List of Governors of Puerto Rico

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The Standard (flag) and Seal of the Governor of Puerto Rico
Juan Ponce de León II, 26th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first native Puerto Rican to become governor

This list of Governors of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Gobernador de Puerto Rico) includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The position was first established by the Spanish Empire during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization.

The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León on 1509. At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the empire's government or the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. In 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected through a democratic process every four years. The governor is in charge of Puerto Rico's executive branch and is responsible for appointing executive branch agency heads, including the Secretary of State, who fulfills the role of lieutenant governor, the legislative branch's Ombudsman and Comptroller and all judges in the judicial branch.

History[edit]

Front entrance of La Fortaleza, the official residence of the governor

When the Spanish Empire colonized Puerto Rico during the 16th century, the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León established himself as the island's first governor replacing Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, who was appointed to take the position of Captain General of the City of Puerto Rico prior to the island's colonization but never performed this function.[1] During this time period, the Spanish monarchy was in charge of appointing the governor of Puerto Rico, the person selected was in charge of the island's development and wealth and was responsible for reporting the colony's status to the Spanish Empire. After 1580 the Captaincy General of Puerto Rico was established, and the office of captain general was added to the governor.

On July 25, 1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States when, following a brief armed conflict, the United States Army landed at Guánica. Following the conclusion of the war, Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, the Philippines and Guam, to the United States under the 1898 Treaty of Paris.[2] Puerto Rico began the twentieth century under the military rule of the United States with officials, including the governor, who were appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, William McKinley signed the Foraker Act as a United States federal law, this established civilian (limited popular) government on Puerto Rico.[3] The new government had a governor and an executive council appointed by the President, a House of Representatives with 35 elected members, a judicial system with a Supreme Court, and a non-voting Resident Commissioner in Congress.[3] The first civilian governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles Herbert Allen. This system was still used after the approval of the Jones-Shafroth Act, which altered the structure of government in Puerto Rico, and was in use until 1948.

Following the approval of the federal Elective Governor Act by President Harry S Truman in 1947, the governor has been elected through a democratic process every four years since 1948.[4] Under this system, the governor is in charge of the island's executive branch.[4] In these elections, every person must vote for one of several candidates, each one of which represents a political party (currently consisting of the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican Independence Party, Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico Party) following the elective process the votes are counted and the candidate who gathers the plurality (not majority) of votes is certified as governor-elect and takes office on January 2 of the following year in a public inaugural ceremony which may be preceded by a private oath-taking ceremony.

In the governor's absence, or if the governor dies or is unable to perform the executive duties, the Secretary of State of Puerto Rico takes control of the executive position, as Acting Governor during a temporary absence or inability, and as Governor in case of death, resignation or impeachment and conviction.[4] The elected governor must designate a number of secretaries and other agency heads that will control the individual administrative agencies during his time in office, the selected secretaries are in charge of the island's health, natural resources, economy, correctional and judicial agencies and the department of consumer concerns, among others. The Governor's four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Year's Day holiday.

List of Governors of Puerto Rico[edit]

Governors under Spanish Crown[edit]

ImageNameTook officeLeft officeReference
Juan Ponce de León.jpgCaptain General
Don Juan Ponce de León
15091512[5]
Juan Cerón15111513[6]
Rodrigo Moscoso15131514[7]
Captain General Cristóbal de Mendoza15141515[8]
Juan Ponce de León.jpgCaptain General
Don Juan Ponce de León
15151519[7]
Sánchez Velázquez15191519[8]
Antonio de la Gama15191521[8]
Pedro Moreno15211523[8]
Bishop Alonso Manso15231524[8]
Pedro Moreno15241529[8]
Antonio de la Gama15291530[8]
Lieutenant General Francisco Manuel de Landó15301536[8]
Vasco de Tiedra15361537[8]
Vasco de Tiedra15371544[8]
Jerónimo Lebrón de Quiñones15441544[8]
Lcdo.Iñigo López Cervantes y Loayza15441546[8]
Lcdo.Diego de Caraza15461548[8]
Diego de Caraza15481550[8]
Luis de Vallejo15501555[8]
Lcdo. Alonso Esteves15551555[8]
Lcdo. Diego de Caraza15551561[8]
Antonio de la Llama Vallejo15611564[8]

