List of German field marshals

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German field marshals was given expensively decorated batons, so as to visibly distinguish them from other generals or high-ranking officers.

Field marshal (German: Generalfeldmarschall) was the highest military rank in Germany for seventy-five years.[1][a] Although the rank had existed since 1631 under a different name,[2] it was re-created in 1870 for Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Emperor Frederick III for the purpose of making them senior to other generals.[2] It became the most prestigious and powerful rank an officer could reach until it was abolished in 1945.[1]

In total more than 100 generals have become field marshals, between 1806 and 1945. The vast majority of the people promoted field marshal won major battles in wars surrounding the their century. As a field marshal you played a compelling and influential role in military matters,[3] were tax-exempt, member of the nobility,[3] equal with government officials,[3] under constant protection or escort,[3] and had the right to directly report to the royal family.[3]

Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony (1806–1918)[edit]

NameDate of promotionBirth and DeathImageReference
Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg21 June 16311583–1641Hans Georg von Arnim.jpg[4]
Rudolf Graf von Marzin19 October 16381585–1645Rudolf von Morzin.jpg[5]
Joachim Rüdiger of Goltz28 August 1681Unknown
[6]
Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming8 September 16881632–1706
[7]
Jeremias of Chauvet10 May 1693Unknown
[8]
Christoph August of Wackerbarth17 April 1730Unknown
[9]
Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels26 November 17351685–1746Johann Adolf II Saxe-Weissenfels.jpg[10]
Johann Georg, Chevalier de Saxe27 July 17631704–74Johann George Chevalier de Saxe.jpg[11]
Albert of Saxony14 June 18881828–1902Nicola Perscheid - König Albert von Sachsen vor 1902.jpg[12]

Brandenburg-Prussia and the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)[edit]

NameDate of promotionBirth and DeathImageReference
Otto Christoph von Sparr20 June 16571599–1668
[13]
John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau24 January 16701627–93John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau.jpg[13]
Georg von Derfflinger18 February 16701606–95Georg von Derfflinger.png[13]
Alexander Hermann, Count of Wartensleben23 March 17061650–1734Alexander Hermann, Count of Wartensleben.jpg[14]
Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau17121676–1747Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau.jpeg[15]
Carl Philipp, Reichsgraf von Wylich und Lottum17131650–1719Wylich und Lottum, Karl Philipp Graf von (1650-1719).jpg[16]
Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten17131661–1728Dohna-Schlobitten, Alexander Burggraf und Graf zu (1661-1728)2.jpg[17]
Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer17281654–1739Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer.jpg[18]
Albrecht Konrad Finck von Finckenstein17331660–1735Albr.Konr.Finckenstein.jpg[19]
Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow17371678–1739Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow.PNG[18]
Kurt Christoph von Schwerin17401684–1757Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin.jpg[20]
Caspar Otto of Glasenapp1741Unknown
[21]
Samuel von Schmettau17411684–1751Samuel von Schmettau AGE V11 1803.jpg[22]
Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst16 May 17421690–1747Catydaddy.jpg[23]
Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau17 May 17421700-511700 Leopold.JPG[24]
Friedrich Wilhelm von Dossow15 January 17451669–1758
[25]
James Francis Edward Keith18 September 17471696–1758Generalfeldmarschall Keith (Pesne).jpg[26]
Hans von Lehwaldt17511696–1758Hans von Lehwaldt.jpg[27]
Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau17571712–60Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau.jpg[28]
Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel15 November 17581721–92Prinz Ferdinand Braunschweig.jpg[29]
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel17871735–1806BraunschweigLKWF.jpg[30]
Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf17931724–1816Wichard-von-moellendorf.jpg[31]
Alexander von Knobelsdorff20 May 17981723–99Field Marshal von Knobelsdorff, German School of the 18th century.jpg[32]
Friedrich Adolf Graf von Kalckreuth18071737–1818
[33]
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher19 October 18131742–1819Blücher (nach Gebauer).jpg[34]
Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf18211762–1823Hermann Scherenberg-Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf.jpg[35]
Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg18211759–1830Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg.jpg[36]
August Neidhardt von Gneisenau18251760–1831George Dawe, Field Marshal August Neidhardt, Count of Gneisenau (1760–1831), 1818.jpg[37]
Hans Ernst Karl, Graf von Zieten18391770–1848Zieten-by-Kruger.jpg[38]
Karl Freiherr von Muffling5 October 18471775–1851WP Karl von Muffling.jpg[39]
Hermann von Boyen7 October 18471771–1848Boyen.jpg[40]
Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck9 October 18471768–1848Knesebeck.gif[41]
Karl Friedrich Emil zu Dohna-Schlobitten14 March 18541784–1859Friedrich Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten.png[42]
Friedrich Graf von Wrangel5 August 18561784–1877Feldmarschall Friedrich von Wrangel.jpg[43]
Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia28 October 18701828–85Friedrich Karl von Preussen.jpg[2]
Emperor Frederick III28 October 18701831–88Friedrich III as Kronprinz - in GdK uniform by Heinrich von Angeli 1874.jpg[2]

