonic, isotropic
iter-againLatiniterum, iterareiteration
itiner-journeyLatiniter, itinerisitinerary

J[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
jac-lieLatinjacēre "to be thrown"adjacent
jac-, -ject-cast, throwLatinjacere (also spelled iacere), iectusadagio, deject, ejaculate, eject, inject, interject, project, reject, trajectory
janu-doorLatinjanuajanitor, January
joc-jokeLatinjocus (also spelled iocus)jocose, jocular, jocularity, jocund, jocundity, joke
judic-judgeLatinjudex, iudicisadjudicate, judicial, judiciary
jug-yokeLatinjugare, jugumconjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct-joinLatiniungere, junctusconjunction, enjoin, injunction, join, junction, juncture
junior-youngerLatinjuniorjunior, juniority
jus-, jur-law, justiceLatinius, iurisabjure, jurisprudence, jury, just, justice, objurgate, perjury
juv-, jut-helpLatinjuvare, jutusadjutant
juven-young, youthLatinjuvenisjuvenile, rejuvenate
juxta-beside, nearLatinjuxtajuxtaposition

K[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
kil(o)-thousandGreekχίλιοι (chilioi)kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
kine-movement, motionGreekκινέω (kineō)kinesthetic, kinetic, telekinesis
klept-stealGreekκλέπτης (kleptēs)kleptomania, kleptoplasty
kudo-gloryGreekκῦδος (kudos)kudos

L[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
lab-, laps-slide, slipLatinlabi, lapsuselapse, relapse
labi-lipLatinlabia, labiaebilabial, labial
labor-workLatinlaborcollaboration, elaboration
lacer-tearLatinlacerlaceration
lacrim-cry, tearsLatinlacrimalacrimal, lacrimous
lact-milkLatinlac, lactis, lactarelactate, lactation, lactose
lamin-layer, sliceLatinlaminalaminate, lamination
lamp-torchGreekλαμπάς (lampas)lamp
lapid-stoneLatinlapis, lapidisdilapidate, lapidary
larg-largeLatinlargusenlargement, large, largesse, largo
larv-ghost, maskLatinlarvalarva, larvae, larval
lat-broad, wideLatinlatuslatitude
later-sideLatinlatus, laterisbilateral
laud-, laus-praiseLatinlaudare "to praise"laud, laudanum, laudable, laudation, summa cum laude
lav-washLatinlavarelaunder, laundry, lava, lavation, lavatory, lave, lavender, lavish, lotion
lax-not tenseLatinlaxus, laxarelaxative, relaxation
lecith-egg yolkGreekλέκιθος (lekithos)lecithin
led-, les-hurtLatinlaedere, laesuslesion
leg-, lect-read, gatherLatinlegerecollect, diligence, election, intelligence, lectern, lecture, legend, legible, legion, lesson, neglect, religion, sacrilege, select
leg-lawLatinlex, legis, legarelegal, legislate, legislation, legislative, legislator, legislature, legitimate, legitimize, privilege
leg-sendLatinlegare (from legis)delegate, league, legacy, legato, relegate
lei-smoothGreekλεῖος (leios)leiomyoma
lekan-dish, potGreekλεκάνη (lekanē)lekane
leni-gentleLatinlenis, lenireleniency
leon-lionLatinleo, leonisLeo, leonine, Leopold
lep-flake, scaleGreekλέπειν, λεπίς, λεπίδος (lepis, lepidos)Lepidoptera
lepsi-grasp, seizeGreekλῆψις (lēpsis)epilepsy
leuc-, leuk-whiteGreekλευκός (leukos)leucocyte
lev-lift, light, raiseLatinlevare "lighten, raise", from levis "light" (in weight)alleviate, elevate, elevator, leaven, lever, leverage, levitation, levity, levy, relieve
liber-, liver-freeLatinliber, liberaredeliver, deliverance, libel, liberal, liberalize, liberate, liberation, libertine, liberty
libr-bookLatinliber, librilibrarian, library
lig-bindLatinligare, ligatusligament, ligature
limac-slugLatinlimax, limacislimacoid, limacon
limpa-clear, waterLatinlimpa "water"limpid
line-lineLatinlinealine, linearity
line-smear, smudgeLatinlineredelete, deletion, indelible, liniment
lingu-language, tongueLatinlinguabilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict-leaveLatinlinquere, lictusrelict, relinquish
lip-fatGreekλίπος (lipos)lipolysis
liq-flowLatinliqueredeliquesce, liquefy, liqueur, liquid, liquor, prolix
lit-prayer, supplicationGreekλιτή (lite)litany
liter-letterLatinlitteraalliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, literary, literature, obliterate
lith-stoneGreekλίθος (lithos)lithic, lithosphere, megalith, Mesolithic, monolith, Neolithic, Paleolithic
loc-placeLatinlocus, locareallocate, local, locality, locate, location, locomotion, locus
log-, -logyword, reason, speech, thoughGreekλόγος (logos), λογία (logia)analogy, anthology, apology, biology, dialogue doxology, ecology, epilogue, etymology, eulogy, geology, ideologue, logarithm, logic, logogram, meteorology, monologue, morphological, neologism, neurology, philology, prologue, psychology, tautology, terminology, theology, toxicology, trilogy, zoology
long-longLatinlonguselongate, longitude
loqu-, locut-speakLatinloquiallocution, circumlocution, colloquial, colloquy, elocution, eloquent, eloquence, grandiloquent, interlocution, loquacious, loquacity, magniloquent, obloquy, soliloquy
luc-bright, lightLatinlux (genitive lucis), lucereelucidate, lucid, Lucifer (bearer of light), lucubrate, noctilucent, pellucid, translucent
lud-, lus-playLatinludere, lususallude, collude, delude, elude, elusive, elusory, illude, illusion, ludicrous, lusory, prelude
lumin-lightLatinluminare, from lumenillumination, luminary, luminous
lu-, luv-, lut-washLatinluere (see also diluere, fluere and pluere)abluent, ablution, alluvium, colluvium, deluge, depollute, diluent, dilute, dilution, dilutive, diluvial, diluvian, diluvium, elute, elution, eluvial, elluviation, eluvium, illuviation, illuvium, lutaceous, lutite, pollution
lun-moonLatinlunaluna, lunar, lunatic
lysi-, lyti-dissolvingGreekλύσις (lusis)analysis, analytic, cytolysis, hydrolysis, lysigeny

