List of Governors of Arkansas

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Governor of Arkansas
Seal of Arkansas.svg
MikeBeebeGovernorCropped.jpg
Incumbent
Mike Beebe

since January 09, 2007
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceArkansas Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderJames Sevier Conway
Formation1836; Constitution of Arkansas
SuccessionEvery four years, unless re-elected.
 
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Governor of Arkansas
Seal of Arkansas.svg
MikeBeebeGovernorCropped.jpg
Incumbent
Mike Beebe

since January 09, 2007
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceArkansas Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderJames Sevier Conway
Formation1836; Constitution of Arkansas
SuccessionEvery four years, unless re-elected.

The Governor of Arkansas is the head of the executive branch of Arkansas's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Arkansas Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[1]

The state has had 45 elected governors, as well as 10 acting governors who took office following the resignation or death of the governor, totaling 55 distinct terms. Before becoming a state, Arkansas Territory had four governors appointed to it by the President of the United States. Orval Faubus served the longest term as state governor, being elected six times to serve twelve years. Bill Clinton, elected five times over two distinct terms, fell only one month short of twelve years. The shortest term for an elected governor was the 38 days served by John Sebastian Little before his nervous breakdown; one of the acting successors to his term, Jesse M. Martin, served only three days, the shortest stint overall. The current governor is Mike Beebe, who took office on January 9, 2007; his second term will expire on January 13, 2015.

Governors[edit]

Governors of the Territory of Arkansas[edit]

For the period before Arkansas Territory was formed, see the list of Governors of Missouri Territory.

Arkansaw Territory (renamed Arkansas Territory around 1822[a]) was split from Missouri Territory on July 4, 1819. It lost land twice, on November 15, 1824, and May 6, 1828, with the land being made unorganized territory both times; this land eventually became part of Oklahoma.

As secretary of the territory from 1819 to 1829, Robert Crittenden served as acting governor whenever the appointed governor was not in the state. This meant he was in fact the first person to perform the office of Governor of Arkansas Territory, since James Miller did not arrive in the territory until nine months after his appointment.[3]

PictureGovernorTook officeLeft officeAppointed byNotes
AR Miller James.jpgJames MillerMarch 3, 1819December 27, 1824James Monroe[b][c]
George Izard.jpgGeorge IzardMarch 4, 1825November 22, 1828James Monroe[d][e]
John Quincy Adams
AR Pope John.jpgJohn PopeMarch 9, 1829[7]March 9, 1835Andrew Jackson[f][g]
WSFulton.jpgWilliam S. FultonMarch 9, 1835June 15, 1836Andrew Jackson[h]

Governors of the State of Arkansas[edit]

James Sevier Conway, first Governor of Arkansas
Augustus Hill Garland, 11th Governor of Arkansas, and 39th U.S. Attorney General
Sid McMath, 34th Governor of Arkansas
Dale Bumpers, 38th Governor of Arkansas
Bill Clinton, 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas, and 42nd President of the United States
Mike Huckabee, 44th Governor of Arkansas

Arkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836. It seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America on May 18, 1861; there was no Union government in exile, so there was a single line of governors, though as the state fell to Union forces there was a loyalist government put in place with an insignificant Confederate government in exile. Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Fourth Military District. Arkansas was readmitted to the Union on June 22, 1868.

The first state constitution of 1836 established four-year terms for governors,[11] which was lowered to two years in the 1874, and current, constitution.[12] Amendment 63 to the Arkansas Constitution, passed in 1984, increased the terms of both governor and lieutenant governor to four years.[13] Governors were originally limited only to serving no more than eight out of every twelve years,[11] but the 1874 constitution removed any term limit. A referendum in 1992 limited governors to two terms.[14]

Until 1864, the constitutions provided that, should the office of governor be rendered vacant, the president of the senate would serve as acting governor until such time as a new governor were elected or the disability removed, or the acting governor's senate term expired.[15][16] This led to some situations where the governorship changed hands in quick succession, due to senate terms ending or new senate presidents being elected. For example, after John Sebastian Little resigned in 1907, three senate presidents acted as governor before the next elected governor took office. Should the president of the senate be similarly incapacitated, the next in line for the governorship was the speaker of the state house of representatives.