Francisco Bahamonde De Lugo

15641568[8]
Francisco de Solís Osorio15681574[8]
Francisco de Obando y Mexia15751579[8]
Juan Ponce de Leon II.JPGJuan Ponce de León II15791579[9]
Jerónimo de Agüero Campuzano15801580[8]
Captain General Juan de Céspedes15801581[8]
Captain General Juan López Melgarejo15811582[8]
Captain General Gen Diego Menéndez de Valdés15821593[8]
Colonel Pedro Suárez15931597[8]
Captain General Antonio de Mosquero15971598[8]
Captain General Alonso de Mercado15991602[8]
Captain General Sancho Ochoa de Castro16021608[8]
Gabriel de Rojas Párano16081614[8]
Captain General Felipe de Beaumont y Navarra16141620[8]
Juan de Vargas16201625[8]
Captain General Juan de Haro y Sanvítores16251630[8]
Captain General Enrique Enriquez de Sotomayor16311635[8]
Captain General Iñigo de la Mota Sarmiento16351641[8]
Captain General Agustín de Silva y Figueroa16411641[8]
Captain General Juan de Bolaños16421643[8]
Fernando de la Riva Agüero y Setien16431648[8]
Diego de Aguilera y Gamboa16491655[8]
José Novoa y Moscoso Pérez y Buitron16551660[8]
Captain General Juan Pérez de Guzmán y Chagoyen16601664[8]
Jerónimo de Velasco16641670[8]
Gaspar de Arteaga y Aunoavidao16701674[10]
Diego Roblandillo16741674[10]
Captain General Baltazar Figueroa y Castilla16741674[10]
Alonso de Campos y Espinosa16751678[10]
Juan de Robles Lorenzana16781683[10]
Captain General Gaspar Martínez de Andino16831685[10]
Juan Francisco Medina16851690[10]
Gaspar de Arredondo y Valle16901695[10]
Juan Francisco Medina16951697[10]
Tomás Franco16971698[10]
Antonio de Robles Silva16981699[10]
Gabriel Suárez de Ribera17001703[10]
Diego Jiménez de Villarán17031703[10]
Francisco Sánchez Calderón17031703[10]
Pedro Arroyo y Guerrero17041705[10]
Juan Francisco López de Morla17061706[10]
Francisco Danío Granados17061708[10]
Colonel Juan de Ribera17091715[10]
José Francisco Carreño17161716[10]
Alfonso Bortodano17161720[10]
Francisco Danio Granados17201724[10]
Captain General José Antonio de Mendizabal y Azcue17241730[10]
Lieutenant Colonel Matías de Abadía17311743[10]
Domingo Pérez de Mandares17431744[10]
Colonel Juan José Colomo17441750[10]
Colonel Agustín de Parejas17501751[10]
Lieutenant Colonel Esteban Bravo de Rivero17511753[10]
Captain General Felipe Ramírez de Estenos17531757[10]
Esteban Bravo de Rivero17571759[10]
Mateo de Guaso Calderón17591760[10]
Esteban Bravo de Rivero17601761[10]
Ambrosio de Benavides.jpgLieutenant Colonel Ambrosio de Benavides17611766[10]
Colonel Marcos de Vergara17661766[10]
Lieutenant Colonel José Trentor17661770[10]
Colonel Miguel de Musesas17701776[10]
Colonel José Dufresne17761783[10]
Don Juan Daban .jpgField Marshal Don Juan Andrés Daban y Busterino17831789[10]
Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles17891789[10]
Articulos cmj 002.jpgBrigadier General Miguel Antonio de Ustariz17891792[7]
Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles17921794[10]
Brigadier General Enrique Grimarest17941795[7]
