List of Governors of Ohio

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Governor of Ohio
Seal of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Standard of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Governor John Kasich.jpg
Incumbent
John Kasich

since January 10, 2011
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceOhio Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, two consecutive with four-year pause thereafter
Inaugural holderEdward Tiffin
FormationMarch 3, 1803
DeputyLieutenant Governor
Salary$139,000 (2009)[1]
Websitegovernor.ohio.gov
 
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Governor of Ohio
Seal of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Standard of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Governor John Kasich.jpg
Incumbent
John Kasich

since January 10, 2011
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceOhio Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, two consecutive with four-year pause thereafter
Inaugural holderEdward Tiffin
FormationMarch 3, 1803
DeputyLieutenant Governor
Salary$139,000 (2009)[1]
Websitegovernor.ohio.gov

The Governor of the state of Ohio is the head of the executive branch of Ohio's government[2] and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[3] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws; the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Ohio Legislature;[4] the power to convene the legislature;[5] and the power to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[6]

There have been 63 governors of Ohio, serving 69 distinct terms. The longest term was held by Jim Rhodes, who was elected four times and served just under sixteen years in two non-consecutive periods of two terms each (1963–1971 and 1975–1983). The shortest terms were held by John William Brown and Nancy Hollister, who each served for only 11 days after the governors preceding them resigned in order to begin the terms to which they had been elected in the United States Senate; the shortest-serving elected governor was John M. Pattison, who died in office five months into his term. The current governor is John Kasich, who took office on January 10, 2011.

Governors[edit]

Initially after the American Revolution, parts of the area now known as Ohio were claimed by New York, Virginia, and Connecticut; however, New York ceded its claim in 1782, Virginia in 1784, and Connecticut in 1786, though it maintained its Western Reserve in the area until 1800.[7] On July 13, 1787, the Northwest Territory was formed. As territories were split from it, it eventually came to represent just present-day Ohio.[8]

Governors of Northwest Territory[edit]

Throughout its 15-year history, Northwest Territory had only one governor, Arthur St. Clair. He was removed from office by President Thomas Jefferson November 22, 1802, and no successor was named, with Charles Willing Byrd, Secretary of the Territory, becoming Acting Governor, serving until Tiffin was inaugurated March 3, 1803.[9] There was no Ohio Territory; Ohio is considered the successor state to the Northwest Territory.

#PictureGovernorAppointedLeft officePartyAppointed by
1ArthurStClairOfficialPortrait.jpgArthur St. Clair
(1737–1818)
October 5, 1787November 22, 1802[10]FederalistContinental Congress
[note 1]
2Charles Willing Byrd
(1770–1828)
November 22, 1802[9]March 3, 1803Democratic-Republicannot appointed, assumed acting governor when St. Clair removed[9]

Governors of the State of Ohio[edit]

Edward Tiffin, 1st Governor of Ohio
Thomas Corwin, 15th Governor of Ohio, and 20th U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Salmon P. Chase, 23rd Governor of Ohio, and 6th Chief Justice of the United States
Jacob Dolson Cox, 28th Governor of Ohio, and 10th U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Rutherford B. Hayes, 29th and 32nd Governor of Ohio, and 19th President of the United States
William McKinley, 39th Governor of Ohio, and 25th President of the United States
James M. Cox, 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio
John W. Bricker, 54th Governor of Ohio
Frank J. Lausche, 55th and 57th Governor of Ohio
George Voinovich, 65th Governor of Ohio

Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. Since then, it has had 62 governors, six of whom served non-consecutive terms.

The first constitution of 1803 allowed governors to serve for two years, limited to six of any eight years, commencing on the first Monday in the December following an election.[12] The current constitution of 1851 removed the term limit, and shifted the start of the term to the second Monday in January following an election.[11] In 1908, Ohio switched from holding elections in odd-numbered years to even-numbered years, with the preceding governor (from the 1905 election) serving an extra year.[13] A 1957 amendment[11] lengthened the term to four years and allowed governors to only succeed themselves once, having to wait four years after their second term in a row before being allowed to run again.[14] An Ohio Supreme Court ruling in 1973 clarified this to mean governors could theoretically serve unlimited terms, as long as they waited four years after every second term.[11]

Should the office of governor become vacant due to death, resignation, or conviction of impeachment, the lieutenant governor assumes the title of governor. Should the office of lieutenant governor also become vacant, the president of the senate becomes the acting governor.[15] If the vacancy of both offices took place during the first twenty months of the term, a special election is to be held on the next even-numbered year to elect new officers to serve out the current term.[16] Prior to 1851, the speaker of the senate acted as governor for the term.[17] Since 1974, the governor and lieutenant governor have been elected on the same ticket; prior to then, they could be (and often were) members of different parties.[11]

