The first Jewish population in the region to be later known as Germany came with the Romans to the city now known as Cologne. A "Golden Age" in the first millennium saw the emergence of the
Ashkenazi Jews, while the persecution and expulsion that followed the Crusades led to the creation of Yiddish and an overall shift eastwards. A change of status in the late Renaissance Era, combined with the Jewish Enlightenment – the Haskalah, meant that by the 1920s Germany had one of the most integrated Jewish populations in Europe, contributing prominently to German culture and society. The vast majority either left the country or were murdered in the Holocaust.
The following is a list of some famous
Jewish people (by religion or descent) from Germany proper. Also note that the idea of German nationality is rather broad, due to the many Germanic tribes, Jewish assimilation into Germany, and separate German ruled states through the history of Europe. Therefore, the same set of people could at times be referred to as Germans, Jews, or German Jews alike. Historical figures [edit ] Politicians [edit ] Fischel Arnheim, politician  Ludwig Bamberger, politician  Daniel Cohn-Bendit, member of European Parliament, student leader in 1968  Wilhelm Dröscher, SPD politician (half-Jewish)  Kurt Eisner, Bavarian prime minister  Heinrich von Friedberg, jurist, statesman (converted to Christianity)  Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian politician  Clement Freud, German-born British MP  Alex Himelfarb, ambassador  Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State, Nobel Prize (1973)  Ludwig Landmann, mayor of Frankfurt/Main  Eduard Lasker, co-founder of the National Liberal Party [1 ] Eugen Levine, Bavarian prime minister  Jutta Oesterle-Schwerin, Member of parliament, Green party, Feminist party [2 ] Eduard von Simson, President of the Reichstag, President of the Reichsgericht  Walther Rathenau, Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic [3 ] Herbert Weichmann, mayor of Hamburg  Jeanette Wolff, West Berlin politician  Walter Wolfgang, German-born politician  Activists [edit ] Religious figures [edit ] Rabbis [edit ] Reform [edit ] Scholars [edit ] Other [edit ] Scientific figures [edit ] Natural Scientists [edit ] Adolf von Baeyer, industrial chemist, Nobel Prize (1905) (Jewish mother)  Norbert Berkowitz, physicist  Hans Bethe, nuclear physics, Nobel Prize (1967)  Sir Walter Bodmer, medical researcher [10 ] Max Born, quantum mechanics, Nobel Prize (1954)  Heinrich Caro, industrial chemist  Nikodem Caro, industrial chemist  Albert Einstein, theoretical physics, Nobel Prize (1921)  Erwin Finlay-Freundlich, astronomer  James Franck, quantum physics, Nobel Prize (1925)  Adolph Frank, industrial chemist  Herbert Fröhlich, physicist  Eugen Glueckauf, chemist, expert on atomic energy  Hans Goldschmidt, industrial chemist  Fritz Haber, developed the Haber process, Nobel Prize (1918)  Walter Heitler, chemist  Arthur Korn, physicist  Ernst Ising, statistical mechanics  Albert Ladenburg, chemist [11 ] Fritz London, quantum mechanics [12 ] Leonard Mandel, quantum optics  Kurt Mendelssohn, German-born British medical physicist [13 ] Viktor Meyer, organic chemist  Leonor Michaelis, biochemist  Albert Michelson, measured speed of light, Nobel Prize (1907) (Jewish father) [14 ]  Ludwig Mond, chemist & industrialist  Sir Rudolf Peierls, solid state theory  Arno Penzias, co-discoverer of CMB, Nobel Prize (1978)  Alfred Philippson, geologist  John Charles Polanyi, chemist, Nobel Prize (born Berlin)  Ernst Pringsheim, spectrometry, black-body radiation  Michael Rossmann, physicist and microbiologist (Jewish mother) ;  Rudolf Schoenheimer, biochemist  Arthur Schuster, spectroscopist  Karl Schwarzschild, physicist & astronomer  Franz Simon, physicist, separation of Uranium 235 [15 ] Jack Steinberger, particle physics, Nobel Prize (1988)  Otto Stern, experimental physicist, Nobel Prize (1943)  Otto Wallach, chemist, Nobel Prize (1910) [16 ] Richard Willstätter, chemist, Nobel Prize (1915)  Physicians and medical researchers [edit ] Adolph Baginsky, pediatrician, diphtheria researcher  Alfred Bielschowsky, ophthalmologist  Max Bielschowsky, neuropathologist  Konrad Bloch, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1964)  Marcus Elieser Bloch, physician  Gustav Born, professor of pharmacology  Edith Bulbring, Professor of pharmacy (Jewish mother)  Sir Ernst Chain, developed penicillin, Nobel Prize (1945)  Ferdinand Cohn, pioneer in microbiology  Julius Friedrich Cohnheim, pathologist [4 ] Paul Ehrlich, developed magic bullet concept, Nobel Prize (1908)  Arthur Eichengrün, possible inventor of aspirin  Wilhelm Feldberg, biologist  Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, biochemist  Hermann Friedberg, physician [4 ] Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch, geneticist  Ernst Gräfenberg, obstetrician, the G-spot  Martin Gumpert, physician, writer  Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, physician  Sir Bernard Katz, biophysicist, Nobel Prize (1970)  Hans Kornberg, biochemist researcher  Hans Kosterlitz, discovered endorphins  Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1953)  Fritz Lipmann, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1953)  Jacques Loeb, physiologist  Otto Loewi, pharmacologist, Nobel Prize (1936)  Elisabeth Mann, biologist (Jewish mother) [17 ] Otto Meyerhof, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1922) (Jewish father)  Oskar Minkowski, physiologist  Albert Neisser, physician, discovered the cause of gonorrhea (Jewish father)  Emin Pasha, physician, naturalist, explorer  Nathanael Pringsheim, botanist  Ottomar Rosenbach, physician [4 ] Moritz Traube, biochemist  Moshe Wallach, founder and director, Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem [18 ] Carl Warburg, doctor of medicine and clinical pharmacologist. [20 ] Otto Heinrich Warburg, physiologist, Nobel Prize (1931) (Jewish father)  Karl Weigert, pathologist  Mathematicians [edit ] Felix Bernstein, set theory  Maurice Block, statistician  Richard Brauer, modular representation theory  Paul Cohn, algebraist [21 ] Richard Courant, mathematical analysis & applied mathematics  Max Dehn, topology  Paul Epstein, number theory  Adolf Fraenkel, set theory  Hans Freudenthal, algebraic topology  Felix Hausdorff, topology  Heinz Hopf, topology (Jewish father)  Adolf Hurwitz, mathematician  Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi, analysis  Leopold Kronecker, number theory  Edmund Landau, number theory  Rudolf Lipschitz, mathematician  Kurt Mahler, mathematician  Hermann Minkowski, geometrical theory of numbers [22 ] Claus Moser, Statistician  Leonard Nelson, mathematician, philosopher  Bernhard Neumann, mathematician  Emmy Noether, algebra & theoretical physics  Alfred Pringsheim, analysis, theory of functions  Richard Rado, combinatorics  Abraham Robinson, nonstandard analysis )   Arthur Moritz Schönflies, mathematician  Issai Schur, mathematician  Otto Toeplitz, linear algebra & functional analysis  Technical Scientists [edit ] Ralph Baer, inventor of the games console  Emile Berliner, inventor of the gramophone  Emanuel Goldberg (1881–1970, from Russia, but published in German), pioneered Microdots and microfilm retrieval technology  Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, electrical engineer  Siegfried Marcus, automobile pioneer  Michael O. Rabin, computer algorithms, Turing Award (1976)  Reinhold Rudenberg, electrical engineer and inventor, Reinhold Rudenberg Adolf Schallamach, pioneered understanding of friction and wear phenomena in rubber Joseph Weizenbaum, AI critic, ELIZA  Psychologists [edit ] Karl Abraham, psychoanalyst  Rudolf Arnheim, perception theorist  Erik Erikson, developmental psychologist (Jewish mother)  Erich Fromm, psychologist & humanistic philosopher  Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, psychoanalyst  Kurt Goldstein, Gestalt-influenced