List of French monarchs

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Monarchy of France
Former Monarchy
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg
Royal Coat of arms
First monarchClovis I[dubious ][1]
Last monarchNapoleon III
(as Emperor)
StyleSee article
Official residenceTuileries Palace (last)
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began428[dubious ]
Monarchy ended4 September 1870
Current pretender(s)Disputed:
Louis Alphonse
(House of Bourbon)
Henri d'Orléans
(House of Orléans)
Jean-Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)
 
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Monarchy of France
Former Monarchy
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg
Royal Coat of arms
First monarchClovis I[dubious ][1]
Last monarchNapoleon III
(as Emperor)
StyleSee article
Official residenceTuileries Palace (last)
AppointerHereditary
Monarchy began428[dubious ]
Monarchy ended4 September 1870
Current pretender(s)Disputed:
Louis Alphonse
(House of Bourbon)
Henri d'Orléans
(House of Orléans)
Jean-Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)

The kingdom of France existed from 987 (or arguably from 843 as kingdom of the Western Franks) until 1792 (the French Revolution). The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon. With the House of Bonaparte and the Bourbon Restoration, additional "Kings of the French" ruled in 19th century France, between 1814 and 1870.

For monarchs of Francia (including the Carolingian Empire and Western Francia), see List of Frankish kings, Merovingians, Carolingians.

In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60 and 1369–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact — under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) remained in use until 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but note the use of FRANCORUM REX by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550[2]). During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.

In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804–15, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852–70, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III.

Merovingian Dynasty (428–751)[edit]

The name of France comes from the Germanic tribe known as the Franks. The Merovingian kings began as mere chieftains, the oldest known being Merovech. Clovis I,grandson of Merovech, was the first of these to rise to true kingship. After his death, his kingdom was split between his sons into Soissons (Neustria), Paris, Orléans (Burgundy), and Metz (Austrasia). Several Merovingian monarchs reunited the Frankish kingdoms and assumed the title of "King of the Franks". But upon their deaths, according to Frankish custom, the kingdom would often be split once again between their sons. For a complete list of the various Merovingian kings and the specific territories they controlled, see List of Frankish kings.

PortraitNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Portrait Roi de france Mérovée.jpgMerovech
(Mérovée)
445/448457 • First kingKing of the Salian Franks
(Roi des Francs saliens)
Seal of Childeric I Tournai tomb.jpgChilderic I
(Childéric Ier)
457481/482 • Son of MerovechKing of the Salian Franks
(Roi des Francs saliens)
Clovis 1er.jpgClovis I
(Clovis Ier)
481/482511 • Son of Childeric IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Tiers de sou d'or de Childebert Ier.pngChildebert I
(Childebert Ier)
51123 December 558 • Son of Clovis IKing of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Monnaie d'argent de Clotaire Ier.pngChlothar I the Old
(Clotaire Ier le Vieux)
23 December 55829 November 561 • Son of Clovis I
 • Younger brother of Childebert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Jean-Joseph Dassy (1796-1865) - Caribert, roi franc de Paris et de l'ouest de Gaule (mort en 567).jpgCharibert I
(Caribert Ier)
29 November 561567 • Son of Chlothar IKing of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Portrait Roi de france Chilpéric roy de France.jpgChilperic I
(Chilpéric Ier)
567584 • Son of Chlothar I
 • Younger brother of Charibert I
King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)