      Democratic (23)       Democratic-Republican (8)       Federalist (2)       National Republican (1)       Republican (30)       Whig (5)

#pictureGovernorTook officeLeft officePartyLt. Governor
[note 2]
Terms
[note 3]
1Portrait of Senator Edward Tiffin of Ohio.jpg Edward Tiffin
(1766–1829)
March 3, 1803March 4, 1807Democratic-
Republican
None1 12
[note 4]
2Thomas Kirker.png Thomas Kirker
(1760–1837)
March 4, 1807December 12, 1808Democratic-
Republican
12
[note 5]
3Samuel H. Huntington 002.png Samuel H. Huntington
(1765–1817)
December 12, 1808December 8, 1810Democratic-
Republican
1
[note 6]
4Return J. Meigs, Jr.jpg Return J. Meigs, Jr.
(1764–1825)
December 8, 1810March 24, 1814Democratic-
Republican
1 12
[note 7]
5Othniel Looker 002.png Othniel Looker
(1757–1845)
March 24, 1814December 8, 1814Democratic-
Republican
12
[note 5]
6Thomas Worthington (governor) 002.png Thomas Worthington
(1773–1827)
December 8, 1814December 14, 1818Democratic-
Republican
2
7Ethan Brown.jpg Ethan Allen Brown
(1776–1852)
December 14, 1818January 4, 1822Democratic-
Republican
1 12
[note 4]
8Allen Trimble 002.png Allen Trimble
(1783–1870)
January 4, 1822December 28, 1822Federalist12
[note 5]
9Jeremiah Morrow.jpg Jeremiah Morrow
(1771–1852)
December 28, 1822December 19, 1826Democratic-
Republican
2
10Allen Trimble.png Allen Trimble
(1783–1870)
December 19, 1826December 18, 1830Federalist2
11Duncan McArthur 002.png Duncan McArthur
(1772–1839)
December 18, 1830December 7, 1832National
Republican
1
12Robert lucas.jpg Robert Lucas
(1781–1853)
December 7, 1832December 12, 1836Democratic2
13Joseph Vance.jpg Joseph Vance
(1786–1852)
December 12, 1836December 13, 1838Whig1
14WShannon.jpg Wilson Shannon
(1802–1877)
December 13, 1838December 16, 1840Democratic1
15Thomas Corwin.png Thomas Corwin
(1794–1865)
December 16, 1840December 14, 1842Whig1
16Wilson Shannon (History of Ohio).png Wilson Shannon
(1802–1877)
December 14, 1842April 15, 1844Democratic12
[note 8]
17Thomas W. Bartley.png Thomas W. Bartley
(1812–1885)
April 15, 1844December 3, 1844Democratic12
[note 5]
18Mordecai Bartley 002.png Mordecai Bartley
(1783–1870)
December 3, 1844December 12, 1846Whig1
19William Bebb.png William Bebb
(1802–1873)
December 12, 1846January 22, 1849Whig1
[note 9]
20Seabury Ford 002.png Seabury Ford
(1801–1855)
January 22, 1849December 12, 1850Whig1
[note 9]
21Reuben Wood 002.png Reuben Wood
(1792–1864)
December 12, 1850July 13, 1853DemocraticNone1 12
[note 10]
[note 11]
 William Medill
22William Medill 002.png William Medill
(1802–1865)
July 13, 1853January 14, 1856Democraticvacant1 12
[note 12]
 James Myers
23Salmon-chase.jpg Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
January 14, 1856January 9, 1860Republican Thomas H. Ford2
 Martin Welker
24William Dennison, Jr.jpg William Dennison
(1815–1882)
January 9, 1860January 13, 1862Republican Robert C. Kirk1
25Governor David Tod.jpg David Tod
(1805–1868)
January 13, 1862January 11, 1864Republican Benjamin Stanton1
26JohnBrough.jpg John Brough
(1811–1865)
January 11, 1864August 29, 1865Republican Charles Anderson12
[note 13]
27CharlesAnderson1814.jpg Charles Anderson
(1814–1895)
August 29, 1865January 8, 1866Republicanvacant12
[note 14]
28Jacob Dolson Cox.png Jacob Dolson Cox
(1828–1900)
January 8, 1866January 13, 1868Republican Andrew McBurney1
29Rutherford B Hayes - head and shoulders.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
January 13, 1868January 8, 1872Republican John C. Lee2
30Edward Follansbee Noyes by Henry Howe.png Edward F. Noyes
(1832–1890)
January 8, 1872January 12, 1874Republican Jacob Mueller1
31WilliamAllen.jpg William Allen
(1803–1879)
January 12, 1874January 10, 1876Democratic Alphonso Hart1
32Appleton's Hayes Rutherford.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
January 10, 1876March 2, 1877Republican Thomas L. Young12
[note 15]
33TLYoung.jpg Thomas L. Young
(1832–1888)
March 2, 1877January 14, 1878Republican H. W. Curtiss (acting)12
[note 14]
34Richard M. Bishop - Brady-Handy.jpg Richard M. Bishop
(1812–1893)
January 14, 1878January 12, 1880Democratic Jabez W. Fitch1
35Charles Foster, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1865-1880.jpg Charles Foster
(1828–1904)
January 12, 1880January 14, 1884Republican Andrew Hickenlooper2
 Rees G. Richards
36George Hoadly from goss 1912.png George Hoadly
(1826–1902)