M[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
macer-leanLatinmaceremaciate, meager
macro-longGreekμακρός (makrós)macrobiotic, macroeconomics, macron
magn-great, largeLatinmagnusmagnanimous, magnate, magnificent, magnify, magnitude, magnum
maj-greaterLatinmajor, majusmajesty, majority, majuscule
mal-bad, wretchedLatinmalusmalediction, malefaction, malevolent, malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malnourished, malodorous
mamm-breastLatinmammamammal, mammary gland
man-flowLatinmānāre, manatusemanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
man- (MAN-[1])stayLatinmanēre, mansusimmanence, immanent, manse, mansion, permanence, permanent, remanence, remanent
man-, manu-handLatinmanusemancipate, manacle, manage, maneuver, manicure, manifest, manual, manufacture, manuscript
mand-, -mend-order, commitLatinmandāre, mandatuscommand, commend, commendation, countermand, demand, mandate, mandatory, recommend, remand
maniamental illnessGreekμανία (manίā)kleptomania, mania, maniac, pyromania
mar-seaLatinmare, marismarine, maritime
mascul-male, manLatinmasculus, masculiemasculate, masculine
mater-, matr-motherLatinmater, matrismaternal, maternity, matrimony, matrix, matron
maxim-greatestLatinmaximusmaximum
mechan-machine or instrumentGreekμηχανή (mēkhanē)mechane, mechanics
medi-, -midi-middleLatinmedius, mediaremedia, median, mediate, medieval, mediocre, Mediterranean, medium
mega-, megal-great, largeGreekμέγας, μεγάλου (mégas, megálou)megacycle, megalomania, megalopolis, megaphone
mei-lessGreekμεῖον (meiōn)ameiosis, ameiotic, meiosis, meiotic
melan-black, darkGreekμέλας, μέλανος (melas, mélanos)Melanesia, melanism, melanoma, melatonin
melior-betterLatinmeliorare "to improve", from melior "better"ameliorate, amelioration, meliorism
mell-honeyLatinmel, mellismellifluous
memor-rememberLatinmemorcommemorate, memoir, memorable, memorial, memorize, memory
men-monthGreekμήν (mḗn)menopause, menorrhea
mening-membraneGreekμήνιγξ, μῆνιγγος (meninx, mēningos)meningitis, meninx
mend-defect, faultLatinmendax "lying, a liar", from menda "defect, fault"amend, amendment, mendacious, mendacity
menstru-monthlyLatinmenstruusmenstrual, menstruation
mensur-measureLatinmensura "measurement", from metiri "to measure"commensurable, commensurate, dimension, immense, incommensurable, incommensurate, measure
ment-mindLatinmens, mentiscomment, dement, demented, memento, mental, mentality, mention, reminisce, reminiscence
mer-partGreekμείρεσθαι (meíresthai),μέρος (méros)antimere, isomer, meristem, metamere, monomer, pentamer, polymer, tautomerism
merc-reward, wages, hireLatinmerx (genitive mercis)commerce, commercial, market, mercantile, mercenary, merchant, mercy
merg-, mers-dip, plungeLatinmergereemerge, immersion
mes-middleGreekμέσος (mésos)Mesolithic, mesozoic
meta-above, among, beyondGreekμετά (metá)metabolism, metamorphic, metamorphosis, metaphase, metaphor, metaphysics, metastatic, meteor, method
meter-, metr-measureGreekμέτρον (métron)altimeter, barometer, diameter, hexameter, isometric, meter, metre, metric, metrology, metronome, parameter, pentameter, perimeter, symmetric, telemetry, tetrameter, thermometer
metr-motherGreekμήτηρ, μητρός (mḗtēr, mētrós), μητρικός (mētrikós)metrocyte, metropolis
mic-grainLatinmicamicelle
micro-smallGreekμικρός (mikrós)microcosm, microeconomics, micrometer, microphone, microscope
migr-wanderLatinmigrareemigrant, immigrant, migrant, migrate, migration
milit-soldierLatinmiles, militismilitary, militia
mill-thousandLatinmillemillennium, million
millen-thousand eachLatinmillenimillenary
mim-repeatGreekμιμεῖσθαι (mīmeîsthai), μίμος (mimos)mime, mimeograph, mimesis, mimetic, mimic, pantomime
min-jutLatinminereeminent, imminent, prominent
min-less, smallerLatinminor, minusminority, minuscule, minutiae
mina-leadLatinminare, variant of minariamenable, demeanor, menace, promenade
mir-wonder, amazementLatinmiror, mirari, miratus sumadmire, miracle, mirror
mis-hateGreekμισεῖν (miseîn), μῖσος (mîsos)misandry, misanthropy, misogyny
misc-, mixt-mixLatinmiscere, mixtusmiscellaneous, mixture
miser-unhappy, wretchedLatinmisermiser, miserable, miserly, misery
mit-, miss- (MIT-[2])sendLatinmittere, missuscommit, emit, intermittent, missile, mission, missionary, omit, permit, remit, submit, transmit
mit-threadGreekμίτος (mítos)mitochondrion, mitosis, mitospore
mne-memoryGreekμνήμη (mnēmē)amnesia, amnesty, dysmnesia, mnemonic
mod-measureLatinmodus "measure"mode, model, moderate, moderation, moderato, moderator, modern, modest, modicum, modify
mol-grindLatinmola, molere, molitusmolar
moll-softLatinmollisemollient, mollify
mon-alone, oneGreekμόνος (mónos)monachism, monadic, monarchy, monastery, monastic, monatomic, monism, monk, monoid, monolith, monometer, monopoly, monopsony, monotone
mon-warnLatinmonereadmonish, monitor, monster, monument, premonition, summon
monil-string of beadsLatinmonileMoniliformida
monstra-showLatinmonstraredemonstrate, muster, remonstrate
mont-mountainLatinmons, montisMontana
mor-foolish, dullGreekμωρός (mōrós) "foolish, dull"moron, moronic, oxymoron, oxymoronic, sophomore, sophomoric
mor-dispositionLatinmosmoral, morose
mora-pause, delayLatinmorari "to delay", from mora "a pause, delay"demur, moratorium, remora
mord-biteLatinmordere, morsusmordacious, morsel, remorse
morph-form, shapeGreekμορφή (morphē)allomorph, amorphous, anamorphic, anamorphosis, anthropomorphism, apomorphy, dimorphic, dysmorphic, endomorph, hemimorphic, holomorphic, metamorphosis, morpheme, morphology, perimorph, plesiomorphy, polymorphic, synapomorphy
mort-deathLatinmors, mortisimmortal, mortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary
mov-, mob-, mot-move, motionLatinmovere, motuscommotion, emotion, mobile, momentum, motile, motion, motive, motor, move, movement, mutiny, promote, remove
mulg-, muls-milkLatinmulgereemulsion
multi-many, muchLatinmultusmultifold, multilingual, multiple, multiplex, multiply, multitude
mund-worldLatinmundusanima mundi, map, mundane
mur-wallLatinmurus, muriimmured, mural
mus-mouseGreekμῦς, μυός (mûs, muós)musophobia
mus-thiefLatinmus, murismouse
musc-flyLatinmusca, muscaeMuscicapidae, Muscidae
mut-changeLatinmutareimmutable, mutation
my-shutGreekμύειν (múein)myosis
my-to shut (the eyes)Latinmyeinmiosis, myopia, myopic, mystery
myc-fungusGreekμύκης (múkēs, mukēt-)ascomycete, basidiomycete, mycology, Mycoplasma, zygomycete
myri-countless, ten thousandGreekμυρίος (muríos)myriad, myriapod, myriapodology
myrmec-antGreekμύρμηξ (murmēx)myrmecoid, Myrmidons
myth-storyGreekμῦθος (mûthos)mythic, mythology, mythomania, mythos
myx-slimeGreekμύξα (múxa)Myxini
myz-suckGreekμυζάω (muzáō), μύζησις (múzēsis)Myzopoda

N[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
nar-nostrilLatinnarisnaris
narc-numbGreekνάρκη (narkē)narcolepsy, narcosis, narcotic
narr-tellLatinnarrarenarrative
nas-noseLatinnasusnasal
nasc-, nat-bornLatinnascere, nasci (past participle natus)innate, nascent, natal, native, renaissance
naut-shipGreekναύτης (nautes)Argonaut, astronaut, nautical
nav-shipLatinnavisnaval
ne-, neo-newGreekνέος (neos)Neolithic, neologism, neonate, neophyte
neb-, nub-cloudLatinnebula, nubesnebula, nebulosity, nebulous, nuance, nubilous, obnubilate
necr-deadGreekνεκρός (nekros)necrophobia
nect-swimmingGreekνηκτός (nēktos)nectopod
nect-, nex-join, tieLatinnectere, nexusconnect, nexus
neg-say noLatinnegarenegative
nema-hairGreekνῆμα (nēma)nematode
nemor-grove, woodsLatinnemus, nemorisnemoral
nephr-kidneyGreekνεφρός (nephros)nephritis
nerv-sinew, nerveLatinnervusenervate, innervate, nerve, nervous
nes-islandGreekνῆσος (nēsos)Polynesia
neur-nerveGreekνευρών (neurōn)neural, neuritis, neurologist, neurology, neuron, neuropathic, neurosurgeon, neurotic
nict-beckon, winkLatinnictarinictation
nigr-blackLatinnigerdenigrate
nihil-nothingLatinnihilumannihilation
noc-hurt, harmLatinnocereinnocent, innocuous, nociception, nociceptive, nocuous, nuisance
noct-nightLatinnox (genitive noctis)equinox, noctambulist, noctilucent, nocturnal
nod-knotLatinnodusdenouement, node, nodule
nom-arrangement, law, orderGreekνόμος (nomos)agronomy, astronomy, autonomous, autonomy, bionomics, economics, economy, gastronomy, metronome, numismatic, taxonomy
nomad-those who let pasture herdsGreekνομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados)nomadic
nomen-, nomin-nameLatinnomen, nominisnomenclature, nominate, nomination, ignominious, ignominy
non-notLatinnonnone
non-ninthLatinnonusnonary
nonagen-ninety eachLatinnonageninonagenary
nonagesim-ninetiethLatinnonagesimusnonagesimal
not-back, southGreekνότος (notos)notochord
not-letter, note, paperLatinnotareannotation, connotation, connote, denotation, denote, notable, notary, notate, notation
noth-spuriousGreekνόθος (nothos)nothogenus
nov-nineLatinnovemNovember, novennial
nov-newLatinnovusinnovate, innovation, nova, novel, novice, renovate
noven-nine eachLatinnoveninovenary
novendec-nineteenLatinnovendecimnovemdecillion
nox-, noc-harmfulLatinnoxanoxious, obnoxious
nu-nodLatinnuereinnuendo
nub-, nupt-to marry, to wedLatinnubes, nubis, nubereconnubial, nubile, prenuptial
nuc-nutLatinnux, nucisnucleus
nuch-back of neckLatinnuchanuchal cord
nud-nakedLatinnudusdenude, nudity
null-noneLatinnullusnullify
numer-numberLatinnumerusenumerate, innumerable, numeral, numeration
nunci-announceLatinnuntiuspronunciation
nutri-nourishLatinnutriremalnutrition, nutrient

