List of Governors of Connecticut

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Governor of Connecticut
Seal of the Governor of Connecticut.svg
DannelMalloy.jpg
Incumbent
Dannel Malloy

since January 5, 2011
StyleHis Excellency
ResidenceConnecticut Governor's Residence
Term lengthFour years
Inaugural holderJonathan Trumbull
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Connecticut
Salary$150,000 (2009)[1]
Websitewww.ct.gov/governor
 
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Governor of Connecticut
Seal of the Governor of Connecticut.svg
DannelMalloy.jpg
Incumbent
Dannel Malloy

since January 5, 2011
StyleHis Excellency
ResidenceConnecticut Governor's Residence
Term lengthFour years
Inaugural holderJonathan Trumbull
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Connecticut
Salary$150,000 (2009)[1]
Websitewww.ct.gov/governor

The Governor of Connecticut is the head of the executive branch of Connecticut's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Connecticut General Assembly and to convene the legislature.[2] Unusual among U.S. governors, the Governor of Connecticut has no power to pardon.[3]

There have been 68 governors of the state, serving 72 distinct spans in office. The longest terms in office were in the state's early years, when four governors were elected to nine or more one-year terms. The longest was that of the first governor, Jonathan Trumbull, who served over 14 years, but 7 of those as colonial governor; the longest-serving state governor — with no other position included in the term — was his son, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., who served over 11 years. The shortest term was that of Hiram Bingham III, who served only one day before resigning to take an elected seat in the U.S. Senate. Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., is noted for a rare third party win in American politics, having been elected to a term in 1990 representing A Connecticut Party. The current governor is Dan Malloy, who took office on January 5, 2011.

Governors[edit]

For the period before independence, see the list of colonial governors of Connecticut.

Connecticut was one of the original Thirteen Colonies and was admitted as a state on January 9, 1788.[4] Before it declared its independence, Connecticut was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Like most early states, Connecticut had claims to western areas, but did not cede all of its claims during the formation of the country like the other states. It maintained its Western Reserve until 1800, at which time it was reassigned to the Northwest Territory.[5]

The current Constitution of Connecticut, ratified in 1965, calls for a four-year term for the governor,[6] commencing on the Wednesday after the first Monday in the January following an election.[7] The previous constitution of 1818 originally had only a one-year term for governor; this was increased to two years in 1875,[8] and four years in 1948.[9] The 1875 amendment also set the start date of the term to its current date; before then, it was the first Wednesday in the May following an election.[10] The constitution provides for the election of a lieutenant governor for the same term as the governor. The two offices are elected on the same ticket; this provision was added in 1962.[11] In the event of a vacancy in the office of governor, the lieutenant governor becomes governor.[12] Before the adoption of the 1965 constitution, the lieutenant governor only acted as governor.[13] There is no limit of any kind on the number of terms one may serve.

Connecticut did not create a state constitution for itself until several decades after it became a state; until 1818, the state operated under the provisions of its colonial charter. The charter called for the election of a governor every year, but not more than once every two years, with the term commencing on the second Thursday in May.[14]

      A Connecticut Party (1)       American (1)       Democratic (22)[a]       Democratic-Republican (2)       Federalist (7)       National Republican (1)       No party (1)       Republican (32)[a]       Whig (6)