German Empire (1871–1918)[edit]

NameDate of promotionBirth and DeathImageReference
Bittenfeld, Karl Eberhard Herwarth vonKarl Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld8 April 18711796–1884Karl Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld (2).jpg[44]
Steinmetz, Karl Friedrich vonKarl Friedrich von Steinmetz8 April 18711796–1877Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz, 1895 illustration.jpg[45]
Moltke, Helmuth Karl Bernhard vonHelmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke16 June 18701800–91Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke.jpg[46]
Albert of Saxony11 July 18711828–1902Nicola Perscheid - König Albert von Sachsen vor 1902.jpg[47]
Roon, Albrecht vonAlbrecht von Roon1 January 18731803–79Graf Roon .jpg[48]
Manteuffel, Edwin Freiherr vonEdwin Freiherr von Manteuffel18731809–85Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel by Adolphe Braun.png[49]
Blumenthal, Leonhard Graf vonLeonhard Graf von Blumenthal15 March 18881810–1900Generalfeldmarschall Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal.JPG[50]
Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony15 March 18881832–1904Georg von Sachsen 1895.jpg[51]
Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Albrecht of Prussia19 June 18881837–1906Prince Albrecht of Prussia in 1883.jpg[52]
Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen19 June 18881817–95Albrecht Austria Teschen 1817 1895 marshal.jpg[53]
Franz Joseph I of Austria27 February 18951830–1916Franz Joseph 1898.jpg[54]
Waldersee, Alfred vonAlfred von Waldersee6 May 19001832–1904Graf von Waldersee Postkarte.jpg[55]
Haeseler, Gottlieb Graf vonGottlieb Graf von Haeseler1 January 19051836–1919Gottliebvonhaeseler.jpeg[56]
Hahnke, Wilhelm vonWilhelm von Hahnke1 January 19051833–1912Wilhelm von Hahnke.jpg[57]
Loë, Walter vonWalter von Loë1 January 19051828–1908
[58]
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn9 September 19061850–1942Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught.jpg[59]
Carol I of Romania20 April 19091839–1914Carol I King of Romania.jpg[60]
Schlieffen, Alfred vonAlfred von Schlieffen1 January 19111833–1913Alfred Graf von Schlieffen.jpg[61]
Constantine I of Greece8 August 19111868–1923King Constantine Ι of Greece, 1914, by Laszlo.jpg[62]
Hindenburg, Paul vonPaul von Hindenburg2 November 19141847–1934President Hindenburg.jpg[63]
Bülow, Karl vonKarl von Bülow27 January 19151846–1921Karl von Bülow (ca. 1916).jpg[64]
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen22 June 19151856–1936Freddyofaustria.jpg[65]
Mackensen, August vonAugust von Mackensen22 June 19151849–1945Mackensen.jpg[66]
Ludwig III of Bavaria26 June 19151845–1921Kingludwig3bavaria.jpg[67]
Hötzendorf, Franz Conrad vonFranz Conrad von Hötzendorf19161852–1925Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (Hermann Torggler, 1915).jpg[68]
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria18 January 19161861–1948Zar Ferdinand Bulgarien.jpg[69]
William II of Württemberg23 July 19161848–1921König Wilhelm II.jpg[70]
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria1 August 19161869–1955Rupprecht von Bayern.jpg[71]
Prince Leopold of Bavaria1 August 19161846–1930Leopold II of Bavaria (1907).jpg[72]
Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg1 August 19161865–1939AlbrechtHerzogWürttemberg.jpg[73]
Charles I of Austria12 February 19171887–1922Charles I of Austria.jpg[74]
Eichhorn, Hermann vonHermann von Eichhorn18 December 19171848–1918Voneichornhermanngen.jpg[75]
Woyrsch, Remus vonRemus von Woyrsch18 December 19171847–1920Remus von Woyrsch (ca. 1915).jpg[76]

Weimar Republic (1918–33)[edit]

After the loss of the First World War, Germany was transformed into what became known as the Weimar Republic which worked according the laws of the Treaty of Versailles.[77] Some of the newly imposed conditions was the demobilization of the German Army to 100,000 men,[78] a reduction of the German Navy,[78] and the abolishment of the German Air Force.[78] As a result of the new military laws, the Weimar Republic saw no field marshal promotions.