January 14, 1884January 11, 1886Democratic John George Warwick1
37Joseph Benson Foraker.jpg Joseph B. Foraker
(1846–1917)
January 11, 1886January 13, 1890Republican Robert P. Kennedy2
 Silas A. Conrad
 William C. Lyon
38James E. Campbell 002.png James E. Campbell
(1843–1924)
January 13, 1890January 11, 1892Democratic Elbert L. Lampson1
 William V. Marquis
39William mckinley.jpg William McKinley
(1843–1901)
January 11, 1892January 13, 1896Republican Andrew L. Harris2
40Asa S. Bushnell (Ohio Governor).png Asa S. Bushnell
(1834–1904)
January 13, 1896January 8, 1900Republican Asa W. Jones2
41George K Nash with signature.png George K. Nash
(1842–1904)
January 8, 1900January 11, 1904Republican John A. Caldwell2
 Carl L. Nippert
 Harry L. Gordon
42MTHerrick.jpg Myron T. Herrick
(1854–1929)
January 11, 1904January 8, 1906Republican Warren G. Harding1
43John M. Pattison 002.png John M. Pattison
(1847–1906)
January 8, 1906June 18, 1906Democratic Andrew L. Harris12
[note 13]
[note 16]
44Andrew Lintner Harris - oval.jpg Andrew L. Harris
(1835–1915)
June 18, 1906January 11, 1909Republicanvacant12
[note 14]
[note 16]
45JudsonHarmonLOC.jpg Judson Harmon
(1846–1927)
January 11, 1909January 13, 1913Democratic Francis W. Treadway2
 Atlee Pomerene
 Hugh L. Nichols
46Collier's 1921 Cox James M.png James M. Cox
(1870–1957)
January 13, 1913January 11, 1915Democratic W. A. Greenlund1
47Frank Bartlett Willis.jpg Frank B. Willis
(1871–1928)
January 11, 1915January 8, 1917Republican John H. Arnold1
48James M. Cox 1913.png James M. Cox
(1870–1957)
January 8, 1917January 10, 1921Democratic Earl D. Bloom2
 Clarence J. Brown
49HarryLDavis.jpg Harry L. Davis
(1878–1950)
January 10, 1921January 8, 1923Republican Clarence J. Brown1
50Alvin Victor Donahey.jpg A. Victor Donahey
(1873–1946)
January 8, 1923January 14, 1929Democratic Earl D. Bloom3
 Charles H. Lewis
 Earl D. Bloom
 William G. Pickrel
 George C. Braden
51Myers Y. Cooper.png Myers Y. Cooper
(1873–1958)
January 14, 1929January 12, 1931Republican John T. Brown1
52George White (Ohio).png George White
(1872–1953)
January 12, 1931January 14, 1935Democratic William G. Pickrel2
 Charles W. Sawyer
53MartinDavey.jpg Martin L. Davey
(1884–1946)
January 14, 1935January 9, 1939Democratic Harold G. Mosier2
 Paul P. Yoder
54John William Bricker (Gov., Sen. OH).jpg John W. Bricker
(1893–1986)
January 9, 1939January 8, 1945Republican Paul M. Herbert3
55L000122.jpg Frank J. Lausche
(1895–1990)
January 8, 1945January 13, 1947Democratic George D. Nye1
56Thomas J. Herbert (1921).png Thomas J. Herbert
(1894–1974)
January 13, 1947January 10, 1949Republican Paul M. Herbert1
57L000122.jpg Frank J. Lausche
(1895–1990)
January 10, 1949January 3, 1957Democratic George D. Nye3 12
[note 4]
 John William Brown
58John William Brown.jpeg John William Brown
(1913–1993)
January 3, 1957January 14, 1957Republicanvacant12
[note 14]
59C. William O'Neill.jpg C. William O'Neill
(1916–1978)
January 14, 1957January 12, 1959Republican Paul M. Herbert1
60Michael Disalle at 54th birthday -crop.jpg Michael DiSalle
(1908–1981)
January 12, 1959January 14, 1963Democratic John W. Donahey1
61Jim Rhodes in Bettsville, Ohio October 15, 1981.jpg Jim Rhodes
(1909–2001)
January 14, 1963January 11, 1971Republican John William Brown2
[note 17]
62John J. Gilligan crop.tif John J. Gilligan
(1921–2013)
January 11, 1971January 13, 1975Democratic John William Brown1
63Jim Rhodes in Bettsville, Ohio October 15, 1981.jpg Jim Rhodes
(1909–2001)
January 13, 1975January 10, 1983Republican Dick Celeste2
[note 17]
 George Voinovich
vacant
64Crop from March 10, 2000 photo of Dick Celeste.jpg Dick Celeste
(born 1937)
January 10, 1983January 14, 1991Democratic Myrl Shoemaker2
vacant
 Paul Leonard
65George Voinovich official portrait.jpg George Voinovich
(born 1936)
January 14, 1991December 31, 1998Republican Mike DeWine1 12
[note 4]
vacant
 Nancy Hollister
66 Nancy Hollister
(born 1949)
December 31, 1998January 11, 1999Republicanvacant12
[note 14]
67Hyland software thirdfrontiersummit 2002 Taft Hyland close cropped.jpg Bob Taft
(born 1942)
January 11, 1999January 8, 2007Republican Maureen O'Connor2
 Jennette Bradley
 Bruce Edward Johnson
vacant
68Tedstrickland.JPG Ted Strickland
(born 1941)
January 8, 2007January 10, 2011Democratic Lee Fisher1
69Governor John Kasich.jpg John Kasich
(born 1952)
January 10, 2011IncumbentRepublican Mary Taylor1
[note 18]