Jonathan Trumbull, first Governor of the State of Connecticut, 16th governor overall
Roger Sherman Baldwin, 32nd Governor of Connecticut, famous for his defense in the Amistad case.
Thomas H. Seymour, 36th Governor of Connecticut
Marshall Jewell, 44th and 46th Governor of Connecticut, and 25th U.S. Postmaster General
Morgan Bulkeley, 54th Governor of Connecticut, and first president of the National League
Hiram Bingham III, 69th Governor of Connecticut, famous for rediscovering Macchu Picchu
Raymond E. Baldwin, 72nd and 74th Governor of Connecticut
Ella T. Grasso, 83rd and first female Governor of Connecticut
Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., 85th Governor of Connecticut
#[b]GovernorTerm startTerm endPartyLt. Governor[c][d]Terms[e]
16 Jonathan TrumbullOctober 1, 1769May 13, 1784No party Matthew Griswold14 12[f][g]
17Matthew GriswoldMay 13, 1784May 11, 1786FederalistSamuel Huntington2
18Samuel HuntingtonMay 11, 1786January 5, 1796FederalistOliver Wolcott9 12[h]
19Oliver WolcottJanuary 5, 1796December 1, 1797FederalistJonathan Trumbull, Jr.12+12[i][h]
20Jonathan Trumbull, Jr.December 1, 1797August 7, 1809FederalistJohn Treadwell10 12+12[i][h]
21John TreadwellAugust 7, 1809May 9, 1811FederalistRoger Griswold[j]1 12[i]
22Roger GriswoldMay 9, 1811October 25, 1812FederalistJohn Cotton Smith12[h]
23John Cotton SmithOctober 25, 1812May 8, 1817FederalistChauncey Goodrich[h]4 12[i]
24Oliver Wolcott, Jr.May 8, 1817May 2, 1827Toleration
Republican
Jonathan Ingersoll[h]10[k]
David Plant[l]
25Gideon TomlinsonMay 2, 1827March 2, 1831Democratic-
Republican
John Samuel Peters3 12[m]
26John Samuel PetersMarch 2, 1831May 1, 1833National
Republican
Thaddeus Betts2 12[i]
27Henry W. EdwardsMay 1, 1833May 7, 1834DemocraticEbenezer Stoddard1
28Samuel A. FootMay 7, 1834May 6, 1835WhigThaddeus Betts1
29Henry W. EdwardsMay 6, 1835May 2, 1838DemocraticEbenezer Stoddard3
30William W. EllsworthMay 2, 1838May 4, 1842WhigCharles Hawley4
31Chauncey Fitch ClevelandMay 4, 1842May 1, 1844DemocraticWilliam S. Holabird2
32Roger Sherman BaldwinMay 1, 1844May 6, 1846WhigReuben Booth2
33Isaac TouceyMay 6, 1846May 5, 1847DemocraticNoyes Billings1[n]
34Clark BissellMay 5, 1847May 2, 1849WhigCharles J. McCurdy2
35Joseph TrumbullMay 2, 1849May 4, 1850WhigThomas Backus1
36Thomas H. SeymourMay 4, 1850October 13, 1853DemocraticCharles H. Pond3 12[o]
Green Kendrick
Charles H. Pond
37Charles H. PondOctober 13, 1853May 3, 1854DemocraticVacant12[p]
38Henry DuttonMay 3, 1854May 2, 1855WhigAlexander H. Holley1
39William T. MinorMay 2, 1855May 6, 1857AmericanWilliam Field2
Albert Day
40Alexander H. HolleyMay 6, 1857May 5, 1858RepublicanAlfred A. Burnham1
41William A. BuckinghamMay 5, 1858May 2, 1866RepublicanJulius Catlin8
Benjamin Douglas
Roger Averill
42Joseph R. HawleyMay 2, 1866May 1, 1867RepublicanOliver Winchester1
43James E. EnglishMay 1, 1867May 5, 1869DemocraticEphraim H. Hyde2
44Marshall JewellMay 5, 1869May 4, 1870RepublicanFrancis Wayland1
45James E. EnglishMay 4, 1870May 16, 1871DemocraticJulius Hotchkiss1
46Marshall JewellMay 16, 1871May 7, 1873RepublicanMorris Tyler2[q]
47Charles R. IngersollMay 7, 1873January 3, 1877DemocraticGeorge G. Sill3[r]
48Richard D. HubbardJanuary 3, 1877January 9, 1879DemocraticFrancis Loomis1[s]
49Charles B. AndrewsJanuary 9, 1879January 5, 1881RepublicanDavid Gallup1
