List of Governors of Florida

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Governor of Florida
Seal of Florida.svg
Rick Scott.jpg
Incumbent
Rick Scott

since January 4, 2011
ResidenceFlorida Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderWilliam Dunn Moseley
Formation1845
DeputyCarlos López-Cantera, Lieutenant Governor
Salary$130,273 (2013)[1]
Websitewww.flgov.com
 
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Governor of Florida
Seal of Florida.svg
Rick Scott.jpg
Incumbent
Rick Scott

since January 4, 2011
ResidenceFlorida Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderWilliam Dunn Moseley
Formation1845
DeputyCarlos López-Cantera, Lieutenant Governor
Salary$130,273 (2013)[1]
Websitewww.flgov.com

The Governor of Florida is the head of the executive branch of Florida's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[2] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Florida Legislature,[3] to convene the legislature,[4] and to grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment.[5]

When Florida was first acquired by the United States, future president Andrew Jackson served as its military governor. Florida Territory was established in 1822, and five people served as governor over six distinct terms. The first territorial governor, William Pope Duval, served 12 years, the longest of any governor to date. Since statehood in 1845 there have been 43 people who have served as governor, one of whom served two distinct terms. Three state governors have served two full four-year terms: William D. Bloxham, in two stints; and Reubin Askew and Jeb Bush, who each served their terms consecutively. Bob Graham almost served two terms, as he resigned with only three days left. The shortest term in office belongs to Wayne Mixson, who served three days following the resignation of his predecessor.

The current governor is Rick Scott, who took office on January 4, 2011, following the 2010 election.

Governors[edit]

Military governor[edit]

For the a list of governors before Florida became a United States territory, see the list of colonial governors of Florida.

Spanish Florida was acquired from Spain in the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10, 1821.[6] Parts of West Florida had already been assigned to Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi; the remainder and East Florida were governed by the commander of the military force that had helped secure American influence in the region.

PictureGovernorTook officeLeft officeAppointed byNotes
Andrew Jackson.jpgAndrew JacksonMarch 10, 1821December 31, 1821James Monroe[a][b]

Governors of the Territory of Florida[edit]

Florida Territory was organized on March 30, 1822, combining East and West Florida.[11]

PictureGovernorTook officeLeft officeAppointed by
2 Duval.jpgWilliam Pope DuvalApril 17, 1822April 24, 1834James Monroe
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
John Eaton.jpgJohn EatonApril 24, 1834March 16, 1836Andrew Jackson
Richardkeithcall.jpgRichard K. CallMarch 16, 1836December 2, 1839Andrew Jackson
Robert Raymond Reid.jpgRobert R. ReidDecember 2, 1839March 19, 1841Martin Van Buren
Richardkeithcall.jpgRichard K. CallMarch 19, 1841August 11, 1844William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
JohnBranch2.jpgJohn BranchAugust 11, 1844June 25, 1845John Tyler

Governors of the State of Florida[edit]

The State of Florida was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845. It seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861,[12] and joined the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861,[13] as a founding member; there was no Union government in exile, so there was a single line of governors. Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Third Military District.[14] Florida was readmitted to the Union on June 25, 1868.[15]

The first Florida Constitution, ratified in 1838, provided that a governor be elected every four years, who was not allowed to serve consecutive terms.[16] The secessionist constitution of 1861 would have reduced this to two years and removed the term limit,[17] but the state fell to the Union before the first election under that constitution. The rejected constitution of 1865 and the ratified constitution of 1868 maintained the four-year term,[18][19] though without the earlier term limit, which was reintroduced in the 1885 constitution.[20] The current constitution of 1968 states that should the governor serve, or would have served had he not resigned, more than six years in two consecutive terms, he cannot be elected to the succeeding term.[21] The start of a term was set in 1885 at the first Tuesday after the first Monday in the January following the election,[20] where it has remained.[22]

Originally, the president of the state senate acted as governor should that office be vacant.[23] The 1865 and 1868 constitutions created the office of lieutenant governor,[24][25] who would similarly act as governor. This office was abolished in 1885, with the president of the senate again taking on that duty.[26] The 1968 constitution recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who now becomes governor in the absence of the governor.[27] The governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket.[21]

Florida was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic and Whig parties. It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 90 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

Parties

      Democratic (34)       Independent (1)[c]       Prohibition (1)       Provisional (1)       Republican (8)[c]       Whig (1)