neurologist  Max Hamilton, psychiatrist [23 ] Magnus Hirschfeld, sexologist  Kurt Koffka, Gestalt psychologist  Kurt Lewin, social psychologist  Hugo Münsterberg, industrial psychologist  Ulric Neisser, cognitive psychologist (Jewish father) [24 ] Erich Neumann, analytical psychologist  Fritz Perls, psychotherapist  Otto Selz, cognitive psychologist  William Stern, the Intelligence Quotient  Max Wertheimer, Gestalt psychologist  Academic figures [edit ] Philosophers [edit ] Theodor Adorno (1903-1969), philosopher (Jewish father)  Ernst Bloch, philosopher  Constantin Brunner, philosopher  Ernst Cassirer, philosopher  Hermann Cohen, philosopher  Friedrich Dessauer, philosopher  Max Dessoir, philosopher  Julius Frauenstädt, philosopher  Kurt Grelling, philosopher  Richard Hönigswald (Jewish father)  Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), philosopher & sociologist  Edmund Husserl, philosopher (converted to Christianity)  Hans Jonas, philosopher  Horace Kallen, philosopher  Adolf Lasson, philosopher [4 ] Theodor Lessing, philosopher, writer  Karl Löwith, philosopher  Salomon Maimon, philosopher  Fritz Mauthner, author & philosopher  Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher, scholar  Helmuth Plessner, philosopher (Jewish father)  Hans Reichenbach, philosopher (Jewish father)  Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, philosopher (Jewish father)  Max Scheler, philosopher (Jewish mother) [25 ] Kurt Sternberg, philosopher [26 ] Richard Rudolf Walzer, philosopher ( Jewish Year Book 1975 p214) Economists [edit ] Robert Aumann, Nobel Prize for Economics  Richard Ehrenberg, economist  Ludwig Lachmann, economist [27 ] Emil Lederer, economist [28 ] Robert Liefmann, economist  Adolph Lowe, economist  Rosa Luxemburg, economist, co-founder of the KPD  Fritz Naphtali, economist, editor, later Israeli finance minister [29 ] Sigbert Prais, economist (JYB 2005 p215) Reinhard Selten, Nobel prize (1994)  Hans Singer, economist [30 ] Social Scientists [edit ] Reinhard Bendix, sociologist  Eduard Bernstein, founder of evolutionary socialism  Franz Boas, cultural anthropologist  Lewis A. Coser, sociologist  Norbert Elias, sociologist  Amitai Etzioni, sociologist  Shelomo Dov Goitein, Arabist  Moses Hess, socialist  Eugene Kamenka, sociologist  Siegfried Kracauer, sociologist & film critic  Ferdinand Lassalle, founder of first German worker's party  Karl Mannheim, sociologist  Herbert Marcuse, sociologist, New Left figurehead  Karl Marx, founder of communism (parents converted to Protestantism)  Franz Oppenheimer, sociologist & economist  Leo Loewenthal, sociologist  Georg Simmel, sociologist  Georg Steindorff, egyptologist (Jewish father)  Jacob Taubes, theologist  Louis Wirth, sociologist  Historians [edit ] Ernst Bernheim, historian [31 ] Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (son of Wictor Ehrenberg)  Richard Ettinghausen, art historian  Henry Friedlander, historian  Peter Gay, historian  Heinrich Graetz, historian [32 ] George W. F. Hallgarten, historian  Eric Hobsbawm, historian  Ernst Kantorowicz, historian of medieval political and intellectual history Richard Krautheimer, historian  Arno Lustiger, historian  Lothar Machtan [ ] citation needed Golo Mann, historian (Jewish mother)  George Mosse, historian  Hans Rothfels, historian  Fritz Stern, historian  Michael Wolffsohn, historian  Jurists [edit ] Hannah Arendt, political theorist  Jacob Friedrich Behrend, jurist [4 ] David Daube, Professor of Law  Heinrich Dernburg, jurist  Victor Ehrenberg, jurist [33 ] Hugo Haase, jurist  Sir Otto Kahn-Freund, Professor of Law [34 ] Hermann Kantorowicz, jurist  Walter Kaskel, jurist  Robert Kempner, jurist Paul Laband, jurist, b. Breslau [35 ] Otto Lenel, jurist  Franz Neumann, legal theorist  Arthur Nussbaum, jurist  Joseph Süss Oppenheimer, financial planner & court Jew [4 ] Gabriel Riesser, deputy speaker of Frankfurt Assembly in 1848, first Jewish judge in Hamburg  Rudolf Schlesinger, jurist  