King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)
Clothaire II 584 628.jpgChlothar II the Great, the Young
(Clotaire II le Grand, le Jeune)
58418 October 629 • Son of Chilperic IKing of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
(595–629)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(613–629)
Tiers de sou or Dagobert Ier.jpgDagobert I
(Dagobert Ier)
18 October 62919 January 639 • Son of Chlothar IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Tiers de sous d'or de Clovis II.jpgClovis II the Lazy
(Clovis II le Fainéant)
19 January 63931 October 657 • Son of Dagobert IKing of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)
Clothar III.jpgChlothar III
(Clotaire III)
31 October 657673 • Son of Clovis IIKing of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(657–663)
Portrait Roi de france Childéric II.jpgChilderic II
(Childéric II)
673675 • Son of Clovis II
 • Younger brother of Chlothar III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Theuderic III.jpgTheuderic III
(Thierry III)
675691 • Son of Clovis II
 • Younger brother of Childeric II
King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(687–691)
Georges Rouget (1783-1869) - Clovis III roi d'Austrasie en 691 (682-695).jpgClovis IV
(Clovis IV)
691695 • Son of Theuderic IIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Childebert III 694 711.jpgChildebert III the Just
(Childebert III le Juste)
69523 April 711 • Son of Theuderic III
 • Younger brother of Clovis IV
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Portrait Roi de france Dagobert II (i.e III).jpgDagobert III23 April 711715 • Son of Childebert IIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Portrait Roy de france Chilperic II.jpgChilperic II
(Chilpéric II)
71513 February 721 • Probably son of Childeric IIKing of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(719–721)

The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childerich and acceded to the throne.

PortraitNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Jean Dassier (1676-1763) - Childéric III roy de France (754).jpgChilderic III
(Childéric III)
743November 751 • Son of Chilperic II or of Theuderic IVKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian Dynasty (751–987)[edit]

Three non-Carolingian kings reigned during the Carolingian period of the French monarchy. Two, Odo and his brother Robert I were Robertians, while Robert's son-in-law Raoul/Rudolph was a Bosonid. The Robertian Dynasty became the Capetian Dynasty with the ascent to the throne of Hugh Capet (son of Hugh the Great, son of Robert I) in 987. The rise and fall of Carolingian Charles III played out during the ascent of these non-Carolingian kings.

PortraitNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Pépin the younger.jpgPepin the Younger the Short
(Pépin le Bref)
75224 September 768 • Son of Charles MartelKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman.jpgCarloman I24 September 7684 December 771 • Son of Pepin the ShortKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Charlemagne-by-Durer.jpgCharlemagne (Charles I)24 September 76828 January 814 • Son of Pepin the ShortKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(800–814)
Ludwik I Pobożny.jpgLouis I the Pious, the Debonaire
(Louis Ier le Pieux, le Débonnaire)
28 January 81420 June 840 • Son of CharlemagneKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
CharlesIItheBald.JPGCharles II the Bald
(Charles II le Chauve)
20 June 8406 October 877 • Son of Louis IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(875–877)
Louis II of France.JPGLouis II the Stammerer
(Louis II le Bègue)
6 October 87710 April 879 • Son of Charles IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King Louis III.gifLouis III10 April 8795 August 882 • Son of Louis IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman II of France.jpgCarloman II5 August 8826 December 884 • Son of Louis IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Die deutschen Kaiser Karl der Dicke.jpgCharles the Fat
(Charles le Gros)
20 May 88513 January 888 • Son of Louis the German
 • Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II
 • Grandson of Louis I the Pious
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(881–887)
Odo of France.PNGOdo of Paris
(Eudes de Paris)
29 February 8881 January 898 • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Elected king against young Charles III.
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Georges Rouget (1783-1869) - Charles III, dit le simple, roi de France en 896 (879-929).jpgCharles III the Simple
(Charles III le Simple)
28 January 89330 June 922 • Posthumous son of Louis II
 • Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Robert I de France.jpgRobert I
(Robert Ier)
30 June 92215 June 923 • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Younger brother of Odo
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Rudolph of France.PNGRudolph
(Raoul de France)
13 July 92314 January 936 • Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
 • Son-in-law of Robert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis IV of France.PNGLouis IV from overseas
(Louis IV d'Outremer)
19 June 93610 September 954 • Son of Charles IIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Lothaire-Face.jpgLothair
(Lothaire de France)
12 November 9542 March 986 • Son of Louis IVKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis V.jpgLouis V the Lazy
(Louis V le Fainéant)
8 June 98622 May 987 • Son of LothairKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Capetian Dynasty (987–1792)[edit]