#[d]GovernorPictureTerm startTerm endPartyLt. Governor[e][f]Terms[g]
1 William Dunn Moseley8 Moseley.jpgJune 25, 1845October 1, 1849DemocraticNone1
2Thomas BrownThomas Brown Florida.jpgOctober 1, 1849October 3, 1853Whig1
3James E. BroomeFlorida Governor James E. Broome.jpgOctober 3, 1853October 5, 1857Democratic1
4Madison S. PerryFlorida Governor Madison S. Perry.jpgOctober 5, 1857October 7, 1861Democratic1
5John MiltonJohn Milton Florida.jpgOctober 7, 1861April 1, 1865Democratic12[h]
6Abraham K. AllisonFlorida Governor Abraham K. Allison.jpgApril 1, 1865May 19, 1865Democratic12[i][j]
7William MarvinWilliam Marvin gv000486.jpgJuly 13, 1865December 20, 1865Provisional[k][l]
8David S. WalkerFlorida Governor David S. Walker.jpgDecember 20, 1865July 4, 1868Democratic William W. J. Kelly[m][k][n]
9Harrison ReedGovernor Harrison Reed of Florida.jpgJuly 4, 1868January 7, 1873RepublicanWilliam Henry Gleason[o]1[p]
Edmund C. Weeks[q]
Samuel T. Day
10Ossian B. HartOssian B Hart gv000469.jpgJanuary 7, 1873March 18, 1874RepublicanMarcellus Stearns12[r]
11Marcellus StearnsFlorida Governor Marcellus Stearns.pngMarch 18, 1874January 2, 1877RepublicanVacant12[s]
12George Franklin DrewFlorida Governor George Franklin Drew.jpgJanuary 2, 1877January 4, 1881DemocraticNoble A. Hull[t]1
13William D. BloxhamWilliam Bloxham.jpgJanuary 4, 1881January 7, 1885DemocraticLivingston W. Bethel1
14Edward A. PerryFlorida Governor Edward A. Perry.jpgJanuary 7, 1885January 8, 1889DemocraticMilton H. Mabry1
15Francis P. FlemingFPFleming.jpgJanuary 8, 1889January 3, 1893DemocraticNone1
16Henry L. MitchellHenry L Mitchell.jpgJanuary 3, 1893January 5, 1897Democratic1
17William D. BloxhamWilliam Bloxham.jpgJanuary 5, 1897January 8, 1901Democratic1
18William Sherman JenningsWilliam Sherman Jennings.jpgJanuary 8, 1901January 3, 1905Democratic1
19Napoleon B. BrowardNapoleon Bonaparte Broward.jpgJanuary 3, 1905January 5, 1909Democratic1
20Albert W. GilchristFlorida Governor Albert W. Gilchrist.jpgJanuary 5, 1909January 7, 1913Democratic1
21Park TrammellPark Trammell.jpgJanuary 7, 1913January 2, 1917Democratic1
22Sidney Johnston CattsSidney Johnston Catts.jpgJanuary 2, 1917January 4, 1921Prohibition1
23Cary A. HardeeCary Hardee portrait.jpgJanuary 4, 1921January 6, 1925Democratic1
24John W. MartinFlorida Governor John Martin.jpgJanuary 6, 1925January 8, 1929Democratic1
25Doyle E. CarltonDoyle E. Carlton.jpgJanuary 8, 1929January 3, 1933Democratic1
26David Sholtz33 Sholtz.jpgJanuary 3, 1933January 5, 1937Democratic1
27Fred P. ConeFlorida Governor Frederick Cone.jpgJanuary 5, 1937January 7, 1941Democratic1
28Spessard HollandSen Spessard Holland.jpgJanuary 7, 1941January 2, 1945Democratic1
29Millard F. CaldwellMillard F. Caldwell.jpgJanuary 2, 1945January 4, 1949Democratic1
30Fuller Warren37 Warren.jpgJanuary 4, 1949January 6, 1953Democratic1
31Daniel T. McCartyDaniel T. McCarty.jpgJanuary 6, 1953September 28, 1953Democratic13[r]
32Charley Eugene JohnsCharley Eugene Johns 1963.jpgSeptember 28, 1953January 4, 1955Democratic13[u]
33LeRoy CollinsLeRoy Collins.jpgJanuary 4, 1955January 3, 1961Democratic13+1[v]
34C. Farris BryantC. Farris Bryant.jpgJanuary 3, 1961January 5, 1965Democratic1
35W. Haydon BurnsW Haydon Burns.jpgJanuary 5, 1965January 3, 1967Democratic1[w]
36Claude R. Kirk, Jr.Governor Claude R Kirk.jpgJanuary 3, 1967January 5, 1971RepublicanNone1
Ray C. Osborne
37Reubin AskewFlorida Governor Reubin Askew.jpgJanuary 5, 1971January 2, 1979DemocraticThomas Burton Adams, Jr.2
Jim Williams
38Bob GrahamBob Graham, official Senate photo portrait, color.jpgJanuary 2, 1979January 3, 1987DemocraticWayne Mixson112[x]
39Wayne MixsonJohn Wayne Mixson.jpgJanuary 3, 1987January 6, 1987DemocraticVacant12[y]
40Bob MartinezBobmartinez.jpgJanuary 6, 1987January 8, 1991RepublicanBobby Brantley1
41Lawton ChilesLawton Chiles Governor portrait.jpgJanuary 8, 1991December 12, 1998DemocraticBuddy MacKay112[r]
42Buddy MacKay49 Mackay.jpgDecember 12, 1998January 5, 1999DemocraticVacant12[y]
43Jeb BushJeb Bush by Gage Skidmore.jpgJanuary 5, 1999January 2, 2007RepublicanFrank Brogan[z]2
Toni Jennings
44Charlie CristGov charlie crist.jpgJanuary 2, 2007January 4, 2011RepublicanJeff Kottkamp[m]1[aa]
Independent
45Rick ScottRick Scott.jpgJanuary 4, 2011IncumbentRepublicanJennifer Carroll[ab]2[ac]
Carlos López-Cantera