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of other governorships, congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions in foreign countries held by Ohio governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Ohio.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
NameGubernatorial termU.S. CongressOther offices heldSource
HouseSenate
Arthur St. Clair1789–1802President of the United States in Congress Assembled[19]
Edward Tiffin1803–1807S*Commissioner of the General Land Office, Surveyor General of the Northwest Territory[20]
Return J. Meigs, Jr.1810–1814S†District Judge for Michigan Territory, U.S. Postmaster General[21]
Thomas Worthington1814–1818S†[22]
Ethan Allen Brown1818–1822S*Commissioner of the General Land Office, Minister to Brazil[23]
Jeremiah Morrow1822–1826HS[24]
Duncan McArthur1830–1832H[25]
Robert Lucas1832–1836Governor of Iowa Territory[26]
Joseph Vance1836–1838H[27]
Wilson Shannon1838–1840
1842–1844
HMinister to Mexico*, Governor of Kansas Territory[28]
Thomas Corwin1840–1842HSMinister to Mexico, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury[29]
Mordecai Bartley1844–1846H[30]
William Medill1853–1856HFirst Comptroller of the United States Treasury, Commissioner of Indian Affairs[31]
Salmon P. Chase1856–1860SU.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Chief Justice of the United States[32]
William Dennison1860–1862U.S. Postmaster General, President of the D. C. Board of Commissioners[33]
David Tod1862–1864Minister to Brazil[34]
Jacob Dolson Cox1866–1868HU.S. Secretary of the Interior[35]
Rutherford B. Hayes1868–1872
1876–1877
HPresident of the United States*[36]
Edward F. Noyes1872–1874Minister to France[37]
William Allen1874–1876HS[38]
Thomas L. Young1877–1878H[39]
Charles Foster1880–1884HU.S. Secretary of the Treasury[40]
Joseph B. Foraker1886–1890S[41]
James E. Campbell1890–1892H[42]
William McKinley1892–1896HPresident of the United States[43]
Myron T. Herrick1904–1906Ambassador to France[37]
John M. Pattison1906H[44]
Judson Harmon1909–1913U.S. Attorney General[45]
James M. Cox1913–1915
1917–1921
H†[46]
Frank B. Willis1915–1917H†S[47]
A. Victor Donahey1923–1929S[48]
George White1931–1935H[49]
Martin L. Davey1935–1939H[50]
John W. Bricker1939–1945S[51]
Frank J. Lausche1945–1947
1949–1957
S*[52]
John J. Gilligan1971–1975H[53]
Dick Celeste1983–1991Ambassador to India[54]
George Voinovich1991–1998S*[55]
Ted Strickland2007–2011H[56]
John Kasich2011—H[57]

Living former governors[edit]

As of 26 August 2013, there are five living former governors, the oldest being George Voinovich (1991-1998, born 1936). The most recent death of a former governor was that of John J. Gilligan (1971-1975) on August 26, 2013, aged 92. The death of a former governor that served most recently was that of Jim Rhodes (1963–1971 and 1975–1983), on March 4, 2001, aged 91.