Georg Schwarzenberger, jurist  [36 ] Hugo Sinzheimer, legal scholar  Sigmund Zeisler, jurist  Linguists and philologists [edit ] Paulus Aemilius, professor of Hebrew  Theodor Benfey, linguist (Jewish father)  Eduard Fraenkel, philologist [37 ] Wilhelm Freund, philologist  Ludwig Friedländer, philologist  Julius Fürst, orientalist  Theodor Goldstücker, linguist  Moshe Goshen-Gottstein, linguist [38 ] Victor Klemperer, linguist & diarist  Siegbert Salomon Prawer, Professor of German [39 ] Chaim Menachem Rabin, linguist [40 ] Edward Sapir, anthropologist-linguist  Ernest Simon, professor of Chinese [41 ] Heymann Steinthal, linguist  Educationalists [edit ] Showbusiness [edit ] Hugo Egon Balder, comedian, producer (Jewish mother) ,  Ludwig Berger, director  Lotte Berk, dancer and health guru [43 ] Kurt Bernhardt, director [44 ] Ludwig Blattner: film producer and studio owner, developer of the first magnetic tape recorder. Artur Brauner, film producer  Friedrich Dalsheim, director  Michael Degen, actor  Ernst Dohm, actor, editor  Hedwig Dohm-Pringsheim, actress  E.A. Dupont, director  Michel Friedman, TV personality  Kurt Gerron, stage actor & film director  Dora Gerson, actress, cabaret singer  Therese Giehse, actress Pepermill  Lou Jacobs, clown  Ludwig Karl Koch, broadcaster and sound recordist [45 ] Werner Klemperer, Movie, TV Hogan's Heroes and Broadway actor, violinist Carl Laemmle, film producer  Ernst Lubitsch, director  Jeanine Meerapfel, film director and screenwriter [46 ] Max Ophüls, film director [47 ] Richard Oswald, director  Ferdinand Eduard Pahnecke, actor  Lilli Palmer, actress  Hans Rosenthal, one of Germany's most popular TV personalities in history  Susan Sideropoulos, actress  Robert Siodmak, director  Ruth Westheimer, sex therapist  Konrad Wolf, film director [48 ] Peter Zadek, theatre director [49 ] Christian Berkel, actor Musicians [edit ] Samuel Adler, composer  Haim Alexander, composer  Tzvi Avni, composer  Paul Ben-Haim, composer  Julius Benedict, composer  Herman Berlinski, American composer, organist, pianist, musicologist and choir conductor [50 ] Wolf Biermann, singer/songwriter (Jewish father)  Yehezkel Braun, Israeli composer  Manfred Bukofzer, musicologist  Paul Dessau, composer [51 ] Abel Ehrlich, Israeli composer  Alfred Einstein, musicologist [52 ] Hanns Eisler, German-born composer (Jewish father)  Lukas Foss, composer & conductor  Alexander Goehr, composer [53 ] Walter Goehr, conductor  Berthold Goldschmidt, composer [54 ] Bernard Greenhouse, cellist  George Henschel, singer & conductor  Alfred Hertz, conductor  André Herzberg, musician ( Pankow)  Gerard Hoffnung, musicologist  Friedrich Holländer, composer  Salomon Jadassohn, composer  Leon Jessel, composer  Robert Kahn, composer  Otto Klemperer, conductor  Robert Lachmann, musicologist  Ludwig Lenel, organist and composer Hermann Levi, conductor [55 ] Alfred Lion & Frank Wulff, founders of Blue Note Records  Edward Lowinsky, musicologist [56 ] Michael Mann, musician (Jewish mother)  Arnold Mendelssohn, organist  Felix Mendelssohn, composer & conductor (Jewish ancestry but raised Lutheran)  Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, composer  Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer [57 ] Ben-Zion Orgad, Israeli composer  Menahem Pressler, pianist  André Previn, conductor [58 ] Franz Reizenstein, pianist, composer  Curt Sachs, musicologist, co-founder of modern organology  Kurt Sanderling, conductor  Adolf Martin Schlesinger, music publisher  Heinrich Sontheim, tenor  William Steinberg, conductor  Erich Walter Sternberg, composer [59 ] Josef Tal, composer  Ilia Trilling, synagogue composer  Ignatz Waghalter, composer & conductor  Bruno Walter, conductor (Jewish father)  Franz Waxman, film composer  Kurt Weill, composer  Indira Weiss, singer & actress  Stefan Wolpe, composer  Alec Empire, member of Atari Teenage Riot  Hilde Zadek, soprano  Aron Liedtke, Music Producer  Artists [edit ] Anni Albers, textile