50Hobart B. BigelowJanuary 5, 1881January 3, 1883RepublicanWilliam H. Bulkeley1
51Thomas M. WallerJanuary 3, 1883January 8, 1885DemocraticGeorge G. Sumner1
52Henry B. HarrisonJanuary 8, 1885January 7, 1887RepublicanLorrin A. Cooke1
53Phineas C. LounsburyJanuary 7, 1887January 10, 1889RepublicanJames L. Howard1
54Morgan G. BulkeleyJanuary 10, 1889January 4, 1893RepublicanSamuel E. Merwin2[t]
55Luzon B. MorrisJanuary 4, 1893January 9, 1895DemocraticErnest Cady1
56Owen Vincent CoffinJanuary 9, 1895January 6, 1897RepublicanLorrin A. Cooke1
57Lorrin A. CookeJanuary 6, 1897January 4, 1899RepublicanJames D. Dewell1
58George E. LounsburyJanuary 4, 1899January 9, 1901RepublicanLyman A. Mills1
59George P. McLeanJanuary 9, 1901January 7, 1903RepublicanEdwin O. Keeler1
60Abiram ChamberlainJanuary 7, 1903January 4, 1905RepublicanHenry Roberts1
61Henry RobertsJanuary 4, 1905January 9, 1907RepublicanRollin S. Woodruff1
62Rollin S. WoodruffJanuary 9, 1907January 6, 1909RepublicanEverett J. Lake1
63George L. LilleyJanuary 6, 1909April 21, 1909RepublicanFrank B. Weeks12[h]
64Frank B. WeeksApril 21, 1909January 4, 1911RepublicanVacant12[p]
65Simeon E. BaldwinJanuary 4, 1911January 6, 1915DemocraticDennis A. Blakeslee[u]2
Lyman T. Tingier
66Marcus H. HolcombJanuary 6, 1915January 5, 1921RepublicanClifford B. Wilson3
67Everett J. LakeJanuary 5, 1921January 3, 1923RepublicanCharles A. Templeton1
68Charles A. TempletonJanuary 3, 1923January 7, 1925RepublicanHiram Bingham III1
69Hiram Bingham IIIJanuary 7, 1925January 8, 1925RepublicanJohn H. Trumbull12[m]
70John H. TrumbullJanuary 8, 1925January 7, 1931RepublicanJ. Edwin Brainard[v]2 12[i]
Ernest E. Rogers
71Wilbur Lucius CrossJanuary 7, 1931January 4, 1939DemocraticSamuel R. Spencer[u]4
Roy C. Wilcox[u]
T. Frank Hayes
72Raymond E. BaldwinJanuary 4, 1939January 8, 1941RepublicanJames L. McConaughy1
73Robert A. HurleyJanuary 8, 1941January 6, 1943DemocraticOdell Shepard1
74Raymond E. BaldwinJanuary 6, 1943December 27, 1946RepublicanWilliam L. Hadden1 12[m]
Charles W. Snow[w]
75Charles W. SnowDecember 27, 1946January 8, 1947DemocraticVacant12[p]
76James L. McConaughyJanuary 8, 1947March 7, 1948RepublicanJames C. Shannon12[h]
77James C. ShannonMarch 7, 1948January 5, 1949RepublicanRobert E. Parsons[v]12[p]
78Chester BowlesJanuary 5, 1949January 3, 1951DemocraticWilliam T. Carroll1
79John Davis LodgeJanuary 3, 1951January 5, 1955RepublicanEdward N. Allen1[x]
80Abraham A. RibicoffJanuary 5, 1955January 21, 1961DemocraticCharles W. Jewett1 12[y]
John N. Dempsey
81John N. DempseyJanuary 21, 1961January 6, 1971DemocraticAnthony J. Armentano[v]2 12[i]
Samuel J. Tedesco[z]
Fred J. Doocy[aa]
Attilio R. Frassinelli
82Thomas J. MeskillJanuary 6, 1971January 8, 1975RepublicanT. Clark Hull[z]1
Peter L. Cashman[aa]
83Ella T. GrassoJanuary 8, 1975December 31, 1980DemocraticRobert K. Killian1 12[ab]
William A. O'Neill
84William A. O'NeillDecember 31, 1980January 9, 1991DemocraticJoseph J. Fauliso[aa]2 12[ac]
85Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.January 9, 1991January 4, 1995A Connecticut PartyEunice Groark1
86John G. RowlandJanuary 4, 1995July 1, 2004RepublicanJodi Rell2 12[ad]
87Jodi RellJuly 1, 2004January 5, 2011RepublicanKevin Sullivan[w][aa]1 12[ac]
Michael Fedele
88Dannel MalloyJanuary 5, 2011IncumbentDemocraticNancy Wyman1[ae]

Other high offices held[edit]

Thirty-three governors have served other high office, including four Cabinet secretaries (one of whom served in two different departments) and four ambassadors. One served as a judge on a U.S. Court of Appeals. Three represented Connecticut in the Continental Congress and 28 have represented the state in the U.S. Congress, including one Speaker of the House. Four (marked with *) resigned to take other offices, and one (marked with dagger) resigned his seat in the U.S. House to take office as governor.

All representatives and senators listed represented Connecticut.

GovernorGubernatorial termOther offices heldSource
Huntington, SamuelSamuel Huntington1786–1796Continental Delegate (including President of the Continental Congress)[23]
Wolcott, OliverOliver Wolcott1796–1797Continental Delegate[24]
Trumbull, Jr., JonathanJonathan Trumbull, Jr.1797–1809Representative (including Speaker of the House), Senator[25]
Treadwell, JohnJohn Treadwell1809–1811Continental Delegate[26]
Griswold, RogerRoger Griswold1811–1812Representative[27]
Smith, John CottonJohn Cotton Smith1812–1817Representative[28]
Wolcott, Jr., OliverOliver Wolcott, Jr.1817–1827Secretary of the Treasury[29]
Tomlinson, GideonGideon Tomlinson1827–1831Representative, Senator*[30]
Edwards, Henry W.Henry W. Edwards1833–1834, 1835–1838Representative, Senator[31]
Foot, Samuel A.Samuel A. Foot1834–1835Representativedagger, Senator[32]
Ellsworth, William W.William W. Ellsworth1838–1842Representative[33]
Cleveland, Chauncey FitchChauncey Fitch Cleveland1842–1843Representative[34]
Baldwin, Roger ShermanRoger Sherman Baldwin1844–1846Senator[35]
Toucey, IsaacIsaac Toucey1846–1847Representative, Senator, Attorney General, Secretary of the Navy[18]
Trumbull, JosephJoseph Trumbull1849–1850Representative[36]
Seymour, Thomas HartThomas Hart Seymour1850–1853Representative, Minister to Russia*[37]
Buckingham, William A.William A. Buckingham1858–1866Senator[38]
Hawley, Joseph R.Joseph R. Hawley1866–1867Representative, Senator[39]
English, James E.James E. English1867–1869, 1870–1871Representative, Senator[40]
Jewell, MarshallMarshall Jewell1869–1870, 1871–1873Minister to Russia, Postmaster General[41]
Hubbard, Richard D.Richard D. Hubbard1878–1879Representative[42]
Bulkeley, Morgan G.Morgan G. Bulkeley1889–1893Senator[43]
McLean, George P.George P. McLean1901–1903Senator[44]
Lilley, George L.George L. Lilley1909Representative[45]
Bingham III, HiramHiram Bingham III1925Senator[46]
Baldwin, Raymond E.Raymond E. Baldwin1939–1941, 1943–1946Senator*[47]
Bowles, ChesterChester Bowles1949–1951Representative, Ambassador to India, Ambassador to Nepal[48]
Lodge, John DavisJohn Davis Lodge1951–1955Representative, Ambassador to Argentina, Ambassador to Spain, Ambassador to Switzerland[49]
Ribicoff, Abraham A.Abraham A. Ribicoff1955–1961Representative, Senator, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare*[50]
Meskill, Thomas J.Thomas J. Meskill1971–1975Representative, Second Circuit Court Judge[51]
Grasso, Ella T.Ella T. Grasso1975–1980Representative[52]
Weicker, Jr., Lowell P.Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.1991–1995Representative, Senator[53]
Rowland, John G.John G. Rowland1995–2004Representative[54]

Living former governors[edit]

As of August 2014, there are three living former governors, the oldest being Lowell P. Weicker, Jr (1991–1995, born 1931). The most recent death of a former governor was that of William O'Neill (1980–1991), who died on November 24, 2007; he is also the most recently serving governor to have died.