Other high offices held[edit]

Fourteen of Florida's governors have served higher federal offices, including one President of the United States, two Cabinet secretaries, and one ambassador. One served as Governor of North Carolina, and all fourteen were elected to the U.S. Congress, though only nine represented Florida, and only seven actually took their seats. One died before taking office, and the other was refused his seat by the U.S. Senate shortly after the American Civil War, because Florida had not yet been reconstructed. One governor (marked with *) resigned to take his seat in the Senate.

GovernorGubernatorial termOther offices heldSource
Andrew Jackson1821Representative and Senator from Tennessee, President of the United States[40]
William Pope Duval1822–1834Representative from Kentucky[41]
John Eaton1834–1836Senator from Tennessee, Minister to Spain, Secretary of War[42]
Richard K. Call1836–1839
1841–1844
Territorial Delegate from Florida Territory[43]
Robert R. Reid1839–1841Representative from Florida, Representative from Georgia[44]
John Branch1844–1845Representative and Senator from North Carolina, Governor of North Carolina, Secretary of the Navy[45]
William Marvin1865Elected to the Senate from Florida but was refused seat[46]
Napoleon B. Broward1905–1909Elected to the Senate from Florida but died before taking office[47]
Park Trammell1913–1917Senator from Florida[48]
Spessard Holland1941–1945Senator from Florida[49]
Millard F. Caldwell1945–1949Representative from Florida[50]
Bob Graham1979–1987Senator from Florida*[51]
Lawton Chiles1991–1998Senator from Florida[52]
Buddy MacKay1998–1999Representative from Florida[53]

Living former governors[edit]

As of September 2014, six former governors are alive, the oldest being Wayne Mixson (1987, born 1922). The most recent death of a former governor was that of Reubin Askew (1971–1979), on March 13, 2014. The most recently serving governor to die was Lawton Chiles, who died in office on December 12, 1998.