Nazi Germany (1933–45)[edit]

NameDate of promotionBirth and DeathImageReference
Blomberg, Werner vonWerner von Blomberg20 April 19361878–1946Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0402-504, Generaloberst Werner von Blomberg.jpg[79]
Goering, HermannHermann Göring4 February 19381893–1946Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg[80]
Bock, Fedor vonFedor von Bock19 July 19401880–1945Wehrvonbockcopy1.jpg[81]
Brauchitsch, Walther vonWalther von Brauchitsch19 July 19401881–1948Bundesarchiv Bild 183-E00780, Walther von Brauchitsch.jpg[82]
Kesselring, AlbertAlbert Kesselring19 July 19401885–1960Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R93434, Albert Kesselring.jpg[83]
Keitel, WilhelmWilhelm Keitel19 July 19401882–1946Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H30220, Wilhelm Keitel.jpg[84]
Kluge, Günther vonGünther von Kluge19 July 19401882–1944Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1973-139-14, Hans Günther v. Kluge.jpg[85]
Leeb, Wilhelm Ritter vonWilhelm Ritter von Leeb19 July 19401876–1956Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L08126, Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb.jpg[86]
List, WilhelmWilhelm List19 July 19401880–1971Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S36487, Wilhelm List.jpg[87]
Milch, ErhardErhard Milch19 July 19401892–1972Milch.jpg[88]
Reichenau, Walther vonWalther von Reichenau19 July 19401884–1942Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B05284, Walter v. Reichenau.jpg[89]
Rundstedt, Gerd vonGerd von Rundstedt19 July 19401875–1953Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1987-047-20, Gerd v. Rundstedt.jpg[90]
Sperrle, HugoHugo Sperrle19 July 19401885–1953Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1987-121-30A, Hugo Sperrle.jpg[91]
Witzleben, Erwin vonErwin von Witzleben19 July 19401881–1944Bundesarchiv Bild 151-12-16, Volksgerichtshof, Erwin v. Witzleben.jpg[92]
Boehm-Ermolli, Eduard vonEduard von Böhm-Ermolli31 October 19401856–1941Boehm ermolli eduard FM 1856 1941.jpg[93]
Rommel, ErwinErwin Rommel22 June 19421891–1944Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1973-012-43, Erwin Rommel.jpg[94]
Kuechler, Georg vonGeorg von Küchler30 June 19421881–1968Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R63872, Georg von Küchler.jpg[95]
Manstein, Erich vonErich von Manstein1 July 19421887–1973Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H01757, Erich von Manstein.jpg[95]
Paulus, FriedrichFriedrich Paulus31 January 19431890–1957Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B24575, Friedrich Paulus.jpg[95]
Busch, ErnstErnst Busch1 February 19431885–1945Буш Эрнст.JPG[96]
Kleist, Paul Ludwig Ewald vonPaul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist1 February 19431881–1954Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1986-0210-503, General Ewald von Kleist.jpg[95]
Weichs, Maximilian vonMaximilian von Weichs1 February 19431881–1954Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-056-1643-29A, Frankreich, Generäl v. Weichs.jpg[95]
Richthofen, Wolfram Freiherr vonWolfram Freiherr von Richthofen16 February 19431895–1945Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-452-0985-36, Russland, Generäle Löhr und W. v. Richthofen (cropped).jpg[95]
Model, WalterWalter Model1 March 19441891–1945Walter Model April 1943.jpg[97]
Schörner, FerdinandFerdinand Schörner5 April 19451892–1973Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L29176, Ferdinand Schörner.jpg[98]
Greim, Robert Ritter vonRobert Ritter von Greim25 April 19451892–1945Greim, Robert Ritter von - Generalfeldmarschall.jpg[99]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1940 Hermann Göring was promoted to Reichsmarschall, a rank higher than that of field marshal and was the only one to hold this rank. This was done so as to make Göring superior to other field marshals and recognize him as the second man in Hitler's Reich.[100]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hakim 1995, pp. 100, 105.
  2. ^ a b c d Wawro 1997, p. 310.
  3. ^ a b c d e Snyder 1976, p. 111.
  4. ^ Irmer 2005, pp. 5, 35.
  5. ^ Guthrie 2003, p. 48.
  6. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 790.
  7. ^ Cohn & Russell 2012, pp. 2, 5.
  8. ^ Glozier & Onnekink 2007, p. 209.
  9. ^ Phillips 1871, p. 943.
  10. ^ Long 1844, p. 360.
  11. ^ Carlyle 2002, p. 709.
  12. ^ Riley 2014, p. 232.
  13. ^ a b c Citino 2005, p. 428.
  14. ^ Gruyter 2006, p. 355.
  15. ^ Paret & Morgan 2014, p. 391.
  16. ^ König 1789, p. 434.
  17. ^ Johannes 2004, p. 34.
  18. ^ a b MacDonogh 2001, p. 436.
  19. ^ Colby & Williams 1906, p. 620.
  20. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 239.
  21. ^ Ohm & Boehlke & Boehlke 1997, p. 6.
  22. ^ Lund 1999, p. 182.
  23. ^ Alexeevna 2007, p. 236.
  24. ^ Siebigk 1883, pp. 352, 356.
  25. ^ Siebigk 1883, pp. 364, 365.
  26. ^ MacKillop & Murdoch 2003, p. 103.
  27. ^ Siebigk 1883, pp. 166, 167.
  28. ^ Ross 1997, p. 134, 135.
  29. ^ Ballard 2011, p. 54.
  30. ^ Debrett 1836, p. 151.
  31. ^ Stoker 2014, p. 52.
  32. ^ Bruce & Stanard 1958, p. 88.
  33. ^ Phillips 1871, p. 378.
  34. ^ Leggiere 2014, p. 535.
  35. ^ Siebigk 1883, p. 127.
  36. ^ Droysen 1851, p. 158.
  37. ^ Gneisenau & Marston 1815, pp. 1, 8.
  38. ^ Veve 1992, p. 30.
  39. ^ Muffling 1997, p. 174.
  40. ^ Parkinson 2000, p. 259.
  41. ^ Jensen & Rothstein 2000, p. 110.
  42. ^ Siborne 1895, p. 96.
  43. ^ Röhl 1996, p. 274.
  44. ^ Chisholm & Garvin 1926, p. 405.
  45. ^ Hughes 2009, p. 423.
  46. ^ Heal 2012, p. 206.
  47. ^ Maitland 1762, p. 24.
  48. ^ Large 2007, p. 2.
  49. ^ Marrs 2010, p. 25.
  50. ^ Darmstaedter 2008, p. 414.
  51. ^ Riley 2014, p. 232.
  52. ^ Burke 2012, p. 17.
  53. ^ Hakim 1995, p. 65.
  54. ^ Murad 1968, p. 61.
  55. ^ Clarke 2000, p. 12.
  56. ^ Ross 1997, p. 452.
  57. ^ Hahnke 2012, p. 47.
  58. ^ Steinberg 2011, p. 407.
  59. ^ Browne 2013, p. 105.
  60. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, pp. 666, 667.
  61. ^ Ehlert 2014, pp. 1, 2.
  62. ^ Vatikiotis 2014, p. 1.
  63. ^ Hargreaves 2010, p. 20.
  64. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 243.
  65. ^ Riley 2013, p. 471.
  66. ^ Sandler 2002, p. 523.
  67. ^ Pawly 2012, p. 63.
  68. ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 143.
  69. ^ Tague 2011, p. 359.
  70. ^ Blumberg 1990, p. 238.
  71. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 1007.
  72. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 687.
  73. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 82.
  74. ^ Wheatcroft & Keegan, 2014. p. 62.
  75. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 390.
  76. ^ Pope & Wheal 2007, p. 476.
  77. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 96.
  78. ^ a b c Kershaw 2008, pp. 80, 90, 92.
  79. ^ Tague 2011, p. 62.
  80. ^ Alford 2003, p. 67.
  81. ^ Wheeler-Bennett 1967, p. 497.
  82. ^ Biesinger 2006, p. 288.
  83. ^ Kesselring 1970, p. 64.
  84. ^ Goldensohn 2010, p. 157.
  85. ^ Biesinger 2006, p. 510.
  86. ^ Mineau 2004, p. 109.
  87. ^ Williamson 2006, p. 109.
  88. ^ Wright 2009, p. 110.
  89. ^ Tague 2011, p. 28.
  90. ^ Wood 2014, p. 35.
  91. ^ Frankel 2004, p. 14.
  92. ^ Mitcham 2006, p. 14.
  93. ^ Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 216.
  94. ^ Breuer 2002, p. 131.
  95. ^ a b c d e f Matthews 2013, p. 349.
  96. ^ Tague 2011, p. 326.
  97. ^ Mitcham 2007, p. 200.
  98. ^ Pawly 2012, p. 289
  99. ^ Wistrich 1982, p. 84
  100. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 198.

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