List of Governors of New York

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The Governor of New York is the head of the executive branch of New York's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[1] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, to convene the New York legislature,[1] the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the legislature,[2] and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[3]

Fifty-six individuals have served as governor, four of whom served non-consecutive terms, totaling 60 distinct terms; the official numbering only lists each governor once, so there have officially been fifty-six governors. This numbering includes one acting governor: the lieutenant governor who filled the vacancy after the resignation of the governor, under the 1777 State Constitution.[4] The list does not include people who have acted as governor when the governor was out of state, such as Lt. Gov. Timothy L. Woodruff during Theodore Roosevelt's vice presidential campaign in 1900, or Acting Speaker of the New York State Assembly Moses M. Weinstein, who acted as governor for ten days in 1968 while the governor, the lieutenant governor, and the senate majority leader were out of the state, attending the Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida.[5]

Four men have become President of the United States after serving as Governor of New York: Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and six were Vice President of the United States. (Van Buren and Theodore Roosevelt held both offices.) Two governors have been Chief Justice of the United States: John Jay held that position when he was elected governor in 1795, and Charles Evans Hughes became chief justice in 1930, two decades after leaving the governorship.

The longest-serving governor was the first, George Clinton, who first took office on July 30, 1777, and served seven terms in two different periods, totaling just under 21 years in office. (As 18 of those years were consecutive, Clinton also served the longest consecutive period in office for a New York governor.) Charles Poletti had the shortest term, serving 29 days following the resignation of the previous governor in 1942. The current governor is Andrew Cuomo, who took office on January 1, 2011.

Governors[edit]

George Clinton, first Governor of New York, and 4th Vice President of the United States
John Jay, 2nd Governor of New York, and first Chief Justice of the United States
Daniel D. Tompkins, 4th Governor of New York, and 6th Vice President of the United States
DeWitt Clinton, 6th Governor of New York, and the Federalist nominee for the 1812 U.S. presidential election
Martin Van Buren, 9th Governor of New York, 8th Vice President of the United States, and 8th President of the United States
William H. Seward, 12th Governor of New York, and known for acquiring Alaska for the United States
Horatio Seymour, 18th Governor of New York, and the Democratic nominee for the 1868 U.S. presidential election
Samuel J. Tilden, 25th Governor of New York, and the Democratic nominee for the 1876 U.S. presidential election
Grover Cleveland, 28th Governor of New York, and 22nd and 24th President of the United States
Levi P. Morton, 31st Governor of New York, and 22nd Vice President of the United States
Theodore Roosevelt, 33rd Governor of New York, 25th Vice President of the United States, and 26th President of the United States
Charles Evans Hughes, 36th Governor of New York, 11th Chief Justice of the United States, and the Republican nominee for the 1916 U.S. presidential election
Al Smith, 42nd Governor of New York, and the Democratic nominee for the 1928 U.S. presidential election
Franklin D. Roosevelt, 44th Governor of New York, and 32nd President of the United States
Thomas E. Dewey, 47th Governor of New York, and the Republican nominee for the 1944 and 1948 U.S. presidential election
Nelson Rockefeller, 49th Governor of New York, and 41st Vice President of the United States
Andrew Cuomo, 56th Governor of New York (incumbent)

New York was one of the original thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on July 26, 1788. Prior to declaring its independence, New York was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain, which it in turn obtained from the Dutch as the colony of New Netherland; see the lists of colonial governors and of directors-general of New Netherland for the pre-statehood period.

The office of governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777. The governor was originally for a term of three years,[6] though the constitution did not specify when the term began. A 1787 law set the start of the term at July 1.[7] The New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821 amended the state constitution, reducing the term of office to two years,[8] moving the election to November,[9] and moving the beginning and the end of the term to coincide with the calendar year.[10] An 1874 amendment extended the term of office back to three years,[11] but the 1894 constitution again reduced it to two years.[12] The most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years.[13] There is no limit to the amount of consecutive terms a governor may serve.