O[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
ob-, o-, oc-, of-, og-, op-, os-againstLatinobobduracy, obdurate, obduration, obfuscate, obstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostensible, ostentatious
oct-eightGreekὀκτώ (oktō)octagon, octahedron, octode
oct-eightLatinoctōoctangular, octennial, octovir
octav-eighthLatinoctāvusoctaval
octogen-eighty eachLatinoctogenioctogenary
octogesim-eightiethLatinoctogesimusoctogesimal
octon-eight eachLatinoctonioctonary
ocul-eyeLatinoculus, oculareocular, oculus, ullage
od-path, wayGreekὁδός (hodos)anode, diode, odometer, pentode, tetrode, triode
odi-hateLatinodiumodious
odont-toothGreekὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odoús, odóntos)odontoid, odontology, orthodontist, periodontal
odor-fragrantLatinodorodorous
oeco-houseGreekοἶκος (oikos)ecology
oed-swollenGreekοἴδημα (oidēma)oedema
oen-wineGreekοἶνος (oinos)oenology
oesophag-gulletGreekοἰσοφάγος (oisophagos)oesophagus
offic-dutyLatinofficiumoffice, officer, official, officiate, officious
ogdo-eighthGreekὄγδοος (ogdoos)ogdoad
-oidlikeGreek-οειδής (-oeidēs)asteroid, mucoid, organoid
ole-oilLatinoleumoleosity
olecran-skull of elbowLatin from Greekὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon)olecranon
olig-fewGreekὀλίγος (oligos)oligarchy, Oligocene, oligopoly, oligosaccharide, oligotrohic
oliv-oliveLatinolivaolivaceous, olivary, olivette
-omamorbid growth, tumorGreek-ωμαmelanoma
omas-paunchLatinomasumomasum
oment-fat skinLatinomentumomental
omin-creepyLatinomen, ominisabominable, ominous
omm-eyeGreekὄμμα (omma)ommatidium
omni-allLatinomnisomnipotence, omnipresent, omniscient, omnivore
omo-shoulderGreekὦμος (omos)omohyoid
omphal-navelGreekὀμφαλός (omphalos)omphalectomy
oner-burdenLatinonus, onerisexonerate, onerous
onom-nameGreekόνομα (onoma)onomatopoeia
ont-existingGreekὄντος (ontos)ontogeny, ontology
-onymnameGreekὄνυμα (onuma)anonymous, antonym, pseudonym, synonym
oo-eggGreekᾠόν (oion)oocyte
opac-shadyLatinopacusopacity
oper-workLatinopus, operiscooperate, inoperable, opera, operate, opus
opercul-little coverLatinoperculumoperculum
ophi-snakeGreekὄφις (ophis)ophiophagy
ophthalm-eyeGreekὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos)ophthalmology
opisth-behindGreekὄπισθεν (opisthen)opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter-eitherGreekὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt-eyeGreekὀπτός (optos)optical, panoptic
opt-chooseLatinoptareadopt, optional
optim-bestLatinoptimusoptimum
or-mouthLatinos (genitive oris) "mouth"oral, orifice
ora-pray, pleadLatinorare "to pray, plead"adore, adoration, inexorable, oracle, orate, oration, orator, oratory, orison
orb-circleLatinorbisorbit
orch-testicleGreekὄρχις (orchis)orchid
ordin-orderLatinōrdō, ordinisordinal, ordinary
organ-organ, instrument, toolGreekὄργανον (organon)organism
ori-, ort-easternLatinoriri, ortusorient
orn-decorateLatinōrnāreadorn, ornament, ornate
ornith-birdGreekὄρνις (ornis, ornithos)ornithology
orth-straightGreekὀρθός (orthos)orthodontist, orthodox, orthodoxy, orthopedic, orthosis, unorthodox
oscill-swingLatinoscillumoscillation
oss-boneLatinos, ossisossification
osteo-boneGreekὀστοῦν (ostoun)osteoporosis
osti-entranceLatinostiumostiole
ostrac-shellGreekὄστρακον (ostrakon)ostracism, ostracoderm
ot-earGreekοὖς, ωτός (ous, ōtos)otology
ov-eggLatinovumoval, ovary, ovule
-over-close, coverLatinoperire "to close, cover"cover, covert, coverture, discover, operculum
ovi-sheepLatinovisovine
oxy-sharp, pointedGreekὀξύς (oxus)oxygen, oxymoron