The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

House of Capet (987–1328)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
King Hugh Capet.jpgHugh Capet
(Hugues Capet)
3 July 98724 October 996 • Grandson of Robert IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Seal of Robert II.jpgRobert II the Pious, the Wise
(Robert II le Pieux, le Sage)
24 October 99620 July 1031 • Son of Hugh CapetKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Henri I.jpgHenry I
(Henri Ier)
20 July 10314 August 1060 • Son of Robert IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Philip I of France · HHWXI28.svgPhilip I the Amorous
(Philippe Ier l' Amoureux)
4 August 106029 July 1108 • Son of Henry IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis VI of France.gifLouis VI the Fat
(Louis VI le Gros)
29 July 11081 August 1137 • Son of Philip IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
II Geza es VII Lajos KK.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgLouis VII the Young
(Louis VII le Jeune)
1 August 113718 September 1180 • Son of Louis VIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis-Félix Amiel-Philippe II dit Philippe-Auguste Roi de France (1165-1223).jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgPhilip II Augustus
(Philippe II Auguste)
18 September 118014 July 1223 • Son of Louis VIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis8lelion.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgLouis VIII the Lion
(Louis VIII le Lion)
14 July 12238 November 1226 • Son of Philip II AugustusKing of France
(Roi de France)
Louis-ix.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgLouis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
8 November 122625 August 1270 • Son of Louis VIIIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Miniature Philippe III Courronement.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgPhilip III the Bold
(Philippe III le Hardi)
25 August 12705 October 1285 • Son of Louis IXKing of France
(Roi de France)
Philippe IV Le Bel.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svgPhilip IV the Fair
(Philippe IV le Bel)
5 October 128529 November 1314 • Son of Philip IIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis X Le Hutin.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svgLouis X the Quarreller
(Louis X le Hutin)
29 November 13145 June 1316 • Son of Philip IVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
John I of France.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svgJohn I the Posthumous
(Jean Ier le Posthume)
15 November 131620 November 1316 • Son of Louis XKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Philippe V Le Long.JPGArms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svgPhilip V the Tall
(Philippe V le Long)
20 November 13163 January 1322 • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Louis X
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Charles IV Le Bel.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svgCharles IV the Fair
(Charles IV le Bel)
3 January 13221 February 1328 • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Philip V
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

Not listed above are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-Kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby Kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

House of Valois (1328–1589)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Phil6france.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgPhilip VI of Valois, the Fortunate
(Philippe VI de Valois, le Fortuné)
1 April 132822 August 1350 • Grandson of Philip III of FranceKing of France
(Roi de France)
JeanIIdFrance.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgJohn II the Good
(Jean II le Bon)
22 August 13508 April 1364 • Son of Philip VIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles5lesage.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svgCharles V the Wise
(Charles V le Sage)
8 April 136416 September 1380 • Son of John IIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Couronnement de Charles VI le Bien-Aimé.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svgCharles VI the Beloved, the Mad
(Charles VI le Bienaimé, le Fol)
16 September 138021 October 1422 • Son of Charles VKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VII by Jean Fouquet 1445 1450.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svgCharles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served
(Charles VII le Victorieux, le Bien-Servi)
21 October 142222 July 1461 • Son of Charles VIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Louis XI of France.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svgLouis XI the Prudent, the Cunning, the Universal Spider
(Louis XI le Prudent, le Rusé, l'Universelle Aragne)
22 July 146130 August 1483 • Son of Charles VIIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VIII Ecole Francaise 16th century Musee de Conde Chantilly.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svgCharles VIII the Affable
(Charles VIII l'Affable)
30 August 14837 April 1498 • Son of Louis XIKing of France
(Roi de France)

Orléans branch (1498–1515)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Ludvig XII av Frankrike på målning från 1500-talet.jpgArms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svgLouis XII Father of the People
(Louis XII le Père du Peuple)
7 April 14981 January 1515 • Great-grandson of Charles V
 • Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
 • By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)