GovernorGubernatorial termDate of birth
Bob Graham1979–1987(1936-11-09) November 9, 1936 (age 78)
Wayne Mixson1987(1922-06-16) June 16, 1922 (age 92)
Bob Martinez1987–1991(1934-12-25) December 25, 1934 (age 79)
Buddy MacKay1998–1999(1933-03-22) March 22, 1933 (age 81)
Jeb Bush1999–2007(1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 61)
Charlie Crist2007–2011(1956-07-24) July 24, 1956 (age 58)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jackson's official titles were "Commissioner of the United States" and "Governor of East and West Florida".[7]
  2. ^ Jackson left Florida on October 8, 1821.[8] His resignation was submitted on November 13, 1821,[9] and the president accepted it on December 31, 1821.[10]
  3. ^ a b Includes one partial term served by a governor who represented another party during the same term.
  4. ^ The official numbering includes repeat terms, as well as the provisional governor.
  5. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1868, abolished in 1885, and recreated in 1968.
  6. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  7. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  8. ^ Died in office; Milton committed suicide due to the pending defeat of the Confederate States of America, stating in his final address to the legislature that "death would be preferable to reunion."[28]
  9. ^ As president of state senate, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  10. ^ Resigned to go into hiding from approaching Union troops, and was captured by them on June 19, 1865.[29] Following his resignation, Florida was without governance until a federal governor was appointed.
  11. ^ a b Appointed by President Andrew Johnson following the American Civil War.
  12. ^ The first governor elected under the 1861 constitution would have been elected in October 1865; however, due to the occupation of the state and drafting of a new constitution, no governor was elected under that constitution.
  13. ^ a b Represented the Republican Party.
  14. ^ Most sources state Walker was a Democrat; the state archives say he was "Conservative".[30]
  15. ^ During an attempted impeachment of Harrison Reed, Gleason proclaimed himself governor. The Supreme Court eventually sided with Reed, and Gleason was removed from office.[31]
  16. ^ Reed was popularly elected under the terms of the 1868 constitution, and took the oath of office on June 8, 1868; it was not until July 4, 1868, however, that the federal commander of Florida, still under Reconstruction, recognized the validity of the state constitution and the election.[32]
  17. ^ Appointed as temporary lieutenant governor to replace William Henry Gleason. However, the state comptroller did not believe the governor could appoint a replacement to an elected office and refused to pay Weeks, and the Senate refused to accept his presidency over them, even proposing a motion to arrest him. Governor Reed called for a special election to replace him, and though Weeks fought it, the Florida Supreme Court declared his term to have ended when the new election results were certified.[33]
  18. ^ a b c Died in office.
  19. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  20. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States House of Representatives; however, his election was successfully contested by Horatio Bisbee, Jr.[34]
  21. ^ As president of the state senate, acted as governor until a special election.
  22. ^ Elected in a special election to fill the remainder of Daniel McCarty's term, and subsequently elected in his own right.[35]
  23. ^ Burns' term was only two years as gubernatorial elections were moved so that they would not coincide with presidential elections.[36]
  24. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  25. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  26. ^ Resigned to become president of Florida Atlantic University.[37]
  27. ^ Crist was elected as a member of the Republican Party, and switched to independent in April 2010.[38]
  28. ^ Resigned amid a racketeering probe.[39]
  29. ^ Governor Scott's first term expires January 19, 2015. He won re-election on November 4, 2014, and when his second term expires on January 8, 2019, he will be term limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  2. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 1a
  3. ^ FL Const. art. III, § 8
  4. ^ FL Const. art. III, § 3c
  5. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 8
  6. ^ "Adams-Onís Treaty". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Andrew Jackson". State Library and Archives of Florida. Retrieved July 6, 2010. [dead link][dead link]
  8. ^ Morris, Allen; Joan Perry Morris (1999). The Florida Handbook, 1999–2000. Peninsular Books. ISBN 978-0-9616000-7-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  9. ^ Harold D. Moser, David R. Hoth, George H. Hoemann, ed. (1996). The Papers of Andrew Jackson: 1821–1824. University of Tennessee Press. p. 513. ISBN 0-87049-897-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  10. ^ Stanislaus Murray Hamilton, ed. (1902). The Writings of James Monroe. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 207. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  11. ^ Peters, Virginia Bergman (1979). The Florida Wars. Hamden: The Shoestring Press. pp. 63–74. ISBN 0-208-01719-4. 
  12. ^ "Florida and the Civil War" A Short History". Florida Memory. State Library & Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  13. ^ "February 1861–1865". This Day in History. Florida Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  14. ^ Cox, Merlin (January 1968). "Military Reconstruction in Florida". Florida Historical Quarterly 46 (3): 219. 
  15. ^ "June in Florida History". This Day in History. Florida Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  16. ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 2
  17. ^ 1861 Const. art. III, § 2
  18. ^ 1865 Const. art. III, § 2
  19. ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 2
  20. ^ a b 1885 Const. art. IV, § 2
  21. ^ a b FL Const. art. IV, § 5
  22. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 2
  23. ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 18
  24. ^ 1865 Const. art. III, § 19
  25. ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 15
  26. ^ 1885 Const. art. IV, § 19
  27. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 3
  28. ^ "Florida Governor John Milton". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Florida Governor Abraham Kurkindolle Allison". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  30. ^ "David Shelby Walker". State Library and Archives of Florida. Retrieved July 6, 2010. [dead link][dead link]
  31. ^ Davis, William Watson (1913). The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida, Volume 53. Columbia University. pp. 550–555. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Florida Governors' Portraits – Harrison Reed". Museum of Florida History. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  33. ^ Cases argued and adjudged in the Supreme Court of Florida XIII. State of Florida. 1871. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Hull, Noble Andrew". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Florida Governor Thomas Leroy Collins". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Florida Governor Haydon Burns". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Jeb's Boy". Broward-Palm Beach New Times (Ft. Lauderdale). Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Can Crist Win in Florida as an Independent?". Time. May 3, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  39. ^ Rachel Weiner (March 13, 2013). "Florida Lt. Gov. resigns amid racketeering probe". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Jackson, Andrew". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Duval, William Pope". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Eaton, John Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Call, Richard Keith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Reid, Robert Raymond". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Branch, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Florida Governor William Marvin". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  47. ^ "Florida Governor Napoleon Bonaparte Broward". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Trammell, Park". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Holland, Spessard Lindsey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Caldwell, Millard Fillmore". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Graham, Daniel Robert (Bob)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Chiles, Lawton Mainor, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  53. ^ "MacKay, Kenneth Hood, Jr. (Buddy)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010.