P[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
pac-peaceLatinpax, pacisappease, Pacific Ocean, pacifism, pacifist, pacify
pach-thickGreekπαχύς (pachus)pachydermata, Pachypodium
pact-fastenLatinpangere "to fix, fasten"compact, impact, impaction, impinge, pact, page, propagate
paed-childGreekπαῖς (pais), genitive παιδός (paidos)orthopedic, paediatric, page, pedagogue, pedagogy, pedant, pedantic, pediatric, pedophilia
pagin-pageLatinpaginapagination
pal-stakeLatinpalusimpalement, pale
palae-, pale-ancient, oldGreekπαλαιός (palaios)Paleo Diet, Paleolithic era, paleomagnetism, paleontology, paleopsychology, Paleozoic
palin-backGreekπάλιν (palin)palindrome
pall-be paleLatinpallerepallid, pallor
palli-cloakLatinpalliare "to cover, cloak", from pallium "cloak"pall, palliate, palliative, pallium
palm-palmLatinpalmapalmate
palp-touchLatinpalparepalp, palpable, palpate, palpation, palpitant, palpitation
palustr-in marshesLatinpalusterpalustral
pan-, pam-allGreekπᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos)Pan-American, panacea, pandemic, pandemonium, panoply, panoptic
pand-, pans-spreadLatinpandere, pansusexpand, expansion
par-equalLatinparcompare, disparage, par, parity, peer, subpar
par-order, prepare, provide, procureLatinparareapparatus, disparate, empire, imperative, imperious, pare, prepare, repair, separate, sever, vituperate
para-beside, nearGreekπαρά (para)parallel, parameter
parc-, pars-spare, saveLatinparcere, parsusparcity, parsimony
pariet-wallLatinparies, parietisparietal
part-partLatinpars, partisapart, bipartite, compartment, depart, impartial, parcel, part, partial, participate, particle, partisan, partition
parthen-maidenGreekπαρθένος (parthenos)Parthenon, parthenogenesis
parv-littleLatinparvusparvovirus
pasc-, past-feedLatinpascere, pastuspastor, pasture, repast
pass-pace, stepLatinpassus
passer-sparrowLatinpasserpasseriform, passerine
pat-be openLatinpaterepaten, patent
path-feeling, diseaseGreekπάθος (pathos)antipathy, apathy, empathy, pathetic, pathogen, pathology, sympathy
pater-, patr-fatherLatinpater (genitive patris)paternity, patrilocal, patriot, patron, patronage, patronize
pater-, patr-fatherGreekπατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria)patriarch
pati-, pass-suffer, feel, endure, permitLatinpati, passuspassion, passive, patience
pauc-fewLatinpaucuspaucal, pauciloquent, paucity
pav-beatLatinpavirepave, pavement
pecc-sinLatinpeccatum "sin, fault, error", from peccare "to miss, mistake"impeccable, peccadillo, peccant, peccavi
pect-fixedGreekπηκτός (pēktos)pectic, pectin
pector-chestLatinpectus, pectorispectoral
pecu-propertyLatinpecunia "property", from pecu "cattle"peculiar, pecuniary, pecunious
ped-footLatinpes, pediscentipede, impede, pedal, pedestrian
pejor-worseLatinpejorpejorative
pell-, puls-drive, pushLatinpellere, pulsusappulse, compel, compulsory, dispel, expel, expulsion, impel, impulse, propel, propellent, propulsion, propulsive, propulsor, pulsate, pulse, push, repel, repellent, repulsive
pen-almostLatinpaenepeninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pen-, poen-, puni-punishLatinpunire "punish" (earlier poenire), from poena "punishment"impune, impunity, pain, penal, penalize, penalty, penance, penitence, penitent, penitentiary, pine, punish, punitive, repent, subpoena
pend-, pens-hangLatinpensare, frequentative of pendereappend, penchant, pendant, pending, pendulum, pensive, prepense, suspend, suspense
penn-, pinn-featherLatinpenna, pinnapennate, pinnacle, pinnate, pinnule
pent-fiveGreekπέντε (pente)pentagon, pentagram, pentagrid, pentode
pentecost-fiftiethGreekπεντηκοστός (pentēkostos)pentecostalism
pept-digestGreekπέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos)dyspepsia, peptic, peptide, peptone
per-thoroughly, throughLatinperperfection, permeate, pernicious, persistence, peruse, pervade
peran-across, beyondGreekπέραν (peran)Perates
peri-aroundGreekπερί (peri)perigee, perihelion, perimeter, peripheral, periscope
persic-peachGreekπερσικός (persikos)
pessim-worstLatinpessimuspessimal
pet-strive towardLatinpetereappetite, compete, competition, impetus, petition, petulant, propitiate, repeat, repetition
petr-rockGreekπέτρα (petra)petroglyph
phae-darkGreekφαιός (phaios)phaeomelanin, pheochrome
phag-eatGreekφαγεῖν (phagein)bacteriophage, macrophage, phagocyte, sarcophagus
phalang-close formation of troops, finger bonesGreekφάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos)phalanges
phalar-having a patch of whiteGreekφάλαρος (phalāros)[3]phalarope
pharmac-drug, medicineGreekφάρμακον (pharmakon)pharmacy
phan-, phen-to show, visibleGreekφαινειν (phainein)diaphanous, emphasis, epiphany, fantasy, phanerozoic, phantasm, phantom, phase, phene, phenetic, phenology, phenomenon, photic, sycophant, theophany, tryptophan
pher-, phor-bear, carryGreekφέρω (pherō), φόρος (phoros)metaphor, pheromone
phil-, -philelove, friendshipGreekφιλέω (phileō, philia)bibliophile, hydrophile, philanthropy, philharmonic, philosophy
phleg-heat, inflammationGreekϕλέγω (phlegein) "to burn", φλέγω (phlegō)phlegm, phlegmatic
phloe-tree barkGreekφλοιός (phloios)phlobaphene, phloem
phob-fearGreekφόβος (phobos)acrophobia, claustrophobia, ergophobia, homophobia, hydrophobia
phon-soundGreekφωνή (phōnē)cacophony, euphony, homophone, microphone, phonetic, phonograph, symphony
phos-, phot-lightGreekφῶς, φωτός (phōs, phōtos)phosphor, phosphorus, photic, photo, photoelectric, photogenic, photograph, photosynthesis
phragm-fenceGreekφράγμα (phragma)diaphragm
phren-diaphragm, mindGreekφρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos)frenetic, schizophrenia
phryn-toad, toad-likeGreekφρύνη (phrunē)Phrynobatrachus
phyl-tribeGreekφύλον (phulon)phylogenetics, phylum
phyll-leafGreekφύλλον (phullon)chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
physi-natureGreekφύσις (phusis)physics
physalid-bladderGreekφυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is)physalis
phyt-plantGreekφυτόν (phuton)neophyte, phytoplankton
pi-kind, devout, pityLatinpiusexpiate, impious, piety, pious, pity
pic-pitchLatinpix, picispiceous
pil-hairLatinpilusdepilatory, epilator
pil-pillar, ballLatinpilapile, pill, pillar, pillory
pin-drinkGreekπίνειν (pinein)pinocytosis
pin-pineLatinpinuspineal gland
ping-, pict-paintLatinpingere, pictusdepiction, picture, pigment
pingu-fatLatinpinguisPinguicula, pinguitude
pir-pearLatinpiruspiriformis muscle
pisc-fishLatinpiscisPisces, piscivore
pis-peaGreekπίσος (pisos)
plac-plate, tabletGreekπλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos)duplex, duplicity
plac-calmLatinplacare, placatusimplacable, placable, placate, please, supple
plac-, plea-pleaseLatinplacēre, placituscomplacent, complaisant, displease, placebo, placid, plea, please, pleasure
plagi-obliqueGreekπλάγιος (plagios)plagiocephaly, plagioclase
plan-flatLatinplanusexplanation, planar, plane
plang-, planct-Latinplangere, planctusplangent
plas-mouldGreekπλάθω (plathō)plasma, plastic
platy-flat, broadGreekπλατύς (platus)plaice, plateau, platitude, platypus
plaud-, -plod-, plaus-, -plos-approve, clapLatinplaudere, plaususapplaud, applause, explosion, implode, plaudits, plausible
ple-, plet-fillLatinplerecomplement, complete, deplete, implement, replete, suppletion, supply
pleb-peopleLatinplebs, plebisplebeian, plebs
plec-interwovenGreekπλέκω (plekō)plectics, symplectomorphism
plect-, plex-plaitLatinplectere, plexusperplex
plen-fullLatinplenusplenary, plenitude, plenty, replenish
plesi-nearGreekπλησίος (plēsios)plesiosaur
pleth-fullGreekπλῆθος (plēthos)plethora
pleur-sideGreekπλευρά (pleura)pleuritis
plic-foldLatinplicare, plicatusappliance, application, apply, duplication, explicate, explicit, implicate, implicit, imply, ply, replicate, supplicant, supplicate, supplication
plinth-brickGreekπλίνθος (plinthos)Plinthograptis
plor-Latinplorareimplore
plu-rainLatinpluere, see also pluviapluvial
plum-featherLatinplumaplumage, plumate
plumb-leadLatinplumbumplumber
plur-, plus-moreLatinplus, plurisdouble, plural, pluralist, plus, quadruple, surplus, triple
plurim-mostLatinplurimusplurimal
plut-wealthGreekπλοῦτος (ploutos)plutocracy
pneu-air, breath, lungGreekpnein, πνεῦμα (pneuma)apnoea, pneumatic, phneumonia
pod-footGreekπούς, ποδός (pous, podos)antipode, podiatry, tripod
pogon-beardGreekπώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos)pogonotrophy
poie-makeGreekποιέω (poieō)poet, poiesis
pol-poleGreekπόλος (polos)dipole, polar
pole-, poli-cityGreekπόλις (polis)acropolis, cosmopolitan, megalopolis, metropolis, police, policy, politics
polem-warGreekπόλεμος (polemos)polemic
poli-greyGreekπολιός (polios)poliomyelitis
pollic-thumbLatinpollex, pollicispollicate
pollin-fine flourLatinpollen, pollinispollination
poly-manyGreekπολύς (polus)polyandry, polygamy, polygon, polysaccharide, polytheistic
pon-, posit-putLatinponere, positusapposite, apropos, component, depose, deposit, exponent, expose, expound, impose, impound, opponent, position, positive, postpone, posture, propone, proponent, proposition, propound, repose
ponder-weightLatinpondus, ponderis, ponderareponder, preponderance
pont-bridgeLatinpons, pontispontoon
popul-peopleLatinpopulus, popularepopulation, popular, populous
por-passageGreekπόρος (poros)pore, porosity
porc-pigLatinporcusporcine, pork
porn-prostituteGreekπόρνη (pornē)pornography
porphyr-purpleGreekπορφύρα (porphura)porphyrin
port-carryLatinportare "to carry", porta "gate"comportment, deport, export, import, port, portable, portage, portal, porter, portfolio, purport, rapport, report, support, transport
portion-part, shareLatin portioportion, proportion
post-after, behindLatinpostposterior, posterity, postscript
pot-powerLatinpotere "be powerful", from potis "powerful, able"despot, impotent, possess, potent, potentate, potential, power
pot-drinkLatinpotus, potarepotable, potion
potam-riverGreekποταμός (potamos)hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
prasin-leek-greenGreekπράσινος (prasinos)prasinous
prat-meadowLatinpratum
prav-crookedLatinpravusdepravity
pre-beforeLatinpraeprevious
prec-prayLatinprecāri "to ask, beg, pray", from prex "prayer"deprecation, imprecation, pray, prayer, precarious
pred-preyLatinpraedari "plunder", from praeda "prey"depredate, predation, predator, predatory, prey
prehend-, prend-, prehens-graspLatinprehendere, prehensusapprehend, comprehend, comprehensive, enterprise, prehensility, prehension, prey, prison, prize, reprehend, surprise
prem-, -prim-, press-pressLatinpremere, pressuspressure
presby-oldGreekπρέσβυς (presbus)Presbyterianism
preter-pastLatinpraeterpreterite, pretermission
preti-priceLatinpretium, pretiare
prim-firstLatinprimusprimacy, primal, primary, prime, primeval, primitive
prior-formerLatinpriorpriority
priv-separateLatinprivus, privare, privatusdeprivation, privilege
pro-before, in front ofGreekπρό (pro)prologue, prostate
pro-for, forwardLatinproprocrastinate, propel, propulsion
prob-worthy, goodLatinprobare "prove to be worthy", probusapprobation, approve, disapprobation, opprobrium, probable, probation, probe, probity, proof, prove, reprobate, reprove
proct-anusGreekπρωκτός (prōktos)proctology
prodig-wasteLatinprodigus "wasteful", from prodigere "drive away, waste"prodigal, prodigality
prodig-prodigyLatinprodigium "prodigy"prodigious, prodigy
propri-property; one's ownLatinproprietas "appropriateness, property, ownership", from proprius "one's own"appropriate, proper, property, proprietary, proprietor, propriety
pros-forwardGreekπρός (pros)prosenchyma, prosthesis
prot-firstGreekπρῶτος (prōtos)protagonist, Proterozoic, protocol, protoindustrial, protoplasm, prototype, protozoan
proxim-nearestLatinproximus, proximareapproximate, proximity
prun-plumLatinprunusprune
psamm-sandGreekψάμμος (psammos)psammite, psammophyte, psammosere, psammous
pseud-falseGreekψευδής (pseudēs)pseudonym
psil-bareGreekψιλός (psilos)epsilon, psilocybin
psych-mindGreekψυχή (psuchē)psyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis
psychr-coldGreekψυχρός (psuchros)psychrometer
pter-wing, fernGreekπτερόν (pteron)helicopter, pterodactyl
pto-fallGreekπτῶσις (ptōsis)ptosis
pty-salivaGreekπτύον (ptuon)ptyalin
ptych-fold, layerGreekπτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē)triptych
pub-sexually matureLatinpubes, puberispubescent, pubic
public-Latinpublicuspublication, publicity
pude-shameLatinpudereimpudent, pudendum, repudiate
pug-, pugn-fightLatinpugnare "to fight", from pugnus "fist"impugn, pugilism, pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr-beautifulLatinpulcher, pulchripulchritude
pulmon-lungLatinpulmo, pulmonispulmonary
pulver-dustLatinpulvis, pulverispulverize
pung-, punct-prickLatinpungere, punctusacupuncture, expunge, poignant, point, punch, punctual, punctuation, puncture, pungent
pup-dollLatinpupapupa, pupate, puppet
pur-pureLatinpurare "to purify", from purus "pure"impurity, pure, puree, purge, purify, purity
purg-cleanseLatinpurgareexpurgate, purgatory, purge
purpur-purpleLatinpurpurapurpurate, purpureal
put-prune, reckonLatinputāreamputation, compute, dispute, impute, putative, reputation
pyg-rumpGreekπυγή (pugē)callipygian, pygostyle
pyl-gateGreekπυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn, pulōnos)pylon
pyr-heat, fireGreekπῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros)pyrolysis