Ramon de Castro.jpgField Marshal Don Ramón de Castro y Gutiérrez17951804[10]
Toribio Montes18041809[10]
Salvador Meléndez Bruna18091820[10]
Brigadier General Juan Vasco y PascualMarch 24, 1820August 7, 1820[10]
Brigadier General Gonzalo Arostegui y HerreraAugust 7, 1820February 12, 1822[10]
Coronel José de NavarroFebruary 12, 1822May 30, 1822[10]
Francisco González de LinaresMay 30, 1822December 4, 1823[10]
Miguel de la Torre.jpgLieutenant General Miguel Luciano de La Torre y PandoDecember 4, 18231837[10]
Francisco Javier de Moreda y Prieto18371838[10]
Field Marshal Miguel López de Baños18381841[10]
Lieutenant General Santiago Méndez de Vigo18411844[10]
Lieutenant General Rafael de Aristegui y Vélez18441847[10]
Juanprim.gifField Marshal Don Juan Prim de Prats y Gonzalez18471848[11]
Lieutenant General Juan de la Pezuela y Cevallos18481851[7]
Enrique de España y Taberner18511852[7]
Fernando Escudero Norzagaray.jpgLieutenant General Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero18521855[7]
Lieutenant General Andrés García Gamba18551855[7]
Lieutenant General José Lemery Ibrarrola Ney y Gonzalez18551857[7]
Lieutenant General Fernando Cotoner y Chacon18571860[7]
Sabino Gamir Maladen18601860[7]
Lieutenant General Rafael Echague y Bermingham18601862[7]
Brigadier General Rafael Izquierdo y Gutierrez18621863[7]
Lieutenant General Féliz María de Messina Iglesias18631865[7]
Lieutenant General José María Marchessi y Oleaga18651867[7]
General Julián Juan Pavia Lacy18671868[7]
General José Laureano Sanz y Posse18681870[7]
Lieutenant General Gabriel Baldrich18701871[7]
General Ramón Gómez Pulido18711872[7]
General Simón de la Torre Ormaza18721872[7]
Brigadier General Joaquín Eurile Hernan18721873[7]
Lieutenant General Juan Martínez Plowes18731873[7]
General Rafael Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte18731874[7]
General José Laureano Sanz y Posse18751875[7]
General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez18751877[7]
General Manuel de la Serna Hernandez y Pinzón18771878[7]
General José Gamir Maladen18781878[7]
General Eulogio Despujols y Dussay18781881[7]
General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez18811883[7]
General Miguel de la Vega Inclán y Palma18831884[7]
General Don Carlos Suances Campos18841884[7]
General Ramón Fajardo Izquierdo18841884[7]
General Luis Daban y Ramírez de Arellanó18841887[7]
General Romualdo Palacios Gonzalez18871887[7]
General Juan Contreras Martinez18871888[7]
General Pedro Ruiz Dana18881890[7]
Brigadier General José Pascual Bonanza18901890[7]
General José Lasso y Pérez18901893[7]
General Luis Daban y Ramírez de Arrellanó18931895[7]
General José Gamir18951896[7]
General Emilio March18961896[7]
General Sabas Marín González18961898[12]
Ortega2x2.jpgGeneral Ricardo de Ortega y Diez18981898[13]
General Andrés González Muñoz18981898[14]
Ortega2x2.jpgGeneral Ricardo de Ortega y Diez18981898[13]
Macias1.jpgGeneral Manuel Macías Casado18981898[15]
Ortega2x2.jpgGeneral Ricardo de Ortega y Diez18981898[13]