Orléans–Angoulême Branch (1515–1589)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Francis1-1.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svgFrancis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
(François Ier le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres)
1 January 151531 March 1547 • Great-great-grandson of Charles V
 • First cousin once removed, and by
first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
King of France
(Roi de France)
Clouet atelier Henri II Roi de France.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svgHenry II
(Henri II)
31 March 154710 July 1559 • Son of Francis I/grandson of Louis XIIKing of France
(Roi de France)
FrancoisII.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svgFrancis II
(François II)
10 July 15595 December 1560 • Son of Henry IIKing of France
(Roi de France)

King of Scots
(1558–1560)
François Clouet 004.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svgCharles IX5 December 156030 May 1574 • Son of Henry II
 • Younger brother of Francis II
King of France
(Roi de France)
Henri3France.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svgHenry III
(Henri III)
30 May 15742 August 1589 • Son of Henry II
 • Younger brother of Charles IX
King of France
(Roi de France)

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
(1573–1575)

House of Bourbon (1589–1792)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Henry IV of france by pourbous younger.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svgHenry IV, Good King Henry, the Green Gallant
(Henri IV, le Bon Roi Henri, le Vert-Galant)
2 August 158914 May 1610 • Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
 • Grandnephew in law of Francis I and Henry II, Brother in law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
LouisXIII.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svgLouis XIII the Just
(Louis XIII le Juste)
14 May 161014 May 1643 • Son of Henry IVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XIV of France.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svgLouis XIV the Great, the Sun King
(Louis XIV le Grand, le Roi Soleil)
14 May 16431 September 1715 • Son of Louis XIIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
LouisXV-Rigaud1.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svgLouis XV the Beloved
(Louis XV le Bien-Aimé)
1 September 171510 May 1774 • Great-grandson of Louis XIVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Antoine-François Callet - Louis XVI, roi de France et de Navarre (1754-1793), revêtu du grand costume royal en 1779 - Google Art Project.jpgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svgLouis XVI the Restorer of French Liberty
(Louis XVI le Restaurateur de la Liberté Française)
10 May 177421 September 1792 • Grandson of Louis XVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
(1774–1791)

King of the French
(Roi des Français)
(1791–1792)

From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

First Republic (1792–1804)[edit]

The First French Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, declared himself Emperor of the French.

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameEmperor FromEmperor UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Napoleon I (by Anne Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson).jpgGrandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svgNapoleon I, the Great
(Napoléon Ier, le Grand)
18 May 180411 April 1814-Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Lodewijk XVIII.jpgCoat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svgLouis XVIII11 April 181420 March 1815 • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameEmperor FromEmperor UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Napoleon I (by Anne Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson).jpgGrandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svgNapoleon I
(Napoléon Ier)
20 March 181522 June 1815-Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
80 Napoleon II.jpgGrandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svgNapoleon II
(Napoléon II)
[3]
22 June 18157 July 1815Son of Napoleon IEmperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

House of Bourbon (1815–1830)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Lodewijk XVIII.jpgCoat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svgLouis XVIII7 July 181516 September 1824 • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Charles X Roi de France et de Navarre.jpgCoat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svgCharles X16 September 18242 August 1830 • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

The elder son of Charles X, the Dauphin Louis-Antoine, is occasionally considered to have legally been the King of France as Louis XIX in the 20 minutes that passed between Charles X's formal signature of abdication and the Dauphin's own signature.
Henri d'Artois, Charles X's grandson, was considered by monarchists to be the titular King of France, as Henry V from 2 August 1830 to 9 August 1830, but his reign remained largely fictional, as he acceded in a revolutionary context and hence was never recognized by the French State. He is generally not accounted for in lists of official French monarchs.

House of Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameKing FromKing UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Louis-Philippe de Bourbon.jpgCoat of Arms of the July Monarchy (1831-48).svgLouis-Philippe I the Citizen King
(Louis Philippe, le Roi Citoyen)
9 August 183024 February 1848 • