The first Jewish population in the region to be later known as Germany came with the Romans to the city now known as Cologne. A "Golden Age" in the first millennium saw the emergence of the
Ashkenazi Jews, while the persecution and expulsion that followed the Crusades led to the creation of Yiddish and an overall shift eastwards. A change of status in the late Renaissance Era, combined with the Jewish Enlightenment – the Haskalah, meant that by the 1920s Germany had one of the most integrated Jewish populations in Europe, contributing prominently to German culture and society. The vast majority either left the country or were murdered in the Holocaust.
The following is a list of some famous
Jewish people (by religion or descent) from Germany proper. Also note that the idea of German nationality is rather broad, due to the many Germanic tribes, Jewish assimilation into Germany, and separate German ruled states through the history of Europe. Therefore, the same set of people could at times be referred to as Germans, Jews, or German Jews alike. Historical figures [edit ] Politicians [edit ] Fischel Arnheim, politician [1 ] Ludwig Bamberger, politician [2 ] Daniel Cohn-Bendit, member of European Parliament, student leader in 1968 [3 ] Wilhelm Dröscher, SPD politician (half-Jewish) [4 ] Kurt Eisner, Bavarian prime minister [5 ] Heinrich von Friedberg, jurist, statesman (converted to Christianity) [6 ] Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian politician [7 ] Clement Freud, German-born British MP [8 ] Alex Himelfarb, ambassador [9 ] Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State, Nobel Prize (1973) [10 ] Ludwig Landmann, mayor of Frankfurt/Main [11 ] Eduard Lasker, co-founder of the National Liberal Party [12 ] Eugen Levine, Bavarian prime minister [13 ] Jutta Oesterle-Schwerin, Member of parliament, Green party, Feminist party [14 ] Eduard von Simson, President of the Reichstag, President of the Reichsgericht [15 ] Walther Rathenau, Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic [16 ] Herbert Weichmann, mayor of Hamburg [17 ] Jeanette Wolff, West Berlin politician [18 ] Walter Wolfgang, German-born politician [19 ] Activists [edit ] Religious figures [edit ] Rabbis [edit ] Reform [edit ] Scholars [edit ] Other [edit ] Scientific figures [edit ] Natural Scientists [edit ] Adolf von Baeyer, industrial chemist, Nobel Prize (1905) (Jewish mother) [29 ] Norbert Berkowitz, physicist [30 ] Hans Bethe, nuclear physics, Nobel Prize (1967) [31 ] Sir Walter Bodmer, medical researcher [32 ] Max Born, quantum mechanics, Nobel Prize (1954) [33 ] Heinrich Caro, industrial chemist [34 ] Nikodem Caro, industrial chemist [35 ] Albert Einstein, theoretical physics, Nobel Prize (1921) [36 ] Erwin Finlay-Freundlich, astronomer [37 ] James Franck, quantum physics, Nobel Prize (1925) [38 ] Adolph Frank, industrial chemist [39 ] Herbert Fröhlich, physicist [40 ] Eugen Glueckauf, chemist, expert on atomic energy [41 ] Hans Goldschmidt, industrial chemist [42 ] Fritz Haber, developed the Haber process, Nobel Prize (1918) [43 ] Walter Heitler, chemist [42 ] Arthur Korn, physicist [44 ] Ernst Ising, statistical mechanics [45 ] Albert Ladenburg, chemist [46 ] Fritz London, quantum mechanics [47 ] Leonard Mandel, quantum optics [48 ] Kurt Mendelssohn, German-born British medical physicist [49 ] Viktor Meyer, organic chemist [50 ] Leonor Michaelis, biochemist [51 ] Albert A. Michelson, measured speed of light, Nobel Prize (1907) (Jewish father) [52 ] [53 ] Ludwig Mond, chemist & industrialist [54 ] Sir Rudolf Peierls, solid state theory [55 ] Arno Penzias, co-discoverer of CMB, Nobel Prize (1978) [56 ] Alfred Philippson, geologist [57 ] John Charles Polanyi, chemist, Nobel Prize (born Berlin)  Ernst Pringsheim, spectrometry, black-body radiation [58 ] Michael Rossmann, physicist and microbiologist (Jewish mother) [59 ] Rudolf Schoenheimer, biochemist [60 ] Arthur Schuster, spectroscopist [61 ] Karl Schwarzschild, physicist & astronomer [62 ] Franz Simon, physicist, separation of Uranium 235 [63 ] Jack Steinberger, particle physics, Nobel Prize (1988) [64 ] Otto Stern, experimental physicist, Nobel Prize (1943) [65 ] Otto Wallach, chemist, Nobel Prize (1910) [66 ] Richard Willstätter, chemist, Nobel Prize (1915) [67 ] Physicians and medical researchers [edit ] Adolph Baginsky, pediatrician, diphtheria researcher [68 ] Alfred Bielschowsky, ophthalmologist [69 ] Max Bielschowsky, neuropathologist [70 ] Konrad Bloch, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1964) [71 ] Marcus Elieser Bloch, physician [72 ] Gustav Born, professor of pharmacology [73 ] Edith Bulbring, Professor of pharmacy (Jewish mother) [74 ] Sir Ernst Chain, developed penicillin, Nobel Prize (1945) [75 ] Ferdinand Cohn, pioneer in microbiology [76 ] Julius Friedrich Cohnheim, pathologist [22 ] Paul Ehrlich, developed magic bullet concept, Nobel Prize (1908) [77 ] Arthur Eichengrün, possible inventor of aspirin [78 ] Wilhelm Feldberg, biologist [79 ] Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, biochemist [80 ] Hermann Friedberg, physician [22 ] Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch, geneticist [81 ] Ernst Gräfenberg, obstetrician, the G-spot [82 ] Martin Gumpert, physician, writer [83 ] Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, physician [84 ] Sir Bernard Katz, biophysicist, Nobel Prize (1970) [85 ] Hans Kornberg, biochemist researcher [86 ] Hans Kosterlitz, discovered endorphins [87 ] Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1953) [88 ] Fritz Lipmann, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1953) [89 ] Jacques Loeb, physiologist [90 ] Otto Loewi, pharmacologist, Nobel Prize (1936) [91 ] Elisabeth Mann, biologist (Jewish mother) [92 ] Otto Meyerhof, biochemist, Nobel Prize (1922) (Jewish father) [93 ] Oskar Minkowski, physiologist [94 ] Albert Neisser, physician, discovered the cause of gonorrhea (Jewish father) [95 ] Emin Pasha, physician, naturalist, explorer [96 ] Nathanael Pringsheim, botanist [97 ] Ottomar Rosenbach, physician [22 ] Moritz Traube, biochemist [98 ] Moshe Wallach, founder and director, Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem [99 ] Carl Warburg, doctor of medicine and clinical pharmacologist. [101 ] Otto Heinrich Warburg, physiologist, Nobel Prize (1931) (Jewish father) [80 ] Karl Weigert, pathologist [102 ] Mathematicians [edit ] Felix Bernstein, set theory [103 ] Maurice Block, statistician [104 ] Richard Brauer, modular representation theory [105 ] Paul Cohn, algebraist [106 ] Richard Courant, mathematical analysis & applied mathematics [107 ] Max Dehn, topology [108 ] Paul Epstein, number theory [109 ] Adolf Fraenkel, set theory [110 ] Hans Freudenthal, algebraic topology [111 ] Felix Hausdorff, topology [112 ] Heinz Hopf, topology (Jewish father) [113 ] Adolf Hurwitz, mathematician [114 ] Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi, analysis [115 ] Leopold Kronecker, number theory [116 ] Edmund Landau, number theory [117 ] Rudolf Lipschitz, mathematician [118 ] Kurt Mahler, mathematician [119 ] Hermann Minkowski, geometrical theory of numbers [120 ] Claus Moser, Statistician [121 ] Leonard Nelson, mathematician, philosopher [122 ] Bernhard Neumann, mathematician [123 ] Emmy Noether, algebra & theoretical physics [124 ] Alfred Pringsheim, analysis, theory of functions [125 ] Richard Rado, combinatorics [126 ] Abraham Robinson, nonstandard analysis ) [127 ] [128 ] Arthur Moritz Schönflies, mathematician [129 ] Issai Schur, mathematician [130 ] Otto Toeplitz, linear algebra & functional analysis [131 ] Technical Scientists [edit ] Ralph Baer, inventor of the games console [132 ] Emile Berliner, inventor of the gramophone [133 ] Emanuel Goldberg (1881–1970, from Russia, but published in German), pioneered Microdots and microfilm retrieval technology [134 ] Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, electrical engineer [135 ] Siegfried Marcus, automobile pioneer [136 ] Michael