GovernorTerm of officeDate of birth
Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.1991–1995(1931-05-16) May 16, 1931 (age 83)
John G. Rowland1995–2004(1957-05-24) May 24, 1957 (age 57)
M. Jodi Rell2004–2011(1946-06-16) June 16, 1946 (age 68)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Includes two terms served by repeat governors.
  2. ^ According to the Connecticut State Library, the official listing goes back to the first governor of Connecticut Colony in 1639, and did not include repeat governors serving non-consecutive terms in the colonial period; this makes Trumbull the 16th governor.[15] The official numbering since statehood includes repeat and acting governors.
  3. ^ The office of Lieutenant Governor was known as Deputy-Governor under the colonial charter, but the name 'Lieutenant Governor' was predominantly used after independence.[14]
  4. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  5. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show how many times a governor was elected, and to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  6. ^ The Connecticut General Assembly approved the United States Declaration of Independence on October 10, 1776, and resolved that the state's government would continue as established under the charter. So, as colonial governor, Jonathan Trumbull became state governor, serving roughly 7 12 years.[16]
  7. ^ As deputy governor, became governor upon the death of William Pitkin.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Died in office.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in their own right.
  10. ^ Appointed by the general assembly to fill the vacant Lieutenant Governor office.[17]
  11. ^ Wolcott was the first governor elected under the provisions of the 1818 constitution, which shifted the start date of his third term from May 13 to May 5.
  12. ^ Represented the National Republican Party.
  13. ^ a b c Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  14. ^ Lost election, but was appointed by state legislature.[18]
  15. ^ Resigned to be U.S. Minister to Russia.
  16. ^ a b c d As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  17. ^ James English won the popular vote, but a canvassing committee found the election was fraudulent, and named Jewell governor several days into the term.[19]
  18. ^ The end date of Ingersoll's term was moved back from May 3, 1876, to January 3, 1877, due to the adoption of the 26th amendment to the state constitution.
  19. ^ Hubbard was the first governor elected under the provisions of the 26th amendment to the state constitution, increasing term lengths to two years and moving the start date of his term to January 3.
  20. ^ Morgan Bulkeley did not run for re-election in 1890, but due to such a close contest and controversies, the results were not certified, and the legislature spent two years debating the issue; Bulkeley essentially served as governor by default.[20]
  21. ^ a b c Represented the Republican Party.
  22. ^ a b c As president pro tempore of the state senate, filled vacancy in office of lieutenant governor.[17]
  23. ^ a b Represented the Democratic Party.
  24. ^ John Davis Lodge was the first governor elected under the provisions of the 45th amendment to the state constitution, lengthening terms to four years.
  25. ^ Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.
  26. ^ a b Resigned to become a superior court judge.[17]
  27. ^ a b c d As president pro tempore of the state senate, became lieutenant governor.[17]
  28. ^ Resigned due to ovarian cancer.
  29. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in their own right.
  30. ^ Resigned due to a federal corruption investigation;[21] he later pleaded guilty to corruption.[22]
  31. ^ Governor Malloy's first term expires on January 7, 2015.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "Salaries of Governor and Lieutenant Governor. Office of Governor full time". General Statutes of Connecticut (2009). Connecticut General Assembly. Retrieved July 3, 2010. 
  2. ^ CT Const. art. IV
  3. ^ "Pardons Power in Connecticut". Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  4. ^ "Today in History: January 9". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 21, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Research Guide to Connecticut's "Western Lands" or "Western Reserve"". Connecticut State Library. Retrieved February 21, 2009. 
  6. ^ CT Const. art. IV, § 1
  7. ^ CT Const. art. IV, § 2
  8. ^ 1818 Const. amendment XVI
  9. ^ 1818 Const. amendment XLV
  10. ^ 1818 Const. art. IV § 1
  11. ^ 1818 Const. new amendment VII
  12. ^ CT Const. art. IV § 19
  13. ^ 1818 Const. art. IV § 14
  14. ^ a b 1662 Charter
  15. ^ "Roster of Connecticut Governors". Connecticut State Library. Retrieved April 4, 2008. 
  16. ^ "Jonathan Trumbull". Connecticut State Library. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Brief Descriptions of Connecticut State Agencies: Lieutenant Governor". Connecticut State Library. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  18. ^ a b "Toucey, Issac". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Connecticut Governor James Edward English". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 24, 2009. [dead link]
  20. ^ "Connecticut Governor Morgan Gardner Bulkeley". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 24, 2009. [dead link]
  21. ^ William Yardley; Stacey Stowe; Avi Salzman and Alison Leigh Cowan (June 22, 2004). "Connecticut's Governor Steps Down". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ Robert D. McFadden (December 24, 2004). "An Ex-Governor Says He's Guilty". The New York Times. 
  23. ^ "Huntington, Samuel". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Wolcott, Oliver". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Treadwell, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Griswold, Roger". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Smith, John Cotton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Connecticut Governor Oliver Wolcott". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 22, 2009. [dead link]
  30. ^ "Tomlinson, Gideon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Edwards, Henry Waggaman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Foot, Samuel Augustus". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Ellsworth, William Wolcott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Cleveland, Chauncey Fitch". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Baldwin, Roger Sherman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Trumbull, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Seymour, Thomas Hart". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  38. ^ "Buckingham, William Alfred". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Hawley, Joseph Roswell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  40. ^ "English, James Edward". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  41. ^ "Connecticut Governor Marshall Jewell". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 22, 2009. [dead link]
  42. ^ "Hubbard, Richard Dudley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  43. ^ "Bulkeley, Morgan Gardner". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  44. ^ "McLean, George Payne". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Lilley, George Leavens". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  46. ^ "Bingham, Hiram". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  47. ^ "Baldwin, Raymond Earl". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  48. ^ "Bowles, Chester Bliss". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Lodge, John Davis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Ribicoff, Abraham Alexander". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Meskill, Thomas Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Grasso, Ella Tambussi". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  53. ^ "Weicker, Lowell Palmer, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  54. ^ "Rowland, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 

External links[edit]