NameGubernatorial termDate of birth
Dick Celeste1983–1991(1937-11-11) November 11, 1937 (age 76)
George Voinovich1991–1998(1936-07-15) July 15, 1936 (age 78)
Nancy Hollister1998–1999(1949-05-22) May 22, 1949 (age 65)
Bob Taft1999–2007(1942-01-08) January 8, 1942 (age 72)
Ted Strickland2007–2011(1941-08-04) August 4, 1941 (age 73)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ St. Clair was appointed governor by the Continental Congress; being governor of the first territory of the United States, he predated presidential appointments (and indeed the presidency itself).[11]
  2. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was not created until the 1851 Constitution, first being filled in 1852.
  3. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  4. ^ a b c d Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  5. ^ a b c d As speaker of the senate, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  6. ^ The 1808 election was actually won by Return J. Meigs, Jr., but he was declared ineligible for office for failing the residency requirements.
  7. ^ Resigned to be U.S. Postmaster General.
  8. ^ Resigned to be Minister to Mexico.
  9. ^ a b William Bebb's term officially ended in December 1848. However, due to the large number of close elections that year, the general assembly was delayed in qualifying governor-elect Seabury Ford, and William Bebb remained in office for an extra few weeks.
  10. ^ Wood's first term was truncated to one year, due to the 1851 constitution moving elections one year back to odd-numbered years.
  11. ^ Resigned to be consul in Valparaíso, Chile.
  12. ^ As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term, with no lieutenant, and was subsequently elected in his own right.
  13. ^ a b Died in office.
  14. ^ a b c d e As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  15. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States.
  16. ^ a b A 1905 amendment to the state constitution shifted elections forward one year, to take place on even years; thus, Pattison's term (completed by Lt. Governor Harris) was extended to three years.[18]
  17. ^ a b Was prevented from running for a third term due to a limit on consecutive terms; ran successfully for a third term against the governor who followed his first terms, John Gilligan.
  18. ^ Governor Kasich's first term expires on January 12, 2015. He is not yet term limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "Ohio governor releases tax forms showing income". Associated Press. April 28, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  2. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 5
  3. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 10
  4. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 16
  5. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 8
  6. ^ Ohio Constitution article III § 11
  7. ^ "Ownership of the Northwest". Heritage Pursuit. Retrieved June 16, 2008. 
  8. ^ "Evolution of Territories and States from the Old "Northwest Territory"". John Lindquist. Retrieved June 16, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c Smith, William Henry, ed. (1882). The Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair 1. Robert Clarke and Company. p. 246. 
  10. ^ "History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County". Heritage Pursuit. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Steinglass, Steven H.; Scarselli, Gino J. (2004). The Ohio State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 0-313-26765-0. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  12. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 3
  13. ^ Article XVII (adopted November, 1905) of Constitution, section 2: "And the General Assembly shall have power to so extend existing terms of office as to effect the purpose of section 1 of this article." and section 3 : "Every elective officer holding office when this amendment is adopted shall continue to hold such office for the full term for which he was elected and until his successor shall be elected and qualified as provided by law." source: Sandles, A P; Doty, E W (eds.). The biographical annals of Ohio 1906-1907-1908 : A handbook of the Government and Institutions of the State of Ohio. State of Ohio. p. 123. 
  14. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 2
  15. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 15
  16. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 17
  17. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 12
  18. ^ "Andrew L. Harris". Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved June 30, 2008. 
  19. ^ "St. Clair, Arthur". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Tiffin, Edward". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Meigs, Return Jonathan, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  22. ^ "Worthington, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 30, 2008. 
  23. ^ "Brown, Ethan Allen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Morrow, Jeremiah". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  25. ^ "McArthur, Duncan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Robert Lucas". Ohio History Central. Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Vance, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Shannon, Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Corwin, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Bartley, Mordecai". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Medill, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Chase, Salmon Portland". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  33. ^ "William Dennison Jr.". Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Chiefs of Mission for Brazil". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Cox, Jacob Dolson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Hayes, Rutherford Birchard". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  37. ^ a b "Chiefs of Mission for France". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Allen, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Young, Thomas Lowry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Foster, Charles". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Foraker, Joseph Benson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Campbell, James". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  43. ^ "McKinley, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
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