Q[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
quadr-fourLatinquattuorquadrangle, quadrillion, quadrilateral, quadruped
quadragen-forty eachLatinquadrageniquadragenarian, quadragenary
quadragesim-fortiethLatinquadragesimusquadragesimal
quart-fourthLatinquartusquartary, quarter, quartile
quasi-as ifLatinquasiquasar
quatern-four eachLatinquaterniquaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass-shakeLatinquaterequassation
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit-search, seekLatinquaerereInquisition, query
qui-restLatinquiesacquiesce, quiescent, quiet, quietus, requiem
quin-five eachLatinquiniquinary
quindecim-fifteenthLatinquindecimusquindecimal
quinden-fifteen eachLatinquindeniquindenary
quinque-fiveLatinquinquequinquennium
quint-fifthLatinquintusquintary, quintile
quot-how many, how greatLatinquotiensquota, quotient

R[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
rad-, ras-scrape, shaveLatinradere, rasusabrade, abrasion, erasure
radi-beam, spokeLatinradius, radiareradiance, radiation
radic-rootLatinrādix, rādīciseradicate, radical
ram-branchLatinrāmusramification, ramose
ran-frogLatinranaRana
ranc-rancidness, grudge, bitternessLatinrancererancid, rancor
rap-rob, seizeLatinrapere "to seize, rob"rape, rapacity, raptor, surreptitious
rap-turnipLatinrapumrapeseed
raph-seamGreekῤαφή (rhaphē)raphe, raphae
rar-rareLatinrarusrarity
rauc-harsh, hoarseLatinraucusraucous
re-, red-again, backLatinre-recede, redact
rect-, reg-, -rig-straight, directLatinregere "to direct, lead straight, guide", related rectus "straight, right"correct, direct, dirigible, erect, erection, ergo, rectangle, rectify, rectitude, rectum, regent, regime, regimen, regiment, region, surge
reg-, rex-kingLatinrex (genitive regis)anorexia, regal, regicide, rex, royal
regul-ruleLatinregula "to rule"regular, regulate, regulation, rule
rem-oarLatinremusbireme, trireme
ren-kidneyLatinrenesrenal
reneg-denyLatinrenegarerenegade, renege
rep-, rept-crawl, creepLatinrepere, reptusreptile
ret-netLatinretereticle, retina
retro-backward, behindLatinretroretrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd-rodGreekῥάβδος (rhabdos)rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach-spineGreekῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis)rhachiodont
rhag-tear, rentGreekῥαγίζωrhagades
rhe-flowGreekῥεῖν (rhein)rheostat
rhig-chillGreekῥῖγος (rhigos)rhigosaurus
rhin-nose, snoutGreekῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos)rhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhiz-rootGreekῥίζα (rhiza)rhizome
rhod-roseGreekῥόδον (rhodon)rhododendron
rhomb-spinning topGreekῥόμβος (rhombos)rhombus
rhynch-snoutGreekῥύγχοςRhynchobatus
rid-, ris-laughLatinridere "to laugh" (past participle risus)deride, derision, ridicule, ridiculous, risible
robor-oak, strengthLatinroborare "to strengthen", from robur, robus "strength"corroborate, corroboration, robust
rod-, ros-gnawLatinrodere, rosuscorrode, erosion, rodent
rog-askLatinrogareabrogate, arrogant, arrogate, derogate, derogation, derogatory, interrogation, prerogative, prorogue, rogation, rogue, surrogate
rostr-beak, prowLatinrostrumrostral, rostriform, rostrum
rot-wheelLatinrota, rotarerotation, rotunda
ruber-, rubr-redLatinruberrubric, ruby
rudi-unskilled, rough, unlearnedLatinrudiserudite, erudition, rude, rudimentary
rug-wrinkleLatinruga, rugarecorrugation
rumin-throatLatinrumen, ruminisrumination
rump-, rupt-breakLatinrumpere, ruptusabrupt, corruptible, disrupt, erupt, eruption, interrupt, rupture
rur-countryLatinrus, rurisrural