designer  Frank Auerbach, painter  Eduard Bendemann, painter [4 ] Martin Bloch, British painter  Erwin Blumenfeld, photographer  Alfred Eisenstaedt, photographer  Benno Elkan, sculptor [60 ] James Ingo Freed, architect  Gisèle Freund, photographer  Eva Hesse, materials artist  Erich Kahn, painter, expressionist  Eugen Kaufmann, architect  Hugo Lederer (1871–1940) sculptor [61 ] Max Liebermann, painter  Wilhelm Löwith, artist  Peter Max, pop artist  Ludwig Meidner, painter  Erich Mendelsohn, architect  Helmut Newton, photographer (Jewish father)  Felix Nussbaum, painter  Meret Oppenheim, surrealist  Erwin Panofsky, art historian  Hans Schleger, designer  Charlotte Salomon, artist  Erich Salomon, news photographer  Victor Weisz, Vicky, cartoonist [62 ] Writers [edit ] Erich Auerbach, literature critic  Julius Bab, dramatist and theater critic [63 ] Jurek Becker, writer  Maxim Biller, writer  Ludwig Börne, satirist  Otto Brahm, literary critic  Henryk Broder, journalist  Walter Benjamin (1892-1940), literary critic & philosopher  Emil Carlebach, writer, dissident  Joseph Derenbourg, orientalist, father of Hartwig Derenbourg  Hilde Domin, poet  Lion Feuchtwanger, novelist  Hubert Fichte, author (Jewish father)  Anne Frank, diarist  Karen Gershon, poet (1923–1993)  Friedrich Gundolf, literary man  Glückel of Hameln, 18th-century Yiddish diarist  Maximilian Harden, journalists  Heinrich Heine, poet (converted to Protestantism for job prospects) [64 ] Stefan Heym, novelist, politician  Wolfgang Hildesheimer  Edgar Hilsenrath, novelist  Barbara Honigmann, writer  Heinrich Eduard Jacob, writer and journalist [65 ] Siegfried Jacobsohn, journalist and theater critic  Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, novelist and screenwriter  Wladimir Kaminer, short story writer  Judith Kerr, children's writer  Victor Klemperer, writer [66 ] Else Lasker-Schüler, writer, poet & artist (converted to Protestantism for job prospects)  Claire Loewenfeld, writer and herbalist. [67 ] Gila Lustiger, author  Erika Mann, writer, actress (Jewish mother)  Klaus Mann, writer (Jewish mother)  Monika Mann, writer (Jewish mother)  Julius Mosen, born Moses  Erich Mühsam, anarchist poet  Henning Pawel, child-book author, writer.  Solomon Perel, author  Marcel Reich-Ranicki, literary critic [68 ] H. A. Rey & Margret Rey, creators of Curious George  Renate Rubinstein (Jewish father)  Nelly Sachs, poet, Nobel Prize (1966)  Anna Seghers, novelist  Oskar Seidlin, writer  Rafael Seligmann, writer  Süßkind von Trimberg, middle age writer, minnesinger  Kurt Tucholsky, writer (converted to Protestantism)  Samuel Ullman, poet  Rahel Varnhagen, writer and saloniste (converted to Christianity) [69 ] Moritz Callmann Wahl [4 ] Jakob Wassermann, novelist  Trude Weiss-Rosmarin [70 ] Jeanette Wohl  Friedrich Wolf, writer, physician  Carl Zuckmayer, playwright (Jewish mother)  Arnold Zweig, writer  Stefan Zweig, novelist, playwright and journalist, best known for his autobiographies Entrepreneurs [edit ] See also Court Jews Sports [edit ] Rudi Ball, ice hockey player, right wing, Olympic bronze, world runner-up, bronze  Gretel Bergmann, high jumper  Hans Berliner, world postal chess champion  Barney Dreyfuss, co-founder of the World Series  Alfred Flatow, 3x Olympic gymnastics champion ( parallel bars, team parallel bars, team horizontal bar), silver ( horizontal bar) Gustav Felix Flatow, 2x Olympic gymnastics champion (team parallel bars, team horizontal bar) Gottfried Fuchs, soccer player, (German national team)  Ludwig Guttmann, founder of the Paralympics  Lilli Henoch, world records (discus, shot put, and 4x100-m relay); shot by the Nazis in Latvia Julius Hirsch, footballer, German champion, killed during the Holocaust Bernhard Horwitz, chess player  Herbert Klein, swimmer, Olympic bronze (200-m breaststroke); 3 world records Emanuel Lasker, world chess champion  Henry Laskau, racewalker, won 42 national titles; Pan American champion; 4x Maccabiah champion