O. Rabin, computer algorithms, Turing Award (1976) [137 ] Reinhold Rudenberg, electrical engineer and inventor, [138 ] Adolf Schallamach, pioneered understanding of friction and wear phenomena in rubber Joseph Weizenbaum, AI critic, ELIZA [139 ] Psychologists [edit ] Karl Abraham, psychoanalyst [140 ] Rudolf Arnheim, perception theorist [141 ] Erik Erikson, developmental psychologist (Jewish mother) [142 ] Erich Fromm, psychologist & humanistic philosopher [143 ] Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, psychoanalyst [144 ] Kurt Goldstein, Gestalt-influenced neurologist [145 ] Max Hamilton, psychiatrist [146 ] Magnus Hirschfeld, sexologist [147 ] Kurt Koffka, Gestalt psychologist [148 ] Kurt Lewin, social psychologist [149 ] Hugo Münsterberg, industrial psychologist [150 ] Ulric Neisser, cognitive psychologist (Jewish father) [151 ] Erich Neumann, analytical psychologist [152 ] Fritz Perls, psychotherapist [153 ] Otto Selz, cognitive psychologist [154 ] William Stern, the Intelligence Quotient [155 ] Max Wertheimer, Gestalt psychologist [156 ] Academic figures [edit ] Philosophers [edit ] Theodor Adorno (1903-1969), philosopher (Jewish father) [157 ] Ernst Bloch, philosopher [158 ] Constantin Brunner, philosopher [159 ] Ernst Cassirer, philosopher [160 ] Hermann Cohen, philosopher [161 ] Friedrich Dessauer, philosopher [162 ] Max Dessoir, philosopher [163 ] Julius Frauenstädt, philosopher [164 ] Kurt Grelling, philosopher [165 ] Richard Hönigswald (Jewish father) [166 ] Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), philosopher & sociologist [167 ] Edmund Husserl, philosopher (converted to Christianity) [168 ] Hans Jonas, philosopher [169 ] Horace Kallen, philosopher [170 ] Adolf Lasson, philosopher [22 ] Theodor Lessing, philosopher, writer [171 ] Karl Löwith, philosopher [172 ] Salomon Maimon, philosopher [173 ] Fritz Mauthner, author & philosopher [174 ] Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher, scholar [175 ] Helmuth Plessner, philosopher (Jewish father) [176 ] Hans Reichenbach, philosopher (Jewish father) [177 ] Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, philosopher (Jewish father) [178 ] Max Scheler, philosopher (Jewish mother) [179 ] Kurt Sternberg, philosopher [180 ] Richard Rudolf Walzer, philosopher ( Jewish Year Book 1975 p214) Economists [edit ] Robert Aumann, Nobel Prize for Economics [181 ] Richard Ehrenberg, economist [182 ] Ludwig Lachmann, economist [183 ] Emil Lederer, economist [184 ] Robert Liefmann, economist [185 ] Adolph Lowe, economist [186 ] Rosa Luxemburg, economist, co-founder of the KPD [187 ] Fritz Naphtali, economist, editor, later Israeli finance minister [188 ] Sigbert Prais, economist (JYB 2005 p215) Reinhard Selten, Nobel prize (1994) [189 ] Hans Singer, economist [190 ] Social Scientists [edit ] Reinhard Bendix, sociologist [191 ] Eduard Bernstein, founder of evolutionary socialism [192 ] Franz Boas, cultural anthropologist [193 ] Lewis A. Coser, sociologist [194 ] Norbert Elias, sociologist [195 ] Amitai Etzioni, sociologist [196 ] Shelomo Dov Goitein, Arabist [197 ] Moses Hess, socialist [198 ] Eugene Kamenka, sociologist [199 ] Siegfried Kracauer, sociologist & film critic [200 ] Ferdinand Lassalle, founder of first German worker's party [201 ] Karl Mannheim, sociologist [202 ] Herbert Marcuse, sociologist, New Left figurehead [203 ] Karl Marx, founder of communism (parents converted to Protestantism) [204 ] Franz Oppenheimer, sociologist & economist [205 ] Leo Loewenthal, sociologist [206 ] Georg Simmel, sociologist [207 ] Georg Steindorff, egyptologist (Jewish father) [208 ] Jacob Taubes, theologist [209 ] Louis Wirth, sociologist [210 ] Historians [edit ] Ernst Bernheim, historian [211 ] Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (son of Wictor Ehrenberg)  Richard Ettinghausen, art historian [212 ] Henry Friedlander, historian [213 ] Peter Gay, historian [214 ] Heinrich Graetz, historian [215 ] George W. F. Hallgarten, historian [216 ] Eric Hobsbawm, historian [217 ] Ernst Kantorowicz, historian of medieval political and intellectual history Richard Krautheimer, historian [218 ] Arno Lustiger, historian [219 ] Lothar Machtan Golo Mann, historian (Jewish mother) [220 ] George Mosse, historian [221 ] Otto Rahn, historian of legends about the holy grail [222 ] Hans Rothfels, historian [223 ] Fritz Stern, historian [224 ] Michael Wolffsohn, historian [225 ] Jurists [edit ] Hannah Arendt, political theorist [226 ] Jacob Friedrich Behrend, jurist [22 ] David Daube, Professor of Law [227 ] Heinrich Dernburg, jurist [228 ] Victor Ehrenberg, jurist [229 ] Hugo Haase, jurist [230 ] Sir Otto Kahn-Freund, Professor of Law [231 ] Hermann Kantorowicz, jurist [232 ] Walter Kaskel, jurist [233 ] Robert Kempner, jurist Paul Laband, jurist, b. Breslau [234 ] Otto Lenel, jurist [235 ] Franz Neumann, legal theorist [236 ] Arthur Nussbaum, jurist [237 ] Joseph Süss Oppenheimer, financial planner & court Jew [22 ] Gabriel Riesser, deputy speaker of Frankfurt Assembly in 1848, first Jewish judge in Hamburg [238 ] Rudolf Schlesinger, jurist [239 ] Georg Schwarzenberger, jurist [240 ] [241 ] Hugo Sinzheimer, legal scholar [242 ] Sigmund Zeisler, jurist [243 ] Linguists and philologists [edit ] Paulus Aemilius, professor of Hebrew [244 ] Theodor Benfey, linguist (Jewish father) [245 ] Eduard Fraenkel, philologist [246 ] Wilhelm Freund, philologist [247 ] Ludwig Friedländer, philologist  Julius Fürst, orientalist [248 ] Theodor Goldstücker, linguist [249 ] Moshe Goshen-Gottstein, linguist [250 ] Victor Klemperer, linguist & diarist [251 ] Siegbert Salomon Prawer, Professor of German [252 ] Chaim Menachem Rabin, linguist [253 ] Edward Sapir, anthropologist-linguist [254 ] Ernest Simon, professor of Chinese [255 ] Heymann Steinthal, linguist [256 ] Educationalists [edit ] Showbusiness [edit ] Hugo Egon Balder, comedian, producer (Jewish mother), [258 ] Ludwig Berger, director [259 ] Lotte Berk, dancer and health guru [260 ] Kurt Bernhardt, director [261 ] Ludwig Blattner: film producer and studio owner, developer of the first magnetic tape recorder. Artur Brauner, film producer [262 ] Friedrich Dalsheim, director [263 ] Michael Degen, actor [264 ] Ernst Dohm, actor, editor [265 ] Hedwig Dohm-Pringsheim, actress [266 ] E.A. Dupont, director [267 ] Michel Friedman, TV personality [268 ] Kurt Gerron, stage actor & film director [269 ] Dora Gerson, actress, cabaret singer [270 ] Therese Giehse, actress Pepermill [271 ] Lou Jacobs, clown [272 ] Ludwig Karl Koch, broadcaster and sound recordist [273 ] Werner Klemperer, Movie, TV Hogan's Heroes and Broadway actor, violinist Carl Laemmle, film producer [274 ] Ernst Lubitsch, director [275 ] Jeanine Meerapfel, film director and screenwriter [276 ] Max Ophüls, film director [277 ] Richard Oswald, director [278 ] Ferdinand Eduard Pahnecke, actor [279 ] Lilli Palmer, actress [280 ] Hans Rosenthal, one of Germany's most popular TV personalities in history [281 ] Susan Sideropoulos, actress [282 ] Robert Siodmak, director [283 ] Ruth Westheimer, sex therapist [284 ] Konrad Wolf, film director [285 ] Peter Zadek, theatre director [286 ] Christian Berkel, actor Musicians [edit ] Samuel Adler, composer [287 ] Haim Alexander, composer [288 ] Tzvi Avni, composer [289 ] Paul Ben-Haim, composer [290 ] Julius Benedict, composer [291 ] Herman Berlinski, American composer, organist, pianist, musicologist and choir conductor [292 ] Wolf Biermann, singer/songwriter (Jewish father) [293 ] Yehezkel Braun, Israeli composer [294 ] Manfred Bukofzer, musicologist [295 ] Paul Dessau, composer [296 ] Abel Ehrlich, Israeli composer [297 ] Alfred Einstein, musicologist [298 ] Hanns Eisler, German-born composer (Jewish father) [299 ] Lukas Foss, composer & conductor [300 ] Alexander Goehr, composer [301 ] Walter Goehr, conductor [302 ] Berthold Goldschmidt, composer [303 ] Bernard Greenhouse, cellist [304 ] George Henschel, singer & conductor [305 ] Alfred Hertz, conductor [306 ] André Herzberg, musician ( Pankow) [307 ] Gerard Hoffnung, musicologist  Friedrich Holländer, composer [308 ] Salomon Jadassohn, composer [309 ] Leon Jessel, composer [310 ] Robert Kahn, composer [311 ] Otto Klemperer, conductor [312 ] Robert Lachmann, musicologist [313 ] Ludwig Lenel, organist and composer Hermann Levi, conductor [314 ] Alfred Lion & Frank Wulff, founders of Blue Note Records [315 ] Edward Lowinsky, musicologist [316 ] Michael Mann, musician (Jewish mother) [317 ] Arnold Mendelssohn, organist [318 ] Felix Mendelssohn, composer & conductor (Jewish ancestry but raised Lutheran) [319 ] Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, composer [320 ] Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer [321 ] Ben-Zion Orgad, Israeli composer [322 ] Menahem Pressler, pianist [323 ] André Previn, conductor [324 ] Franz Reizenstein, pianist, composer [325 ] Curt Sachs, musicologist, co-founder of modern organology [295 ] Kurt Sanderling, conductor [326 ] Adolf Martin Schlesinger, music publisher [327 ] Arnold Schoenberg, composer Heinrich Sontheim, tenor [328 ] William Steinberg, conductor [329 ] Erich Walter Sternberg, composer [330 ] Josef Tal, composer [331 ] Ilia Trilling, synagogue composer [332 ] Ignatz Waghalter, composer & conductor [333 ] Bruno Walter, conductor (Jewish father) [334 ] Franz Waxman, film composer [335 ] Kurt Weill, composer [336 ] Indira Weiss, singer & actress [337 ] Stefan Wolpe, composer [338 ] Alec Empire, member of Atari Teenage Riot [339 ] Hilde Zadek, soprano [340 ] Aron Liedtke, Music Producer [341 ] Artists [edit ] Anni Albers, textile designer [342 ] Frank Auerbach, painter [343 ] Eduard Bendemann, painter [22 ] Martin Bloch, British painter [344 ] Erwin Blumenfeld, photographer [345 ] Alfred Eisenstaedt, photographer [346 ] Benno Elkan, sculptor [347 ] James Ingo Freed, architect [348 ] Gisèle Freund, photographer [349 ] Eva Hesse, materials artist [350 ] Erich Kahn, painter, expressionist [351 ] Eugen Kaufmann, architect [352 ] Hugo Lederer (1871–1940) sculptor [353 ] Max Liebermann, painter [354 ] Wilhelm Löwith, artist [355 ] Peter Max, pop artist [356 ] Ludwig Meidner, painter [357 ] Erich Mendelsohn, architect [358 ] Helmut Newton, photographer (Jewish father) [359 ] Felix Nussbaum, painter [360 ] Meret Oppenheim, surrealist [361 ] Erwin Panofsky, art historian [362 ] Hans Schleger, designer [363 ] Charlotte Salomon, artist [364 ] Erich Salomon, news photographer [365 ] Erna Weill, sculptor [366 ] Victor Weisz, Vicky, cartoonist [367 ] Writers [edit ] Erich Auerbach, literature critic [368 ] Julius Bab, dramatist and theater critic [369 ] Jurek Becker, writer [370 ] Maxim Biller, writer [371 ] Ludwig Börne, satirist [372 ] Otto Brahm, literary critic [373 ] Henryk Broder, journalist [374 ] Walter Benjamin (1892-1940), literary critic & philosopher [375 ] Emil Carlebach, writer, dissident [376 ] Joseph Derenbourg, orientalist, father of Hartwig Derenbourg [377 ] Hilde Domin, poet [378 ] Lion Feuchtwanger, novelist [379 ] Hubert Fichte, author (Jewish father) [380 ] Anne Frank, diarist [381 ] Karen Gershon, poet (1923–1993)  Friedrich Gundolf, literary man [382 ] Glückel of Hameln, 18th-century Yiddish diarist [383 ] Maximilian Harden, journalists [384 ] Heinrich Heine, poet (converted to Protestantism for job prospects) [385 ] Stefan Heym, novelist, politician [386 ] Wolfgang Hildesheimer [387 ] Edgar Hilsenrath, novelist [388 ] Barbara Honigmann, writer [389 ] Heinrich Eduard Jacob, writer and journalist [390 ] Siegfried Jacobsohn, journalist and theater critic [391 ] Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, novelist and screenwriter [392 ] Wladimir Kaminer, short story writer [393 ] Judith Kerr, children's writer [394 ] Victor Klemperer, writer [395 ] Else Lasker-Schüler, writer, poet & artist (converted to Protestantism for job prospects) [396 ] Claire Loewenfeld, writer and herbalist. [397 ] Gila Lustiger, author [398 ] Erika Mann, writer, actress (Jewish