S[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
sacchar-sugarGreekσάκχαρον (sakcharon)saccharin
sacr-, -secr-sacredLatinsacrare, from sacer (genitive sacri)consecrate, desecrate, sacrament, sacred, sacrosanct
sagac-wiseLatinsagax, sagacissagacious, sagacity
sagitt-arrowLatinsagittasagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal-saltLatinsal, salis, saleresalinity
sali-, -sili-, salt-jumpLatinsalire, saltusdesultory, resilient, salient, saltus
salic-willowLatinsalix, salicissalicin
salu-health, welfareLatinsalussalubrious, salubrity, salutary, salute
salv-saveLatinsalvus, salvaresalvage, salvation, salve
san-healthyLatinsanusinsane, sanity
sanc-holyLatinsancire (past participle sanctus)sacrosanct, saint, sanctify, sanction, sanctuary
sanguin-bloodLatinsanguis, sanguinisconsanguinity, sanguinary, sanguine
sapi-, -sipi-taste, wiseLatinsapere "to have a taste, be wise", related to sapor "taste, flavor"insipid, insipience, sapient
sapon-soapLatinsapo, saponissaponification
sarc-fleshGreekσάρξ, σαρκός (sarx, sarkos)sarcophagus
sart-tailorLatinsartor "tailor", from sarcire "to mend"sartorial
sati-enoughLatinsatisasset, sate, satiate, satiety, satisfy, saturate
saur-lizard, reptileGreekσαῦρος (sauros)dinosaur
sax-rockLatinsaxumsaxatile, saxicavous, saxicoline, saxifrage, saxifragous
scab-scratchLatinscaberescabies
scal-ladder, stairsLatinscalascalar, scale
scalen-unevenGreekσκαληνός (skalēnos)scalene muscles, scalene triangle
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens-climbLatinscandereascend, descend, transcendent
scaph-anything hollow, bowl, shipGreekσκάφη, σκάφοςscaphoid bone
scel-leg, thighGreekσκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos)isosceles
schem-planGreekσχῆμα (schēma)schematic
schis-split, cleftGreekσχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma)schism, schismatic
sci-knowLatinscireconscience, conscious, conscientious, omniscious, omniscient, prescient, science, scienter
scind-, sciss-splitLatinscindererescind, scissors
scler-hardGreekσκληρός (sklēros)scleroderma, sclerosis, sclerotic
scoli-crookedGreekσκολιός (skolios)scoliosis
scop-, scept-look at, examine, view, observeGreekσκέπτομαι, σκοπός (skopos)horoscope, kaleidoscope, microscope, periscope, scope, stethoscope, telescope
scrib-, script-writeLatinscribere, scriptusdescribe, inscribe, manuscript, prescribe, scribble, scribe, script, scripture, subscribe
scrupl-uneasinessLatinscrupus "sharp stone"scruple, scrupulous, unscrupulous
sculp-carveLatinsculpere, sculptussculpture
scut-shieldLatinscutumscute
scyph-cupGreekσκύφος (skyphos)Scyphozoa
se-, sed-apartLatinsesecede, sedition
seb-tallowLatinsebumsebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg-cutLatinsecaresecant, section, segment
sed-settle, calmLatinsedare, sedatussedative
sed-, -sid-, sess-sitLatinsedere, sessusassiduous, insidious, obsession, possess, preside, president, reside, resident, sediment, sedulity, sedulous, session, subside, supersede
sedec-sixteenLatinsedecimsedecimal
seget-in cornfieldsLatinsegetum
sei-shakeGreekσείω, σεισμός (seismos)seismograph
selen-moonGreekσελήνη (selēnē)Selene, selenium
sell-saddle, seatLatinsellasella turcica
sema-signGreekσῆμα (sēma)semantics, semaphore
semi-halfLatinsemissemifinal
semin-seedLatinsemen, seminisinsemination
sen-old manLatinsenex, senissenator, senescent, senile, senility, senior
sen-six eachLatinsenisenary
senti-, sens-feelLatinsentire, sensusassent, consensus, consent, dissent, resent, scent, sensation, sense, sensible, sensitive, sensory, sentence, sentient, sentience, sentiment
sept-fence, partition, enclosureLatinsaeptumtransept
sept-sevenLatinseptemseptennial
septen-seven eachLatinsepteniseptenary
septim-seventhLatinseptimusseptimal, septime
septuagen-seventy eachLatinseptuageniseptuagenary
septuagesim-seventiethLatinseptuagesimusseptuagesima, septuagesimal
septuagint-seventyLatinseptuagintaSeptuagint
sequ-, secut-followLatinsequere, from sequi, see also secutusconsecutive, consequence, ensue, non sequitur, obsequious, prosecute, pursue, second, sequel, sequence, subsequent
ser-sowLatinserere (past participle satus)sative, season, seasonable, seasonal, semen
ser-attach, joinLatinserere (past participle sertus)assert, desert, dissertation, exert, insert, serial, serialize, series
ser-body fluidLatinserumserous
ser-lateLatinsērusserein, serotine
serp-crawl, creepLatinserpere, serptusserpent
serr-saw, saw-toothedLatinserra, serrareserration
serv-save, protect, serveLatinservareconserve, deserve, observe, preserve, reserve, servant, service, servile, servitude, subservient
sesqui-one and a halfLatinsesquisesquicentennial
set-bristle, hairLatinsaetaseta, setose
sever-stern, strict, seriousLatinseverusseverity
sex-, se-sixLatinsexsemester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen-sixty eachLatinsexagenisexagenary
sexagesim-sixtiethLatinsexagesimussexagesimal
sext-sixthLatinsextussextant
sibil-hissLatinsibilus, sibilaresibilance
sicc-dryLatinsiccare "to dry", from siccus "dry, thirsty"desiccate, desiccation, sec, siccative
sider-starLatinsidus, siderissidereal
sign-signLatinsignumdesign, designate, insignia, signal, signature, significant
sil-quiet or stillLatinsileresilence
silv-forestLatinsilvasilviculture
simi-ape, monkeyLatinsimiasimian
simil-, simul-likeness, imitatingLatinsimulare "to emulate", from similis "alike"assimilate, dissimilate, dissemble, ensemble, resemble, semblance, similar, similarity, simile, similitude, simulacrum, simular, simulate, simulation, simulator, simultaneous, verisimilar, verisimilitude
singul-one eachLatinsingulussingular
sinistr-leftLatinsinister, sinistrisinistral
sinu-(to draw) a lineLatinsinuareinsinuate
sinus-hollow, bayLatinsinussinusoidal
siph-tubeGreekσίφων (siphōn)siphon
sist-cause to standLatinsistereassist, consist, desist, exist, insist, persist, resist, solstice, subsist
sit-food, grain, wheatGreekσῖτος (sitos)sitology
soci-groupLatinsocius, sociareassociate, social
sol-sunLatinsol, solissolar, solstice
sol-comfort, sootheLatinsolariconsolation, console, solace
sol-alone, onlyLatinsolusdesolate, sole, soliloquy, solipsism, solitaire, solitary, solitude, solo
sole-accustomedLatinsolere "be accustomed"insolence, insolent, obsolescence, obsolescent, obsolete
solen-pipe, channelGreekσωλήν (sōlēn)solenoid
solv-, solut-loosen, set freeLatinsolvere, solutusabsolute, absolve, dissolute, dissolve, resolute, resolve, soluble, solute, solution, solve, solvent
soma-bodyGreekσῶμα, σώματος (sōma, sōmatos)somatic
somn-sleepLatinsomnusinsomnia, somnambulist, somnolent
somni-dreamLatinsomniumsomnial
son-soundLatinsonusdissonance, resonance
soph-wiseGreekσοφός (sophos)philosophy, sophism, sophist, sophisticate, sophomore, sophomoric
sopor-deep sleepLatinsoporsopor, soporific
sorb-, sorpt-suckLatinsorbereabsorb, absorption
sord-dirtLatinsordes, sorderesordid
soror-sisterLatinsororsorority
spars-, -spers-sprinkleLatinspargereasperse, aspersion, disperse, intersperse, sparse
spati-spaceLatinspatiumspatial
spec-, -spic-, spect-lookLatinspecereaspect, conspicuous, expect, inspect, introspective, prospect, respect, retrospective, species, specific, specimen, specious, speculate, spectacle, spectator
spect-watch, look atLatinspectarespectator
specul-observeLatinspecularispeculation
sper-hopeLatinspes, speraredesperation, esperance
sperm-seedGreekσπέρμα (sperma)angiosperm
sphen-wedgeGreekσφήν (sphēn)sphenoid
spher-ballGreekσφαῖρα (sphaira)hemisphere, sphere, spheroid, stratosphere
sphing-, sphinct-closingGreekσφίγγω sphingein, σφίγγα sphingasphincter
spic-spikeLatinspicaspicule
spin-thornLatinspinaspine
spir-breatheLatinspirareaspire, conspire, expire, inspire, perspire, respiration, spirit
spond-, spons-a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnlyLatinspondere, sponsusrespond
spondyl-vertebraGreekσπόνδυλος (spondylos)spondylosis
spu-, sput-spew, spitLatinspueresputum
squal-scaly, dirty, filthyLatinsqualeresqualid, squalor
squam-scaleLatinsquamasquamous
squarros-spreading at tipsLatinsquarrosussquarrose
st-cause to standGreekἵστημι histēmi, histánaiantistatic, ecstatic, stasis, static, systasis, system
st-standLatinstare "to stand", also causative form statuere "to enact, set", from status "condition, position"circumstance, consist, constant, constitute, distant, extant, instant, obstacle, presto, stable, stamen, stamina, stance, stanchion, stanza, state, station, stationary, statistic, statue, status, staunch, stay, substance, substitute, superstition
stagn-pool of standing waterLatinstagnarestagnant
stala-dripping, tricklingGreekσταλακτός (stalaktos) and σταλαγμός (stalagmos), both from σταλάζειν (stallassein) "to drip"stalactite, stalagmite
stann-tinLatinstannumstannous
stasi-standing, discordGreekστάσις (stasis)static
statu-, -stitu-standLatinstatuereinstitution, statute
stear-fat, tallowGreekστέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos)stearic acid
steg-coveringGreekστέγη (stegē), στεγανός (steganos)steganography, Stegosaurus
stell-starLatinstellaconstellation, stellar
stell-sendGreekστέλλω (stellein)apostle, epistle, stole
sten-standGreekστεναί (stenai)apostasy, apostate
sten-narrowGreekστενός (stenos)stenography, stenosis
stere-solidGreekστερεός (stereos)stereometry
stern-, strat-spread, strewLatinsternere, stratusconsternation, prostrate, stratify, stratum, stratus, street
stern-breastboneGreekστέρνον (sternon)sternum
stich-line, rowGreekστίχος (stichos)distich
stigmat-mark, punctureGreekστίγμα (stigma)astigmatic, stigma
still-dripLatinstilla, stillaredistillation, instill
stimul-goad, rouse, exciteLatinstimulusstimulate
stin-standLatinstinaredestination, obstinate
stingu-, stinct-apartLatinstingueredistinction, distinguish
stoch-aimGreekστόχος (stochos)stochastic
stom-mouthGreekστόμα (stoma)stomatoplasty
streper-noiseLatinstrepereobstreperous
strept-twistedGreekστρεπτός (streptos)Streptococcus
strig-compressLatinstrix, strigisstrigogyps
strigos-having stiff bristlesLatinstrigosus from strigastrigose
string-, strict-tight, upright, stiffLatinstringere, strictusastringent, constrain, constrict, constringe, restrict, strain, strict, stringent
stroph-turningGreekστροφή (strophē)apostrophe
stru-, struct-to make up, buildLatinstruere, structusconstruct, construction, construe, destroy, destruct, instruct, obstruct, structure
stud-dedicationLatinstuderestudent
stup-wonderLatinstuperestupid, stupor
styl-column, pillarGreekστῦλος (stulos)Stylites
su-, sut-sewLatinsuere, sutuscouture, suture
suad-, suas-urgeLatinsuadere, suasuspersuasion
suav-sweetLatinsuavisassuage, suave, suavity
sub-, su-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sus-belowLatinsubsubmarine, submerge, suffix, suggest, support
subter-underLatinsubtersubterfuge
sucr-sugarLatinsuccarumsucrose
sud-sweatLatinsudareexude, sudoriferous
sui-selfLatinsuisui generis, suicide
sulc-furrowLatinsulcussulcus
sum-sumLatinsummare "to sum up", from summa "sum"consummate, consummation, sum, summa cum laude, summary, summation
sum-, sumpt-takeLatinsumere, sumptusassume, assumption, consume, consumption, presumption, subsume
super-above, overLatinsuperinsuperable, soprano, sovereign, summit, superable, superb, supercilious, supercomputer, superficial, superfluous, superheat, superimpose, superior, superlative, supermarket, supernal, supernatural, supernova, superposition, superpower, superscript, supersede, supersonic, superstition, supervene, supervise, supreme, supremum, surname, surplus, surround, survive
supin-lying backLatinsupinussupination, supine
supra-above, overLatinsuprasupranationalism
surd-deafLatinsurdusabsurdity
surg-riseLatinsurgereinsurgent, resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym-withGreekσύν (sun)symbol, symmetry, sympathy, synchronous, synonym, system
syring-pipeGreekσύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos)syringe