Governors under U.S. colonial administration[edit]

Military government[edit]

ImageNameTook officeLeft officeReference
Nelson Appleton Miles.jpgCommanding General Nelson A. Miles18981898[16]
John R. Brooke.jpgMajor General John R. Brooke18981898[17]
Guy V. Henry.jpgMajor General Guy Vernon Henry18981899[18]
GeorgeWDavis.jpgMajor General George Whitefield Davis18991900[7]

Post-Foraker Act of 1900[edit]

ImageNameTook officeLeft officeNotesReference
Charles Herbert Allen, 1898.jpgCharles Herbert Allen19001901First U.S. civil governor appointed by President William McKinley[19]
William H. Hunt.jpgWilliam Henry Hunt19011904[20]
Beekman Winthrop19041907[8]
Regispost.jpgRegis Henri Post19071909[8]
GR Colton Puerto Rico Governor.jpgColonel George Radcliffe Colton19091913[8]
Arthur Yager.JPGArthur Yager19131921[21]
José E. Benedicto19211921Interim governor[8]
E Mont Reily.jpgEmmet Montgomery Reily19211923[22]
Juan Bernardo Huyke19231923Interim Governor[8]
TOWNER, HORACE M. HONORABLE.jpgHorace Mann Towner19231929[23]
James R. Beverley19291929[8]
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1921.jpgBrigadier General Theodore Roosevelt Jr.19291932[24]
James R. Beverley 2nd Term19321933[8]
Robert Hayes Gore19331934[25]
Benjamin Jason Horton19341934[8]
Blanton C. Winship.jpgGeneral Blanton C. Winship19341939Summarily removed by President Roosevelt on May 12, 1939.[26][27][28]
José E. Colón19391939Interim governor[7]
William Leahy cropped.jpgFleet Admiral William D. Leahy19391940[29]
José Miguel Gallardo19401941Interim governor[7]
Commander Guy J. Swope19411941[30]
José Miguel Gallardo19411941Interim governor[7]
Rexford G Tugwell 08e03507t.jpgRexford Tugwell19411946[31]
Jesus T. Piñero.jpgJesús T. Piñero19461949Only native Puerto Rican governor appointed under U.S colonial administration[32]

Governors under the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico[edit]