mother) [317 ] Klaus Mann, writer (Jewish mother) [317 ] Monika Mann, writer (Jewish mother) [317 ] Julius Mosen, born Moses [399 ] Erich Mühsam, anarchist poet [400 ] Henning Pawel, child-book author, writer. [401 ] Solomon Perel, author [402 ] Marcel Reich-Ranicki, literary critic [403 ] H. A. Rey & Margret Rey, creators of Curious George [404 ] Renate Rubinstein (Jewish father) [405 ] Nelly Sachs, poet, Nobel Prize (1966) [406 ] Anna Seghers, novelist [407 ] Oskar Seidlin, writer [408 ] Rafael Seligmann, writer [409 ] Süßkind von Trimberg, middle age writer, minnesinger [410 ] Kurt Tucholsky, writer (converted to Protestantism) [411 ] Samuel Ullman, poet [412 ] Rahel Varnhagen, writer and saloniste (converted to Christianity) [413 ] Moritz Callmann Wahl [22 ] Jakob Wassermann, novelist [414 ] Trude Weiss-Rosmarin [415 ] Jeanette Wohl [416 ] Friedrich Wolf, writer, physician [417 ] Carl Zuckmayer, playwright (Jewish mother) [418 ] Arnold Zweig, writer [419 ] Stefan Zweig, novelist, playwright and journalist, best known for his autobiographies Entrepreneurs [edit ] See also Court Jews Sports [edit ] Rudi Ball, ice hockey player, right wing, Olympic bronze, world runner-up, bronze [425 ] Gretel Bergmann, high jumper [426 ] Hans Berliner, world postal chess champion [427 ] Barney Dreyfuss, co-founder of the World Series [428 ] Alfred Flatow, 3x Olympic gymnastics champion ( parallel bars, team parallel bars, team horizontal bar), silver ( horizontal bar) Gustav Felix Flatow, 2x Olympic gymnastics champion (team parallel bars, team horizontal bar) Gottfried Fuchs, soccer player, (German national team) [429 ] Ludwig Guttmann, founder of the Paralympics [430 ] Lilli Henoch, world records (discus, shot put, and 4x100-m relay); shot by the Nazis in Latvia Julius Hirsch, footballer, German champion, killed during the Holocaust Bernhard Horwitz, chess player [427 ] Herbert Klein, swimmer, Olympic bronze (200-m breaststroke); 3 world records Emanuel Lasker, world chess champion [431 ] Henry Laskau, racewalker, won 42 national titles; Pan American champion; 4x Maccabiah champion Helene Mayer, foil fencer (Jewish father), Olympic champion [432 ] Sarah Poewe, swimmer (Jewish mother), Olympic bronze (4x100 medley relay) [433 ] Daniel Prenn, tennis player, highest world ranking # 6 [434 ] Siegbert Tarrasch, chess player [435 ] Literature [edit ] Walter Tetzlaff, ed. "2000 Kurzbiographien bedeutender deutscher Juden des 20. Jahrhunderts" (Lindhorst: Askania, 1982). See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ BAVARIA - JewishEncyclopedia.com ^ http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/bamberger-ludwig.jsp?l=B&p=1 ^ S/R 20: French Greens Surge Ahead in Elections for European Parliament ^ Jews, Politics & Military ^ Biography of Kurt Eisner ^ http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/118/475/86.pdf ^ FRIEDENTHAL, KARL RUDOLPH - JewishEncyclopedia.com ^  ^  ^ Henry Kissinger | Jewish Virtual Library ^ Lexicon: Frankfurt am Main ^ Eduard Lasker: Ein Leben für den Rechtsstaat by Adolf Laufs, German Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 3. (Oct., 1986), pp. 651-652 ^ Flirt 4 Free | Live Video Chat ^ Germany's Greens and Israel: "The Theme is too Much" by Diana Johnstone, MERIP Middle East Report, No. 149, Human Rights in the Middle East. (Nov. - Dec., 1987), pp. 44-45 ^  ^ Walter Rathenau: Industrialist, Banker, Intellectual, and Politician; Notes and Diaries 1907-1922 by Von Strandmann ^ http://bucerius.haifa.ac.il/abstracts-migration.doc ^ Jewish Women who Lived in Dortmund, Germany between 1930 and 1943 ^ News - Latest breaking UK news - Telegraph ^  ^ Nahum Goldmann | Jewish Virtual Library ^ a b c d e f g h i Jewish Encyclopedia ^  ^ Eliyahu Meir Klugman (1996). Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch: Architect of Judaism for the Modern World. Brooklyn, NY: Artscroll Mesorah. ISBN 0-89906-632-1. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica,  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 ed. ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Prussian Poland of Jewish parents" ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born of Jewish parents" ^ Adolf von Baeyer's Scientific Achievements — a Legacy - Huisgen - 2003 - Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English - Wiley Online Library ^  ^  ^ Radio National Australia interview with Sir Walter: "I’m half Ashkenazy Jewish myself" Accessed 21 Feb 2007 ^ The religion of Max Born, theoretical physicist ^ Book Review: Heinrich Caro and the Creation of Modern Chemical Industry. By Carsten Reinhardt and Anthony S. Travis - Quadbeck-Seeger - 2001 - Angewandte Chemie International ... ^ The Evonik History Portal - The History of Evonik Industries ^ Shlichim (Israeli Emissaries) | The Jewish Agency for Israel ^  ^  ^  ^ An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie ^  ^ a b Jewish Chemists ^ WebCite query result ^ Freddy Litten: abstracts 2 ^  ^ Dr. Leopold Ladenburg: "Stammtafel der Familie Ladenburg", Verlag J. Ph. Walther, Mannheim 1882 ^ Fritz London: A Scientific Biography by Kostas Gavroglu ^  ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica 13:492 ^ Viktor Meyer, Organic Chemist biography ^  ^ The master of light;: A biography of Albert A. Michelson by Dorothy Michelson Livingston, 1973 ^ Geometry.Net - Nobel: Michelson Albert Abraham ^ AJR ^ Rudolf Peierls ^ Arno Penzias - Biographical ^ PHILIPPSON - JewishEncyclopedia.com ^ Jewish Physicists ^ ;  ^ http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/154/1/5.pdf ^  ^ Schwarzschild biography ^ ( Encyclopaedia Judaica, 14:1578) ^ Jack Steinberger - Biographical ^  ^ British Jewish Year Book 2005 p.215 (list of Jewish Nobel Prize winners); Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. "Wallach, Otto"; ; however Otto Wallach 1847-1931. Chemiker und Nobelpreisträger by Gunther Beer, Pg 11 disagrees ^ Letter from Richard Willstatter to Michael Heidelberger (November 14, 1939) ^  ^ Whonamedit - Alfred Bielschowsky ^ Whonamedit - Julius Hallervorden ^ Obituary: Konrad E. Bloch (1912-2000) : Article : Nature ^  ^ Gustav V. R. Born, The Born Family in Göttingen and Beyond, Termessos Verlag ^  ^  ^ Ferdinand Cohn (German botanist) - Encyclopedia Britannica ^ The Israel Chemical Society ^  ^  ^ a b Project MUSE - The Expulsion of Jewish Biochemists from Academia in Nazi Germany ^  ^ Archive for Sexology ^ In the Shadow of Sudhoff: German Medical History in the Weimar Republic ^ Whonamedit - Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle ^ Sir Bernard Katz - Biographical ^ Memoirs of a Biochemical Hod Carrier ^ http://www.berghahnbooksonline.com/books/limberggermans/abs/50841_bios.pdf ^ Whonamedit - Sir Hans Adolf Krebs ^ Hitler's Gift and the Era of Biosynthesis ^ Lefalophodon: Jacques Loeb ^ Otto Loewi † - Springer ^  "he married Katia Pringsheim, daughter of a well-known Jewish family of intellectuals. They had six children: Klaus, Erika, Golo, Monika, Elisabeth and Michael" ^ Otto Fritz Meyerhof ^ Oskar Minkowski: Discovery of the pancreatic origin of diabetes, 1889 - Springer ^ Whonamedit - Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser ^  ^ Nathanael Pringsheim and the Foundation of the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland - Springer ^ Whonamedit - Ludwig Traube ^ Tidhar, David (2012). "ד"ר משה ואלאך" [Dr. Moshe Wallach] (in Hebrew). Encyclopedia of the Founders and Builders of Israel . Retrieved 4 December 2012. ^ Steinberg, Ruth. "Schwester Selma" in , Rabbi Nisson Wolpin, ed. 1988: Torah Profile: A Treasury of Biographical Sketches Mesorah Publications, Ltd., ISBN 089906860X, p. 279. ^ Friedenwald, H. (1946), Jewish Luminaries in Medical History ^ Whonamedit - Carl Weigert ^ Doetsch (print-only) ^  ^ Brauer biography ^ Obituary in "he was born in Hamburg in 1924 to Jewish parents" Accessed 9 July 2008. The Times ^ Courant biography ^ http://www.ams.org/notices/200209/fea-dawson.pdf ^ Epstein biography ^ Fraenkel biography ^ Freudenthal biography ^  ^ Hopf biography ^ Hurwitz biography ^ Jacobi biography ^ Kronecker biography ^ Edmund Landau (1877-1938) ^ Jewish Mathematicians ^ Mahler biography ^ Contemporary Authors V 162 By Rooney, Scot Peacock, Pg 169 ^ What's On: Music, Film, & Things To Do in Liverpool - Liverpool Echo ^  ^ Neumann_Bernhard biography ^ CWP at physics.UCLA.edu // Noether ^ Pringsheim biography ^ Rado_Richard biography ^ Robinson biography ^  ^ Schonflies biography ^ Schur biography ^ Toeplitz biography ^ Electronic Nation - Chapter 2 ^ Emile Berliner - GHN: IEEE Global History Network ^ Emanuel Goldberg Page ^  ^  ^ סיעוד – פורטל סיעוד בישראל | סיעוד וטיפול סיעודי ^ Reinhold Rudenberg ^ WEIZENBAUM. REBEL AT WORK. About the film ^ http://mj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/26/1/1 ^  ^ Erik Erikson Biography ^  ^ An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie ^ Judy Duchan's History of Speech - Language Pathology ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "the son of Jewish parents" ^ Intersections: Magnus Hirschfeld: Panhumanism and the Sexual Cultures of Asia ^  ^ Kurt Lewin Biography and Timeline (1890-1947) ^  ^ Encyclopedia Judaica (Keter, Jerusalem, 1972, vol. 12, p. 945) ^ PEP Web - Lingering Shadows: Jungians, Freudians and Anti-Semitism: Aryeh Maidenbaum and Stephen A. 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The forgotten Jewish writer Heinrich Eduard Jacob; in: "new inhabitants of zurich newspaper" (boarding school Expenditure), NR. 78. Zurich, 5./6. April 1997, S. 50. ^ Kultur - Goethe-Institut ^ Ruth Prawer Jhabvala ^ Kultur - Goethe-Institut ^ Project MUSE - A Knock at the Door: Reading Judith Kerr's Picture Books in the Context of Her Holocaust Fiction ^ The Lesser Evil: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer 1945-1959 ^ Project MUSE - "I am Prince Jussuf": Else Lasker-Schüler's Autobiographical Performance ^ Pincus, Lily Verloren, gewonnen: Mein Weg von Berlin nach London, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1980 ^ Kulturserver gGmbH - CultureBase - DefaultName ^ biblewiki.be - biblewiki Resources and Information. This website is for sale! ^ Ijpa.org ^  ^ Academic Publications — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ Author of Himself, The ... The Life of Marcel Reich-Ranicki ^ Journey That Saved Curious George Wartime Escape of Margret and H. A. Rey ^  ^ Nelly Sachs ^ Literary Encyclopedia | Anna Seghers ^  ^ Jews in today's German culture ^ CEEOL Derekh Judaica Urbinatensia , Issue 3 /2005 ^  ^  ^ Rahel Varnhagen The Life of a Jewish Woman by Hannah Arendt ^  ^ Hymen, E. Paula & Dash Moore, Deborah. (eds) (1997) Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Routledge, ISBN 0-415-91934-7 (pp. 1463-1465) ^  ^ http://www.umass.edu/defa/filmtour/sjprofmamlock.shtml ^ The immigration of Carl Zuckmayer into the USA [Content-space.de] ^ Arnold Zweig (German writer) - Encyclopedia Britannica ^ K. Grunwald, ‘Windsor Cassel: the last court Jew’, Yearbook of the Leo Baeck Institute, 14 (1969), 119–61 ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "born on 9 December 1831 in Munich ... His grandfather Jacob had established the family as one of the first Jewish families to acquire great wealth and social acceptability in Bavaria ... His mother came from an Orthodox Frankfurt family and ensured that the children were properly instructed in Jewish matters." ^ http://ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1987_7_WestEurope.pdf ^ Charles R. Geisst, The last partnerships: inside the great Wall Street money dynasties, p55 ^ Culture Northern Ireland ^ Name: RUDI BALL ^ Gretel Bergmann ^ a b Jewish Chess Players ^ Levi Strauss & Barney Dreyfuss ^  ^  ^ Lasker biography ^ Foiled: Hitler's Jewish Olympian; The Helene Mayer Story: Milly Mogulof: 9781571430922: Amazon.com: Books ^ Sarah Poewe | Jewish Virtual Library ^ The Nazi Olympics (August 1936) | Jewish Virtual Library ^ Tarrasch, Englisch