T[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
tac-, -tic-be silentLatintacere, tacitusreticent, reticence, tacit, taciturn
tach-swiftGreekταχύς (tachus)tachometer, tachycardia
taeni-ribbonGreekταινία (tainia)taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis
tal-ankleLatintalustalus bone
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag-touchLatintangere (past participle tactus)attain, contact, contagious, contingent, contingency, contiguous, intact, tactile, tangent, tangible
tapet-carpetLatintapete, tapetistapestry, tapetum, tapis
tard-slowLatintardusretard, tardigrade, tardy
tars-ankleGreekταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket)tarsal
taur-bullGreekταῦρος (tauros)Minotaur
taur-bullLatintaurusTaurus
tax-arrangement, orderGreekτάξις (taxis)taxonomy
techn-art, skillGreekτέχνη (technē)technology
teg-, tect-coverLatintegere, tectusintegument, protection
tele-far, endGreekτῆλε (tēle)telecast, telegram, telegraph, telepathy, telephone, telescope, television
tele-completeGreekτέλος (telos)teleology
temn-cutGreekτέμνω (temnō)Temnospondyli
tempor-timeLatintempus, temporiscontemporaneous, contemporary, extemporaneous, tempo, temporal, temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent-holdLatintenere, tentusabstain, contain, content, contents, continence, continent, continue, countenance, detain, detention, entertain, maintain, pertain, pertinacious, pertinacity, pertinent, retention, tenacious, tenacity, tenant, tenet, tenor, untenable
tend-, tens-stretch, strainLatintendere (past participle tensus)attend, contend, contention, contentious, extend, extension, extent, intend, ostensible, ostentatious, portend, portent, portentous, pretense, tend, tendentious, tendency, tender, tensile, tension
tenu-slender, thinLatintenuare "make thin", from tenuis "thin"attenuate, extenuate, tenuous
tep-be warmLatinteperetepid, tepor
ter-, trit-rubLatinterere, tritusattrition, contrite, detritus, trite
teret-roundedLatinteres, teretissubterete, teretial
terg-, ters-wipeLatintergere, tersusdetergent, terse
termin-boundary, limit, endLatinterminusdetermine, terminal, termination
tern-three eachLatinterniternary, ternion
terr-earthLatinterrainter, subterranean, terrace, terracotta, terrain, terrarium, terrestrial, territory
terti-thirdLatintertiustertian, tertiary
test-witnessLatintestisattest, contest, detest, protest, testament, testify, testimony
tetr-fourGreekτέσσαρες (tessares)tetrahedron, tetrode
tex-, text-weaveLatintexere, textuscontext, subtle, pretext, text, textile, texture
thalam-chamber, bedGreekθάλαμος (thalamos)hypothalamus
thalass-seaGreekθάλασσα (thalassa)Panthalassa, thalassemia
than-deathGreekθάνατος (thanatos)euthanasia, thanatology
the-, thus-godGreekθεός (theos)atheism, enthusiasm, monotheism, polytheism, theology
the-putGreekτίθημι (tithēmi), θήκη (thēkē)antithesis, antithetical, Bibliotheca, deem, doom, epithet, hypothesis, synthesis, theca, thematic, theme, Themis, thesis
thel-nippleGreekθηλή (thēlē)epithelium, thelium, thelial
theori-speculationGreekθεωρία (theōria)theorem, theory
ther-beast, animalGreekθήρ, θηρός (thēr)theroid, theropod
therm-heat, warmGreekθερμός (thermos)thermal, endotherm, hypothermia, thermometer, thermos, thermostat
thym-moodGreekθυμός (thumos)dysthymia
thyr-doorGreekθύρα (thura)thyratron
thyre-large shieldGreekθυρεός (thureos)Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
tim-be afraidLatintimeretimid, timorous
-tim-mostLatin-timus, e.g. in intimus "inmost", optimus "best", ultimus "last"intimate, intimation, optimum, ultimate
ting-, tinct-moistenLatintingere, tinctustincture
tom-cutGreekτομή (tome), τόμος (tomos)anatomy, appendectomy, atom, dichotomy, ectomy, embolectomy, tome, tonsillectomy, vasectomy
ton-stretchGreekτόνος (tonos)isotonic, monotone, tone
top-placeGreekτόπος (topos)atopy, isotope, topiary, topic, topography, topology, toponymy, utopia
torn-, tourn-turn or rotateLatin from Greektornare < τόρνος (tornos)tornado, tournament
torpe-be numbLatintorperetorpent, torpid, torpor
torqu-, tort-twistLatintorquere, tortuscontort, distort, extort, extortion, retort, torque, torsion, tortuous, torture
tot-all, wholeLatintotussubtotal, total, totality
tox-arrow, bowGreekτόξον (toxon)antitoxin, intoxicate, toxic, toxology, toxoplasmosis
trab-beamLatintrabs, trabistrabeculae
trachy-roughGreekτραχύς (trachus)trachea
trag-goatGreekτράγος (tragos)tragus
trah-, tract-draw, pullLatintractare, frequentative of trahere, tractusattract, contract, detract, retract, subtract, subtrahend, tractable, traction, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran-acrossLatintransintransigent, tradition, transact, transcend, transient, transitory, transport
trapez-four-sided, tableGreekτράπεζα (trapeza)trapezius, trapezoid
traum-woundGreekτραῦμα (trauma)trauma, traumatic, traumatize
trecent-three hundredLatintrecentitrecentennial, trecentillion
tredec-thirteenLatintredecimtredecimal
treiskaidek-thirteenGreekτρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka)triskaidekaphobia
trem-trembleLatintremeretremor
trema-holeGreekτρῆμα (trēma)monotreme, trematode
trepid-trembleLatintrepidare "to tremble, hurry", from trepidus "alarmed, scared"intrepid, trepid, trepidation
tri-threeGreekτρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria)triad, trigon, triode, tripod
tri-threeLatintrēstriangle, triumvirate, trivia
trib-rubGreekτρίβειν (tribein)diatribe, tribology
tribu-payLatintribuere "to pay", from tribusattribute, contribute, retribution, tribe, tribulation, tribunal, tribune, tributary, tribute
tricen-thirty eachLatintricenitricenary
tricesim-, trigesim-thirtiethLatintricesimustrigesimal
trich-hairGreekθρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos)peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
trin-three eachLatintrinitrinary, trine, trinity
trit-thirdGreekτρίτος (tritos)tritagonist
tritic-wheatLatintriticumtriticale
troch-wheelGreekτροχός (trochos)trochlea
trop-turningGreekτρόπος (tropos)contrive, heliotropism, isotrope, psychotropic, retrieve, trope, tropic, tropism, troposphere, troubadour, trove
troph-feed, growGreekτροφή, τροφός (trophos)dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
truc-fierceLatintrux, trucistruculent
trud-, trus-thrustLatintrudere, trususextrusion, intrude
trunc-cut offLatintruncare "to maim, mutilate", from truncus "mutilated, cut off"trench, trenchant, truncate, truncheon, trunk
tum-to swell upLatintumerecontumely, contumacious, tumid, tumor, tumular, tumulose, tumulous, tumult, tumultuous
turb-disturbLatinturbadisturb, perturb, turbid, turbine, turbulent,
tuss-coughLatintussis, tussirepertussis
tympan-drumGreekτύμπανον (tumpanon)tympani
typ-stamp, modelGreekτύπος (tupos)archetype, phenotype, prototype, type, typewriter, typical, typify, typography, typology