The state constitution has provided since 1777 for the election of a lieutenant governor, who is also ex officio president of the state senate, to the same term (keeping the same term lengths as the governor throughout all the constitutional revisions). Originally, in the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, the lieutenant governor would become acting governor until the end of the yearly legislative term, the office being filled in a special election, if there was a remainder of the term.[14] Since the 1821 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office and serves for the entire remainder of the term.[15] Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate[note 1] performs all the duties of the lieutenant governor until the vacancy is filled either at the next gubernatorial election or by appointment.[note 2] Likewise, should both offices become vacant at the same time, the president pro tempore acts as governor, with the office of lieutenant governor remaining vacant. Should the presidency pro tempore be vacant too, or the incumbent unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession.[16] The lieutenant governor is elected on the same ticket as the governor, since 1954 with a single joint vote cast for both offices, but is nominated separately.[17]

      Democratic (26)       Democratic-Republican (9)       Federalist (1)       Republican (18)       Whig (5)

#GovernorTook officeLeft officePartyLt. GovernorTerms
[note 3]
1 George ClintonJuly 30, 1777June 30, 1795Democratic-
Republican
 Pierre Van Cortlandt6
[note 4]
[note 5]
2 John JayJuly 1, 1795June 30, 1801Federalist Stephen Van Rensselaer III2
1 George ClintonJuly 1, 1801June 30, 1804Democratic-
Republican
 Jeremiah Van Rensselaer1
3 Morgan LewisJuly 1, 1804June 30, 1807Democratic-
Republican
 John Broome1
4 Daniel D. TompkinsJuly 1, 1807February 24, 1817Democratic-
Republican
 John Broome3 12
[note 6]
 John Tayler (Acting)
 DeWitt Clinton
 John Tayler
5 John Tayler
(Acting)
[note 7]
February 24, 1817June 30, 1817Democratic-
Republican
 Philetus Swift (Acting)12
[note 8]
6 DeWitt ClintonJuly 1, 1817December 31, 1822Democratic-
Republican
 John Tayler2
[note 9]
7 Joseph C. YatesJanuary 1, 1823December 31, 1824Democratic-
Republican
 Erastus Root1
[note 10]
6 DeWitt ClintonJanuary 1, 1825February 11, 1828Democratic-
Republican
 James Tallmadge, Jr.1 12
[note 11]
 Nathaniel Pitcher
8 Nathaniel PitcherFebruary 11, 1828December 31, 1828Democratic-
Republican
 Peter R. Livingston (Acting)12
[note 12]
 Charles Dayan (Acting)
9 Martin Van BurenJanuary 1, 1829March 12, 1829Democratic Enos T. Throop12
[note 13]
10 Enos T. ThroopMarch 12, 1829December 31, 1832Democratic Charles Stebbins (Acting)1 12
[note 14]
 William M. Oliver (Acting)
 Edward Philip Livingston
11 William L. MarcyJanuary 1, 1833December 31, 1838Democratic John Tracy3
12 William H. SewardJanuary 1, 1839December 31, 1842Whig Luther Bradish2
13 William C. BouckJanuary 1, 1843December 31, 1844Democratic Daniel S. Dickinson1
14 Silas WrightJanuary 1, 1845December 31, 1846Democratic Addison Gardiner1
15 John YoungJanuary 1, 1847December 31, 1848Whig Addison Gardiner1
 Albert Lester (Acting)
 Hamilton Fish
16 Hamilton FishJanuary 1, 1849December 31, 1850Whig George Washington Patterson1
17 Washington HuntJanuary 1, 1851December 31, 1852Whig Sanford E. Church1
18 Horatio SeymourJanuary 1, 1853December 31, 1854Democratic Sanford E. Church1
19 Myron H. ClarkJanuary 1, 1855December 31, 1856Whig (fusion) Henry Jarvis Raymond1
20 John Alsop KingJanuary 1, 1857December 31, 1858Republican Henry R. Selden1
21 Edwin D. MorganJanuary 1, 1859December 31, 1862Republican Robert Campbell2