The 1864 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor[17] who would also act as president of the senate,[18] and who would serve as acting governor in case of vacancy.[19] The 1868 constitution maintained the position,[20] but the 1874 constitution removed it and returned to the original line of succession.[21] Amendment 6 to the state constitution, passed in 1914 but not recognized until 1925,[22] recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who becomes governor in case of vacancy of the governor's office.[23] The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket.

Arkansas was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic party. It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 92 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

      Democratic (48)[i]       Republican (7)[j]

#[k]GovernorTerm startTerm endPartyLt. Governor[l][m]Terms[n]
1 James Sevier ConwaySeptember 13, 1836November 4, 1840DemocraticNone1
2Archibald YellNovember 4, 1840April 29, 1844Democratic12[o]
Samuel AdamsApril 29, 1844November 5, 1844Democratic12[p]
3Thomas Stevenson DrewNovember 5, 1844January 10, 1849Democratic1 13[q]
Richard C. ByrdJanuary 10, 1849April 19, 1849Democratic13[r]
4John Selden RoaneApril 19, 1849November 15, 1852Democratic13[s]
5Elias Nelson ConwayNovember 15, 1852November 16, 1860Democratic2
6Henry Massey RectorNovember 16, 1860November 4, 1862Democratic1[t]
7Harris FlanaginNovember 4, 1862May 26, 1865Democratic1[u][v]
8Isaac MurphyApril 18, 1864July 2, 1868Republican Calvin C. Bliss[31]1[u]
James M. Johnson[32]
9Powell ClaytonJuly 2, 1868March 17, 1871RepublicanJames M. Johnson[w]12[x]
Ozra Amander Hadley[y]March 17, 1871January 6, 1873RepublicanVacant12[z]
10Elisha BaxterJanuary 6, 1873November 12, 1874RepublicanVolney V. Smith[34]1[aa][ab]
11Augustus Hill GarlandNovember 12, 1874January 11, 1877DemocraticNone2
12William Read MillerJanuary 11, 1877January 11, 1881Democratic2
13Thomas James ChurchillJanuary 11, 1881January 13, 1883Democratic1
14James Henderson BerryJanuary 13, 1883January 17, 1885Democratic1
15Simon Pollard Hughes, Jr.January 17, 1885January 8, 1889Democratic2
16James Philip EagleJanuary 8, 1889January 10, 1893Democratic2
17William Meade FishbackJanuary 10, 1893January 8, 1895Democratic1
18James Paul ClarkeJanuary 8, 1895January 12, 1897Democratic1
19Daniel Webster JonesJanuary 12, 1897January 8, 1901Democratic2
20Jeff DavisJanuary 8, 1901January 8, 1907Democratic3
21John Sebastian LittleJanuary 8, 1907February 15, 1907Democratic14[ac]
John Isaac MooreFebruary 15, 1907May 14, 1907Democratic14[ad]
Xenophon Overton PindallMay 14, 1907January 11, 1909Democratic14[ae]
Jesse M. MartinJanuary 11, 1909January 14, 1909Democratic14[af]
22George Washington DonagheyJanuary 14, 1909January 16, 1913Democratic2
23Joseph Taylor RobinsonJanuary 16, 1913March 8, 1913Democratic14[x]
William Kavanaugh OldhamMarch 8, 1913March 13, 1913Democratic14[ag]
Junius Marion FutrellMarch 13, 1913July 23, 1913Democratic14[ah]
24George Washington HaysJuly 23, 1913January 10, 1917DemocraticVacant14[ai]
25Charles Hillman BroughJanuary 10, 1917January 11, 1921Democratic2
26Thomas Chipman McRaeJanuary 11, 1921January 13, 1925Democratic2
27Tom Jefferson TerralJanuary 13, 1925January 11, 1927Democratic1
28John Ellis MartineauJanuary 11, 1927March 4, 1928DemocraticHarvey Parnell12[aj]
29Harvey ParnellMarch 4, 1928January 10, 1933DemocraticWilliam Lee Cazort2 12[ak]
Lawrence Elery Wilson
30Junius Marion FutrellJanuary 10, 1933January 12, 1937DemocraticWilliam Lee Cazort2
31Carl Edward BaileyJanuary 12, 1937January 14, 1941DemocraticRobert L. Bailey2
32Homer Martin AdkinsJanuary 14, 1941January 9, 1945DemocraticRobert L. Bailey2
James L. Shaver
33Benjamin Travis LaneyJanuary 9, 1945January 11, 1949DemocraticJames L. Shaver2
Nathan Green Gordon
34Sid McMathJanuary 11, 1949January 13, 1953DemocraticNathan Green Gordon2
35Francis CherryJanuary 13, 1953January 11, 1955DemocraticNathan Green Gordon1
36Orval FaubusJanuary 11, 1955January 10, 1967DemocraticNathan Green Gordon6
37Winthrop RockefellerJanuary 10, 1967January 12, 1971RepublicanMaurice Britt2
38Dale BumpersJanuary 12, 1971January 3, 1975DemocraticBob C. Riley1 12[x]
Bob C. RileyJanuary 3, 1975January 14, 1975Democratic12[al]
39David PryorJanuary 14, 1975January 3, 1979DemocraticJoe Purcell1 12[x]
Joe PurcellJanuary 3, 1979January 9, 1979Democratic12[al]
40Bill ClintonJanuary 9, 1979January 19, 1981DemocraticJoe Purcell1
41Frank D. WhiteJanuary 19, 1981January 11, 1983RepublicanWinston Bryant[am]1
42Bill ClintonJanuary 11, 1983December 12, 1992DemocraticWinston Bryant3 12[an][ao]
Jim Guy Tucker
43Jim Guy TuckerDecember 12, 1992July 15, 1996DemocraticMike Huckabee[ap]12+12[ak][aq]
44Mike HuckabeeJuly 15, 1996January 9, 2007RepublicanWinthrop P. Rockefeller[e]2 12[ak]
45Mike BeebeJanuary 9, 2007IncumbentDemocraticBill Halter2[ar]
Mark Darr[ap]