U[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
uber-fruitfulLatinuber, uberareexuberant
uligin-in marshesLatinuligo, uliginisuliginous
ulo-woolyGreekοὖλος (oulos)Ulotrichi
ultim-farthestLatinultimusultimate, ultimatum
ultra-beyondLatinultraultrasonic
umbilic-navelLatinumbilicusumbilical
umbr-shade, shadowLatinumbraadumbrate, penumbra, umbrage, umbrella
un-oneLatinunus, uniusunanimous, unary, unicorn, unify, union, universe, university
unc-hookedLatinuncusuncinate, Uncinia
unci-ounce, twelfthLatinunciauncial
und-waveLatinundaabundant, redundancy, undulate
undecim-eleventhLatinundecimusundecimal
unden-eleven eachLatinundeniundenary
ungui-claw, nailLatinunguisunguiform
ungul-claw, hoofLatinungulaungulate
ur-tailGreekοὐρά (oura)uroid, uroborus
ur-urineGreekοὖρον (ouron)urology
urb-cityLatinurbanus "belonging to a city", from urbs (genitive urbis) "city"suburbanite, urban, urbane, urbanism, urbanize
urg-workLatinurgereurgent
urs-bearLatinursusUrsa Major, ursine, Ursus
ut-, us-useLatinuti, ususabuse, use, usual, utilitarian, utility, utilize
uv-grapeLatinuvauvea
uxor-wifeLatinuxoruxoricide

V[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
vac-emptyLatinvacareevacuate, vacancy, vacant, vacate, vacation, vacuous, vacuum
vacc-cowLatinvaccavaccary, vaccination, vaccine
vacil-waverLatinvacillare "sway, be untrustworthy"vacillate, vacillation
vad-, vas-goLatinvadereevade, pervasive
vag-wanderLatinvagus, vagarevagabond, vague
val-strength, worthLatinvalereambivalence, avail, equivalent, evaluate, prevail, valence, valiant, valid, valor, value
van-empty, vain, idleLatinvanus "empty", also vanescere "vanish"evanescent, vain, vanish, vanity
vap-lack (of)Latinvaporevaporation, vapid, vapor
vari-varyLatinvariarevariable, variance, variant, variate, variation, variety, various, vary
varic-straddleLatinvaricare "to straddle", from varus "bowlegged"prevaricate
veh-, vect-carryLatinvehere "to carry", vectusinvective, inveigh, vector, vehement, vehicle
vel-veilLatinvelumrevelation, velate
vell-, vuls-pullLatinvellere, vulsusconvulsion
veloc-quickLatinvelox, velocisvelocity
ven-veinLatinvenaintravenous, venosity, venule
ven-huntLatinvenarivenison
ven-, vent-comeLatinvenireadvent, adventure, avenue, circumvent, contravene, convene, convenient, convention, event, intervene, intervention, invent, prevent, revenue, souvenir, supervene, venue, venture
vend-sellLatinvenderevend, vendor
vener-respectfulLatinvenus, venerisvenerable, veneration, venereal
vent-windLatinventusventilation, ventilator
ventr-bellyLatinventer, ventrisventral
ver-trueLatinverusaver, veracious, verdict, verify, verisimilar, verisimilitude, verity, very
verb-wordLatinverbumverbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber-whipLatinverberreverberation
verm-wormLatinvermisvermiform, vermin
vern-springLatinver, vernusvernal
vers-, vert-turnLatinversus, past participle of vertereadverse, adversity, advertise, anniversary, avert, controversy, controvert, conversant, conversation, converse, convert, diversify, divert, extrovert, introvert, inverse, invert, perverse, pervert, reverse, revert, subvert, tergiversate, transverse, universe, versatile, verse, version, versus, vertex, vertical, vertigo
vesic-bladderLatinvesicavesical
vesper-evening, westernLatinvesperavesperal
vest-clothing, garmentLatinvestire "to clothe", related to vestis "garment"divest, invest, investiture, transvestite, travesty, vest, vestment
vestig-trackLatinvestigiuminvestigate, vestigial
vet-forbidLatinvetareveto
veter-oldLatinvetus, veterisinveterate, veteran
vi-wayLatinviadeviate, obviate, obvious, via
vic-changeLatinvicisvicar, vicarious, vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen-twenty eachLatinvicenivicenary
vicesim-, vigesim-twentiethLatinvicesimusvicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
vid-, vis-seeLatinvidere, visusevident, provide, providence, provident, revise, supervise, video, visible, vision, visit, vista
vigil-watchfulLatinvigil, also vigilareinvigilate, reveille, surveillance, vigil, vigilance, vigilant, vigilante
vil-cheapLatinvilisrevile, vile, vilify
vill-country houseLatinvillavilla, village, villain
vill-shaggy hairLatinvillusvelour, velvet, villiform
vin-wineLatinvinumvine, vinous
vinc-, vict-conquerLatinvincere (past participle victus)convict, convince, evict, evince, invincible, province, vanquish, victor, victory
vir-manLatinvirtriumvirate, virility
vir-greenLatinvirerevirid, viridian
visc-thickLatinviscumviscosity
viscer-internal organLatinviscus, visceriseviscerate, visceral
vit-lifeLatinvitavital, vitamin
vitell-yolkLatinvitellusvitellogenesis
viti-faultLatinvitiumvice, vitiate, vituperate
vitr-glassLatinvitrumvitreous, vitriol
viv-liveLatinvivere "to live", related to vita "life"convivial, revive, survive, viable, victuals, vital, vitality, vitamin, vivacious, vivacity, vivid, vivisection
voc-call, voiceLatinvocare (to call), from vox "voice" (genitive vocis)advocate, avocation, convocation, equivocal, equivocate, evoke, invocation, invoke, provocative, provoke, revoke, vocal, vocation, vociferous
vol-flyLatinvolarevolatility
vol-willLatinvoluntas "will" from velle "to wish"benevolent, malevolent, velleity, volition, voluntary, Voluntaryism, volunteer, voluptuary, voluptuous
volv-, volut-rollLatinvolvere, volutusconvolution, devolve, evolve, involve, revolve, valve, vault, voluble, volume, voluminous, volvox, vulva
vom-dischargeLatinvomerevomit
vor-, vorac-swallowLatinvorare, voraxcarnivorous, devour, herbivorous, locavore, omnivorous, voracious
vov-, vot-vowLatinvovere, votusvotive
vulg-crowdLatinvulgusdivulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner-woundLatinvulnus, vulnerisvulnerable
vulp-foxLatinvulpēs, vulpisvulpine

X[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
xanth-yellowGreekξανθός (xanthos)xanthium, xanthochromia, xanthogenic, xanthophyll
xen-foreignGreekξένος (xenos)xenoblast, xenogamy, xenophobia, xenon
xer-dryGreekξηρός (xēros)xeroderma, xerography, xeromorph, xerophagy, xerophile, xerophyte
xiph-swordGreekξίφος (xiphos)xiphisternum, xiphoid, xiphophyllous
xyl-woodGreekξύλον (xulon)xylem, xylocarp, xyloid, xylophone

Z[edit]

RootMeaning in EnglishOrigin languageEtymology (root origin)English examples
zel-zeal, jealousyGreekζῆλος (zēlos)jealousy, zeal, zealot
zo-animal, living beingGreekζῷον (zōion)azotemia, protozoa, zoanthropy, zodiac, zoic, zoo, zoology, zoomorphism, zoon, zooxanthella
zon-belt, girdleGreekζώνη (zōnē)zonal, zone
zyg-yokeGreekζυγός (zugon)heterozygous, zygote
zym-fermentGreekζύμη (zumē)enzyme, lysozyme

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]