18 Horatio SeymourJanuary 1, 1863December 31, 1864Democratic David R. Floyd-Jones1
22 Reuben FentonJanuary 1, 1865December 31, 1868Union Thomas G. Alvord2
 Stewart L. Woodford
23 John Thompson HoffmanJanuary 1, 1869December 31, 1872Democratic Allen C. Beach2
24 John Adams DixJanuary 1, 1873December 31, 1874Republican John C. Robinson1
25 Samuel J. TildenJanuary 1, 1875December 31, 1876Democratic William Dorsheimer1
26 Lucius RobinsonJanuary 1, 1877December 31, 1879Democratic William Dorsheimer1
[note 15]
27 Alonzo B. CornellJanuary 1, 1880December 31, 1882Republican George Gilbert Hoskins1
28 Grover ClevelandJanuary 1, 1883January 6, 1885Democratic David B. Hill12
[note 16]
29 David B. HillJanuary 6, 1885December 31, 1891Democratic Dennis McCarthy (Acting)2 12
[note 14]
 Edward F. Jones
30 Roswell P. FlowerJanuary 1, 1892December 31, 1894Democratic William F. Sheehan1
31 Levi P. MortonJanuary 1, 1895December 31, 1896Republican Charles T. Saxton1
[note 17]
32 Frank S. BlackJanuary 1, 1897December 31, 1898Republican Timothy L. Woodruff1
33 Theodore RooseveltJanuary 1, 1899December 31, 1900Republican Timothy L. Woodruff1
34 Benjamin Barker Odell, Jr.January 1, 1901December 31, 1904Republican Timothy L. Woodruff2
 Frank W. Higgins
35 Frank W. HigginsJanuary 1, 1905December 31, 1906Republican M. Linn Bruce1
 John Raines (Acting)
36 Charles Evans HughesJanuary 1, 1907October 6, 1910Republican Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler1 12
[note 18]
 Horace White
37 Horace WhiteOctober 6, 1910December 31, 1910Republican George H. Cobb (Acting)12
[note 12]
38 John Alden DixJanuary 1, 1911December 31, 1912Democratic Thomas F. Conway1
39 William SulzerJanuary 1, 1913October 17, 1913Democratic Martin H. Glynn12
[note 19]
40 Martin H. GlynnOctober 17, 1913December 31, 1914Democratic Robert F. Wagner (Acting)12
[note 12]
41 Charles S. WhitmanJanuary 1, 1915December 31, 1918Republican Edward Schoeneck2
42 Al SmithJanuary 1, 1919December 31, 1920Democratic Harry C. Walker1
43 Nathan Lewis MillerJanuary 1, 1921December 31, 1922Republican Jeremiah Wood1
 Clayton R. Lusk (Acting)
42 Al SmithJanuary 1, 1923December 31, 1928Democratic George R. Lunn3
 Seymour Lowman
 Edwin Corning
44 Franklin D. RooseveltJanuary 1, 1929December 31, 1932Democratic Herbert H. Lehman2
45 Herbert H. LehmanJanuary 1, 1933December 3, 1942Democratic M. William Bray3 12
[note 20]
[note 21]
 Charles Poletti
46 Charles PolettiDecember 3, 1942December 31, 1942Democratic Joe R. Hanley (Acting)12
[note 12]
47 Thomas DeweyJanuary 1, 1943December 31, 1954Republican Thomas W. Wallace3
 Joe R. Hanley
 Frank C. Moore
 Arthur H. Wicks (Acting)
 Walter J. Mahoney (Acting)
48 W. Averell HarrimanJanuary 1, 1955December 31, 1958Democratic George DeLuca1
49 Nelson RockefellerJanuary 1, 1959December 18, 1973Republican Malcolm Wilson3 12
[note 22]
50 Malcolm WilsonDecember 18, 1973December 31, 1974Republican Warren M. Anderson (Acting)12
[note 12]
51 Hugh CareyJanuary 1, 1975December 31, 1982Democratic Mary Anne Krupsak2
 Mario Cuomo
52 Mario CuomoJanuary 1, 1983December 31, 1994Democratic Alfred DelBello3
 Warren M. Anderson (Acting)
 Stan Lundine
53 George PatakiJanuary 1, 1995December 31, 2006Republican Betsy McCaughey Ross3
 Mary O. Donohue
54 Eliot SpitzerJanuary 1, 2007March 17, 2008Democratic David Paterson12
[note 23]
55 David PatersonMarch 17, 2008December 31, 2010Democratic Joseph Bruno (Acting)12
[note 12]
 Dean Skelos (Acting)
 Malcolm Smith (Acting)
 Pedro Espada (Acting)
[note 24]
 Richard Ravitch (Contested)
[note 25]
 Malcolm Smith (Acting)
[note 26]
 Richard Ravitch
[note 27]
56 Andrew CuomoJanuary 1, 2011IncumbentDemocratic Robert Duffy1
[note 28]