Other high offices held[edit]

Seventeen of Arkansas's governors have served other high offices, including one President of the United States, an Attorney General, and an ambassador. Thirteen represented Arkansas in the U.S. Congress, and another was refused his seat by the U.S. Senate shortly after the American Civil War, because Arkansas had not yet been reconstructed. Two governors were elected from other states, and one represented Arkansas in the Confederate Congress. Five governors (marked with *) resigned to take other offices, with four of these becoming members of the U.S. Senate and one becoming President of the United States. Two others (marked with dagger) resigned their seat in the U.S. House of representatives to become Governor of Arkansas.

All representatives and senators listed represented Arkansas except where noted.

GovernorGubernatorial termOther offices heldSource
Miller, JamesJames Miller1819–1825Elected Representative from New Hampshire but did not take his seat.[4]
Pope, JohnJohn Pope1829–1835Representative and Senator from Kentucky (including President pro tempore)[45]
Fulton, William S.William S. Fulton1835–1836Senator[10]
Yell, ArchibaldArchibald Yell1840–1844Representative[46]
Clayton, PowellPowell Clayton1868–1871Senator*, Minister to Mexico[47]
Garland, Augustus HillAugustus Hill Garland1874–1877Senator, Attorney General, Confederate Representative, Confederate Senator[48]
Berry, James HendersonJames Henderson Berry1883–1885Senator[49]
Fishback, William MeadeWilliam Meade Fishback1893–1895Elected to the Senate but was refused his seat[50]
Clarke, James PaulJames Paul Clarke1895–1897Senator (including President pro tempore)[51]
Davis, JeffJeff Davis1901–1907Senator[52]
Little, John SebastianJohn Sebastian Little1907Representativedagger[53]
Robinson, Joseph TaylorJoseph Taylor Robinson1913Representativedagger, Senator* (including Majority Leader and Minority Leader)[54]
McRae, Thomas ChipmanThomas Chipman McRae1921–1925Representative[55]
Bumpers, DaleDale Bumpers1971–1975Senator*[56]
Pryor, DavidDavid Pryor1975–1979Representative, Senator*[57]
Clinton, BillBill Clinton1979–1981, 1983–1992President of the United States*[58]
Tucker, Jim GuyJim Guy Tucker1992–1996Representative[59]

Living former governors[edit]

As of March 2011, five former governors were alive. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Sid McMath (1949–1953), who died on October 4, 2003. The most recently serving governor to die was Frank D. White, who served from 1981 to 1983 and died on May 21 of 2003.