Helene Mayer, foil fencer (Jewish father), Olympic champion  Sarah Poewe, swimmer (Jewish mother), Olympic bronze (4x100 medley relay)  Daniel Prenn, tennis player, highest world ranking # 6  Siegbert Tarrasch, chess player  Literature [edit ] Walter Tetzlaff, ed. "2000 Kurzbiographien bedeutender deutscher Juden des 20. Jahrhunderts" (Lindhorst: Askania, 1982). See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ Eduard Lasker: Ein Leben für den Rechtsstaat by Adolf Laufs, German Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 3. (Oct., 1986), pp. 651-652 ^ Germany's Greens and Israel: "The Theme is too Much" by Diana Johnstone, MERIP Middle East Report, No. 149, Human Rights in the Middle East. (Nov. - Dec., 1987), pp. 44-45 ^ Walter Rathenau: Industrialist, Banker, Intellectual, and Politician; Notes and Diaries 1907-1922 by Von Strandmann ^ a b c d e f g h i Jewish Encyclopedia ^ Eliyahu Meir Klugman (1996). Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch: Architect of Judaism for the Modern World. Brooklyn, NY: Artscroll Mesorah. ISBN 0-89906-632-1. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica,  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 ed. ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Prussian Poland of Jewish parents" ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born of Jewish parents" ^ Radio National Australia interview with Sir Walter: "I’m half Ashkenazy Jewish myself" Accessed 21 Feb 2007 ^ Dr. Leopold Ladenburg: "Stammtafel der Familie Ladenburg", Verlag J. Ph. Walther, Mannheim 1882 ^ Fritz London: A Scientific Biography by Kostas Gavroglu ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica 13:492 ^ The master of light;: A biography of Albert A. Michelson by Dorothy Michelson Livingston, 1973 ^ ( Encyclopaedia Judaica, 14:1578) ^ British Jewish Year Book 2005 p.215 (list of Jewish Nobel Prize winners); Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. "Wallach, Otto"; ; however Otto Wallach 1847-1931. Chemiker und Nobelpreisträger by Gunther Beer, Pg 11 disagrees ^  "he married Katia Pringsheim, daughter of a well-known Jewish family of intellectuals. They had six children: Klaus, Erika, Golo, Monika, Elisabeth and Michael" ^ Tidhar, David (2012). "ד"ר משה ואלאך" [Dr. Moshe Wallach] (in Hebrew). Encyclopedia of the Founders and Builders of Israel . Retrieved 4 December 2012. ^ Steinberg, Ruth. "Schwester Selma" in , Rabbi Nisson Wolpin, ed. 1988: Torah Profile: A Treasury of Biographical Sketches Mesorah Publications, Ltd., ISBN 089906860X, p. 279. ^ Friedenwald, H. (1946), Jewish Luminaries in Medical History ^ Obituary in "he was born in Hamburg in 1924 to Jewish parents" Accessed 9 July 2008. The Times ^ Contemporary Authors V 162 By Rooney, Scot Peacock, Pg 169 ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "the son of Jewish parents" ^ Encyclopedia Judaica (Keter, Jerusalem, 1972, vol. 12, p. 945) ^ Max Scheler, 1874-1928: An Intellectual Portrait by John Raphael Staude ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica art. Sternberg, Kurt ^ Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F. A. Hayek - Pg 145 ^ JInfo list of economists accessed 17 May 2007 ^ Riemer, Yehuda. Fritz Peretz Naphtali, A Social Democrat in Two Worlds. Hassifriya Haziyonit, Jerusalem 1996 ^ ( , March 11th 2006, p95: "born a Jew") The Economist ^ Irene Blechle, Entdecker der Hochschulpädagogik. Die Universitätsreformer Ernst Bernheim und Hans Schmidkunz. Shaker Verlag, Aachen 2002, ISBN 3-8265-9943-8 ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, 2 ed, vol. 8, sv. "Graetz, Heinrich" ^ Personal Memoirs by Victor Ehrenberg, Privately Published, 1971 ^ a b British Dictionary of National Biography ^ art. Laband, Paul Encyclopaedia Judaica ^ Steinle, Stephanie (2004). "George Schwarzenberger (1908–1991)". In Beatson, J.; Zimmermann, R. Jurists Uprooted: German-speaking Émigré Lawyers in Twentieth-century Britain. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 663–680. ISBN 0-19-927058-9. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "An unbaptized Jew" ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Goshen-Gottstein, Moshe; "born in Berlin" ^ Jewish Year Book 2005 p215 ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Rabin, Chaim Menachem; "born in Giessen, Germany" ^ (British Jewish Year Book 1980 p183) ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Berlin of Jewish parents" ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "the only daughter of Jewish parents" ^ Patrick McGilligan, Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast, St. Martin's Press: New York (1997), page 172 ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "Being a Jew, Koch's life under the Nazi regime became increasingly intolerable" ^ Plotkin, Janis. "Filmmakers, Independent European." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 1 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive.< http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/filmmakers-independent-european>. Accessed June 17, 2012. ^ Vincent Brook, Driven to Darkness: Jewish Emigré Directors and the Rise of Film Noir, Rutgers University Press, 2009, p. 1. ^ Remembering History: The Filmmaker Konrad Wolf by Marc Silberman, New German Critique, No. 49, Special Issue on Alexander Kluge. (Winter, 1990), pp. 163-191 ^ Theatre Reviews: Opposites by Wilhelm Hortmann, Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 4. (Winter, 1982), pp. 513-515 ^ http://www.jtsa.edu/x5853.xml ^ Fritz Hennenberg: Paul Dessau. Eine Biographie ^ Alfred Einstein on Music: Selected Music Criticisms by Catherine Dower ^ , July 13, 2001 p.25 "two Jewish composers, Alexander Goehr and Robert Saxton" Jewish Chronicle ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "His was a cultured, musical Jewish family" ^ "Hermann Levi's shame and Parsifal's guilt" by Laurence Dreyfus ^ art. Lowinsky, Edward Encyclopaedia Judaica ^ Giacomo Meyerbeer, 1791-1864 by Martin Cooper ^ "Andre Previn - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. ^ Music in the Jewish Community of Palestine 1880-1948: A Social History by Jehoash Hirshberg ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born at Dortmund of Jewish parentage" ^ International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project: he is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Znojmo, Czech Republic; accessed 18 May 2007 ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Germany of Hungarian Jewish parents" ^ art. Bab, Julius Encyclopaedia Judaica ^ "Heinrich Heine, 'Blackguard' and 'Apostate': A Study of the Earliest Attitude Towards Him" by Sol Liptzin ^ The Gabriele Killert & Richard Schroetter: Obligation destruction fixes. The forgotten Jewish writer Heinrich Eduard Jacob; in: "new inhabitants of zurich newspaper" (boarding school Expenditure), NR. 78. Zurich, 5./6. April 1997, S. 50. ^ The Lesser Evil: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer 1945-1959 ^ Pincus, Lily Verloren, gewonnen: Mein Weg von Berlin nach London, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1980 ^ Author of Himself, The ... The Life of Marcel Reich-Ranicki ^ Rahel Varnhagen The Life of a Jewish Woman by Hannah Arendt ^ Hymen, E. Paula & Dash Moore, Deborah. (eds) (1997) Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Routledge, ISBN 0-415-91934-7 (pp. 1463-1465) ^ K. Grunwald, ‘Windsor Cassel: the last court Jew’, Yearbook of the Leo Baeck Institute, 14 (1969), 119–61 ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "born on 9 December 1831 in Munich ... His grandfather Jacob had established the family as one of the first Jewish families to acquire great wealth and social acceptability in Bavaria ... His mother came from an Orthodox Frankfurt family and ensured that the children were properly instructed in Jewish matters." ^ Charles R. Geisst, The last partnerships: inside the great Wall Street money dynasties, p55