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions to foreign countries held by New York governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented New York.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
NameGubernatorial termU.S. CongressOther offices heldSource
HouseSenate
George Clinton1777–1795
1801–1804
Delegate to the Continental Congress, Vice President of the United States[20]
John Jay1795–1801President of the Continental Congress, U.S. Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Minister to Spain, Chief Justice of the United States[21]
Daniel D. Tompkins1807–1817HVice President of the United States*[22]
DeWitt Clinton1817–1822
1825–1828
S[23]
Nathaniel Pitcher1828H[24]
Martin Van Buren1829S†U.S. Secretary of State*, Minister to the United Kingdom, Vice President of the United States, President of the United States[25]
Enos T. Throop1829–1832H[26]
William L. Marcy1833–1838S†U.S. Secretary of War, U.S. Secretary of State[27]
William H. Seward1839–1842SU.S. Secretary of State[28]
Silas Wright1845–1846HS†[29]
John Young1847–1848H[30]
Hamilton Fish1849–1850HSU.S. Secretary of State[31]
Washington Hunt1851–1852H[32]
John Alsop King1857–1858H[33]
Edwin D. Morgan1859–1862S[34]
Reuben Fenton1865–1868H†S[35]
John Adams Dix1873–1874SMinister to France, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury[36]
Grover Cleveland1883–1884President of the United States*[37]
David B. Hill1885–1891S[38]
Roswell P. Flower1892–1894H[39]
Levi P. Morton1895–1896HMinister to France, Vice President of the United States[40]
Frank S. Black1897–1898H†[41]
Theodore Roosevelt1899–1900Vice President of the United States, President of the United States[42]
Benjamin B. Odell, Jr.1901–1904H[43]
Charles Evans Hughes1907–1910U.S. Secretary of State, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court*, Chief Justice of the United States.
William Sulzer1913H†[44]
Martin H. Glynn1913–1914H[45]
Franklin D. Roosevelt1929–1932President of the United States[46]
Herbert H. Lehman1933–1942S[47]
W. Averell Harriman1955–1958U.S. Secretary of Commerce, Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ambassador to the Soviet Union[48]
Nelson Rockefeller1959–1973Vice President of the United States[49]
Hugh Carey1975–1982H†[50]
Andrew Cuomo2011—U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Living former governors[edit]

Four former governors are alive, the oldest being Mario Cuomo (1983–1994, born 1932). The most recent governor to die was Hugh Carey (1975–1982), on August 7, 2011.