GovernorTerm of officeDate of birth
Dale Bumpers1971–1975(1925-08-12) August 12, 1925 (age 88)
David Pryor1975–1979(1934-08-29) August 29, 1934 (age 79)
Bill Clinton1979–1981, 1983–1992(1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 67)
Jim Guy Tucker1992–1996(1943-06-12) June 12, 1943 (age 70)
Mike Huckabee1996–2007(1955-08-24) August 24, 1955 (age 58)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The territory was formally organized with the name "Arkansaw", but spellings including "Arkansas" and "Arkansa" remained common until around 1822, when the popularity of the Arkansas Gazette helped standardize the spelling as "Arkansas".[2]
  2. ^ James Miller was appointed territorial governor on March 3, 1819, the same date the bill organizing Arkansaw Territory was signed. However, to avoid the hot southern summer, he delayed his departure from New Hampshire until September, and took a non-direct route, finally arriving in the territory on December 26, 1819.[4] Robert Crittenden, secretary of the territory, served as acting governor while Miller was delayed.[3]
  3. ^ Resigned citing poor health. At the time of his resignation, he had been absent from the territory for 18 months.[5]
  4. ^ George Izard did not arrive in Arkansas Territory until May 31, 1825; Robert Crittenden, Secretary of the territory, acted as governor in his stead, though Crittenden himself was out of state when Izard arrived.[6]
  5. ^ a b Died in office.
  6. ^ The office was vacant from November 22, 1828, until March 9, 1829. By the time notice of George Izard's death reached Washington, D.C., Andrew Jackson had been elected president, and the U.S. Senate refused to approve John Quincy Adams's choice for governor, preferring to wait until Jackson took office.[8]
  7. ^ Pope arrived in the territory in May 1829.[9]
  8. ^ William S. Fulton served as governor until statehood, when he was elected to the United States Senate.[10]
  9. ^ Includes one term served by a repeat governor and nine terms served by acting governors.
  10. ^ Includes one term served by an acting governor.
  11. ^ The official numbering includes repeat governors and omits acting governors. Subsequent terms for repeat governors are marked with their original number italicized.
  12. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1864 and abolished in 1874. It was recreated in 1914, and was not filled until 1926. The amendment to the state constitution creating the office was narrowly voted in by the electorate in 1914. The Speaker of the House declared that the measure had lost because it did not receive a majority of the highest vote total from that election. In 1925, it was discovered that a 1910 law amended this requirement such that only a majority of the votes on the specific question was required. Therefore, the 1914 initiative was declared to be valid.[22]
  13. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  14. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  15. ^ Resigned to run for the United States House of Representatives, winning the election.[24]
  16. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  17. ^ Resigned due to the low salary he received as governor.[25]
  18. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor until special election.[26]
  19. ^ Elected in a special election to fill unexpired term.[27]
  20. ^ The 1861 constitution was enacted during Rector's term; while term lengths remained at four years, a new election schedule was created, calling for elections in 1862, two years into his term.[28]
  21. ^ a b Harris Flanagin fled Little Rock as it fell to Union forces on September 10, 1863, leading a largely inept government in exile in Washington, Arkansas until 1865. Isaac Murphy was elected provisional governor by a loyalist government set up after Union control of the state was established, taking office on April 18, 1864, causing a slight overlap in terms, though due to the collapse of the Confederate effort in Arkansas, Flanagin had no authority over the state.[29]
  22. ^ The 1864 constitution was enacted during Flanagin's term; however, it was drafted by the Union occupation, and had no effect on his government. While term lengths remained at four years, a new election schedule was created, calling for elections in 1864.[30]
  23. ^ Resigned to take office as state secretary of state.
  24. ^ a b c d Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  25. ^ Ozra Amander Hadley's first name is sometimes spelled "Ozro" in sources; it is unknown which is correct.[33]
  26. ^ As president pro tempore of the senate, acted as governor for unexpired term; the office of lieutenant governor at the time was vacant.[33]
  27. ^ Removed from office for a short time due to the Brooks–Baxter War.[35]
  28. ^ The 1874 constitution was enacted during Baxter's term, which shortened his tenure to two years as new elections were scheduled.
  29. ^ Resigned after suffering a nervous breakdown soon after taking office.[36]
  30. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor until the legislature adjourned.[37]
  31. ^ As the new president pro tempore of the senate, became acting governor until his senate term expired.[38]
  32. ^ As the new president pro tempore of the senate, became acting governor for three days until the next elected governor took office.[39]
  33. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor for six days before a new president of the senate was elected.[40]
  34. ^ As the new president of the senate, acted as governor until special election.[41]
  35. ^ Elected in special election to fill unexpired term.[42]
  36. ^ Resigned to be a judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas.[43]