      New Progressive Party        Popular Democratic Party
#ImageNameTook officeLeft officePartyAffiliation
within U.S. politics
1Luis Muñoz Marín.jpgLuis Muñoz Marín[33]19491965Popular Democratic PartyIndependent[a]
2Roberto Sánchez Vilella[35]19651969Popular Democratic PartyDemocrat[b]
3Luis A. Ferré.jpgLuis A. Ferré[37]19691973New Progressive PartyRepublican[c]
4SS R.Hernandez Colonjpg.jpgRafael Hernández Colón[39]19731977Popular Democratic PartyDemocrat[d]
5Carlos Antonio Romero-Barceló.jpgCarlos Romero Barceló[41]19771985New Progressive PartyDemocrat[d]
6SS R.Hernandez Colonjpg.jpgRafael Hernández Colón[39]19851993Popular Democratic PartyDemocrat[d]
7Dr Pedro Rosello.jpgPedro Rosselló[42]19932001New Progressive PartyDemocrat[43]
8Puerto Rican Governor Sila Calderon at the Pentagon, Feb 27, 2001.jpgSila María Calderón[44]20012005Popular Democratic PartyDemocrat[e]
9Anibal.jpgAníbal Acevedo Vilá[46]20052009Popular Democratic PartyDemocrat[f]
10Luis Fortuño congressional portrait.jpgLuis Fortuño20092013New Progressive PartyRepublican[48]
11Alejandro Garcia Padilla -cropped.jpgAlejandro García Padilla2013Popular Democratic PartyDemocrat[g]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Trías Monge (1995) "Aunque se le percibía como Demócrata e influía decisivamente en las gestiones del Partido Demócrata de Puerto Rico, Muñoz Marín nunca se afilió formalmente a ese partido ni participó en actividad alguna de los partidos políticos estadounidenses."[34]
  2. ^ Metro (2012) "Desde la presidencia de Lyndon B. Johnson y la gobernación de Roberto Sánchez Vilella, no teníamos un presidente demócrata en Washington y un gobernador demócrata en San Juan."[36]
  3. ^ Fernós (2003) "[...]su dirigente Don Luis A. Ferré, presidente del Partido Republicano en Puerto Rico."[38]
  4. ^ a b c Montalvo (2012) "Carlos Romero Barceló y Rafael Hernández Colón son de partidos contrarios en la Isla, pero demócratas en la política estadounidense."[40]
  5. ^ Castilla y León. "[Calderón] pertenece al Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico y al Partido Demócrata de Estados Unidos."[45]
  6. ^ DARN (2011) "[Acevedo Vilá] was an active member of the National Governors Association, the Southern Governors Association and the Democratic Governors Association."[47]
  7. ^ Varela (2013) "[...] Governor Alejandro Padilla, a Democrat [...]"[49]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  2. ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain". Yale University. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  3. ^ a b "Foraker Act (Organic Act of 1900)". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  4. ^ a b c "Rama Ejecutiva" (in Spanish). Gobierno del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  5. ^ "Ponce de León, Juan". Infoplease. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  6. ^ "Puerto Rico in the Great Depression". New Deal Network. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Governors of Puerto Rico - Under Spanish Rule". El Boricua. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax "Puerto Rico - Chronology". World's Statesmen. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  9. ^ Casa Blanca reveals centuries of San Juan history
  10. ^ "Rafael Cordero Molina: Maestro de proceres, Siervo de Dios" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  11. ^ "Presencia del ideario masónico en el proyecto revolucionario antillano de Ramón Emeterio Betances" (in Spanish). Universidad de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  12. ^ a b c "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VII" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  13. ^ "Teniente general Andrés González Muñoz" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  14. ^ "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VI" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  15. ^ "Nelson Appleton Miles". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  16. ^ "John R. Brooke". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  17. ^ "Guy Vernor Henry". Arlington National Cemetery Website. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  18. ^ "Allen, Charles Herbert, (1848 - 1934)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  19. ^ "Hunt, William Henry". Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  20. ^ "Arthur Yager 1908-1913". Georgetown College. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  21. ^ "The Architecture of Power". Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  22. ^ "Towner, Horace Mann, (1855 - 1937)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  23. ^ "TR's Family Tree". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  24. ^ Washington Post (1933), "Warren D. Robbins Minister to Canada; White House Also Chooses Robert H. Gore as Governor of Puerto Rico", Washington Post (April 29, 1933): 2 
  25. ^ Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico. The Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico, editor. 70 pages. May 22, 1937. Published by The Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC). Accessed on 30 October 2010.
  26. ^ Vito Marcantonio, U.S. Congressman. Five Years of Tyranny. Speech before the U.S. House of Representatives. Cheverote Productions. 14 August 1939. The entire speech is contained in the Congressional Record 14 August 1939. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  27. ^ Vito Marcantonio. "Five Years of Tyranny". Cheverote Productions. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  28. ^ "William D. Leahy - Biography". Williamdleahy.com (official web site). Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  29. ^ "Swope, Guy Jacob, (1892 - 1969)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  30. ^ "Rexford G. Tugwell (1891-1979)". The Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  31. ^ "Jesus T. Piñero". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  32. ^ "Luis Muñoz Marín - Biografia". Fundación Luis Muñoz Marín. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  33. ^ Trías Monge, José (1995). Historia Constitucional de Puerto Rico (in Spanish) V. La Editorial. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  34. ^ Luis R. Negrón. "Roberto Sánchez Vilella" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19mdy. 
  35. ^ "Líderes populares reclaman a Cox Alomar para Oficina de PR en Washington". Metro Puerto Rico (Metro International). December 20, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Luis A. Ferré". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  37. ^ Fernós, Antonio (2003). Ser Nosotros Mismos!: La Angustiosa Lucha Del Pueblo Puertorriqueño Por Su Soberanía Nacional (in Spanish). La Editorial. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  38. ^ a b "Rafael Hernández Colón". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  39. ^ Montalvo, Iza (October 8, 2012). "Exgobernadores de PR visitan Florida en campaña por Obama". La Opinión (in Spanish). 
  40. ^ "Romero-Barceló, Carlos Antonio, (1932 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  41. ^ "Pedro Rosselló" (in Spanish). Senado de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  42. ^ "Hon. Pedro Rosselló - Resumen Biográfico" (in Spanish). 1998. Retrieved August 10, 2013. "[Rosselló es] Vicepresidente de la Asociación de Gobernadores Demócratas." 
  43. ^ "Sila Maria Calderón". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  44. ^ "Calderón Serra, Sila María" (in Spanish). Junta de Castilla y León. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  45. ^ "Acevedo-Vilá, Aníbal, (1962 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  46. ^ "Former Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá to Present at DANR Leadership Forum in Puerto Rico". Dominican American National Roundtable. August 7, 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  47. ^ "WSJ: Luis Fortuno is a Republican Star". Republican Governors Association. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  48. ^ Varela, Julio (May 22, 2013). "Opinion: For Puerto Rico to ever progress, the politics of status must disappear". NBC Latino (NBC). Retrieved August 10, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]