NameGubernatorial termDate of birth
Mario Cuomo1983–1994(1932-06-15) June 15, 1932 (age 81)
George Pataki1995–2006(1945-06-24) June 24, 1945 (age 68)
Eliot Spitzer2007–2008(1959-06-10) June 10, 1959 (age 54)
David Paterson2008–2010(1954-05-20) May 20, 1954 (age 59)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The state constitutions refer to this position as the "temporary president of the senate"
  2. ^ On September 22, 2009, the New York Court of Appeals upheld the right of the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor to fill the vacancy.
  3. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  4. ^ There was no codified start for terms when Clinton took office; the date was set at July 1 in 1787, starting presumably in 1789.
  5. ^ Many sources state the early governors took office on April 1; however, the elections were held lasting three days beginning on the last Tuesday of April, with the oath of office being delivered on July 1.[18]
  6. ^ Resigned to be Vice President of the United States.
  7. ^ Under the Constitution of 1777, Tayler was acting governor until the end of the legislative year.
  8. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  9. ^ The length and dates of terms were changed in 1821, during DeWitt Clinton's second term, which then ended on December 31, 1822 instead of July 1, 1823.
  10. ^ As per the 1821 constitution, Yates' term was the first to last two years instead of three.
  11. ^ Died in office.
  12. ^ a b c d e f As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  13. ^ Resigned to be United States Secretary of State
  14. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in their own right.
  15. ^ As per an 1874 amendment to the constitution (taking effect January 1, 1875), Robinson's term was the first to last three years instead of two. As Tilden had been elected prior to the amendment taking effect, he served the old two-year term.[19]
  16. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States.
  17. ^ As per the 1894 constitution, Morton's term was the first to last two years instead of three.
  18. ^ Resigned to be an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
  19. ^ Impeached and removed from office for campaign contribution fraud.
  20. ^ As per the 1938 constitution, Lehman's fourth term, commencing January 1, 1939, was the first scheduled to last four years instead of two.
  21. ^ Resigned to be Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations at the U.S. Department of State
  22. ^ Resigned to devote himself to his Commission on Critical Choices for Americans.
  23. ^ Resigned due to a prostitution scandal
  24. ^ Espada is a Democrat, but combined with the Republicans in a change of leadership which triggered the 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis.
  25. ^ Ravitch was appointed on July 8, 2009, but the appointment was contested in the courts. On August 20, the Appellate Division rejected the appointment, and Ravitch de facto vacated the office.
  26. ^ Smith succeeded Espada on July 9 as Temporary President of the New York State Senate, and claimed to be Acting Lt. Gov. under the provisions of the New York State Constitution while the appointment of Ravitch was contested. Smith was de facto the sole occupant of the office from August 20 to September 22.
  27. ^ On September 22, the New York Court of Appeals reversed the Appellate Division's ruling, and thus re-instated Ravitch to the lieutenant governorship, beginning de jure on July 8.
  28. ^ Governor Cuomo's first term expires on December 31, 2014.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ a b New York Constitution article IV, § 3
  2. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 7
  3. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 4
  4. ^ "Governors of New York". State of New York. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  5. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 3, 2007). "Moses Weinstein, 95, Legislator and Judge, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2008. 
  6. ^ 1777 New York Constitution article XVIII
  7. ^ "Governors of New York". New York Department of State. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  8. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article III, § 1
  9. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article I, § 15
  10. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article I, § 16
  11. ^ John Joseph Lalor, ed. (1883). "New York". Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States II. Chicago: Melbert B. Cary & Company. p. 1017. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  12. ^ 1894 New York Constitution article IV, § 1
  13. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 1
  14. ^ 1777 New York Constitution article X
  15. ^ New York Constitution article IV § 5
  16. ^ New York Constitution article IV § 6
  17. ^ "Executive Branch of the Several States". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  18. ^ Jenkins, John S. (1851). Lives of the Governors of the State of New York. Auburn: Derby and Miller. p. 121. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  19. ^ Lincoln, Charles Z. (1906). The Constitutional History of New York II. Rochester, New York: The Lawyers Co-Operative Publishing Company. p. 512. ISBN 0-8476-9431-3. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  20. ^ "Clinton, George". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  21. ^ "John Jay". The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Tompkins, Daniel D.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Clinton, DeWitt". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Pitcher, Nathaniel". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  25. ^ "Martin, Van Buren". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  26. ^ "Throop, Enos Thompson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  27. ^ "March, William Learned". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  28. ^ "Seward, William Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Wright, Silas Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Young John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Fish, Hamilton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Hunt, Washington". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  33. ^ "King, John Alsop". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Morgan, Edwin Denison". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Fenton, Reuben Eaton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  36. ^ "Dix, John Adams". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Grover Cleveland". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Hill, David Bennett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Flower, Roswell Pettibone". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Morton, Levi Parsons". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Black, Frank Swett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  42. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Odell, Benjamin Barker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Sulzer, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  45. ^ "Glynn, Martin Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2008. 
  47. ^ "Lehman, Herbert Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Averell Harriman". HistoryCenteral.com. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Rockefeller, Nelson Aldrich". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Carey, Hugh Leo". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 

External links[edit]