  37. ^ a b c As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in his own right.
  38. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  39. ^ Represented the Democratic Party.
  40. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States.
  41. ^ Gubernatorial terms changed from two years to four years during Clinton's term; he was elected for two-year terms in 1982 and 1984, and for four-year terms in 1986 and 1990.
  42. ^ a b Represented the Republican Party.
  43. ^ Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud in the Whitewater scandal.[44]
  44. ^ Governor Beebe's second term expires on January 13, 2015; he is term limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ AR Const. art. VI
  2. ^ "Timeline – 1822: Indian Peace Treaty". Historic Arkansas Museum. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  3. ^ a b "Robert Crittenden (1797–1834)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "James Miller (1776–1851)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  5. ^ "Timeline – 1824: Expansion". Historic Arkansas Museum. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  6. ^ "George Izard (1776–1828)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  7. ^ Bruce, Henry Addington (1909). The Romance of American Expansion. Moffat, Yard & Company. p. 86. 
  8. ^ "Timeline – 1828: Final Indian Treaty". Historic Arkansas Museum. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  9. ^ Williams, Nancy A.; Jeannie M. Whayne (2000). Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives. University of Arkansas Press. p. 226. ISBN 1-55728-587-X. 
  10. ^ a b "Fulton, William Savin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  11. ^ a b 1836 Const. art. V, § 4
  12. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 1
  13. ^ AR Const. amendment 63
  14. ^ "State Gubernatorial Term Limits". Retrieved September 9, 2007. 
  15. ^ 1836 Const. art. V, § 18
  16. ^ 1861 Const. art. V, § 18
  17. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 19
  18. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 20
  19. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 23
  20. ^ 1868 Const. art. VI, § 1
  21. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 12
  22. ^ a b "About The Office – Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas". Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  23. ^ Arkansas Supreme Court, Bryant v. English, 311 Ark. 187, 843 S.W.2d 308 (1992).
  24. ^ "Arkansas Governor Archibald Yell". National Governors Association. Retrieved August 14, 2008. [dead link]
  25. ^ "Arkansas Governor Thomas Stevenson Drew". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  26. ^ "Arkansas Governor Richard C. Byrd". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  27. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Selden Roane". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  28. ^ 1861 Const. art. IV, § 8
  29. ^ "Harris Flanagin (1817–1874)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  30. ^ 1864 Const. art. IV, § 8
  31. ^ Herndon p. 287
  32. ^ Herndon p. 293
  33. ^ a b "Ozro Amander Hadley (1826–1915)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  34. ^ Herndon p. 306
  35. ^ "Arkansas Governor Elisha Baxter". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  36. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Sebastian Little". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  37. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Isaac Moore". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  38. ^ "Arkansas Governor Xenophon Overton Pindall". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  39. ^ "John Sebastian Little (1851–1916)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  40. ^ "Arkansas Governor William Kavanaugh Oldham". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  41. ^ "Arkansas Governor Junius Marion Futrell". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  42. ^ "Arkansas Governor George Washington Hays". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Ellis Martineau". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2008. [dead link]
  44. ^ R.H., Melton; Michael Haddigan (May 5, 1996). "Three Guilty in Arkansas Fraud Trial". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  45. ^ "Pope, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  46. ^ "Yell, Archibald". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  47. ^ "Clayton, Powell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  48. ^ "Garland, Augustus Hill". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  49. ^ "Berry, James Henderson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  50. ^ "Arkansas Governor William Meade Fishback". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 13, 2008. [dead link]
  51. ^ "Clarke, James Paul". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  52. ^ "Davis, Jeff". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  53. ^ "Little, John Sebastian". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  54. ^ "Robinson, Joseph Taylor". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  55. ^ "McRae, Thomas Chipman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  56. ^ "Bumpers, Dale". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  57. ^ "Pryor, David Hampton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  58. ^ "Arkansas Governor William Jefferson Clinton". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 13, 2008. [dead link]
  59. ^ "Tucker, James (Jim) Guy, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 

External links[edit]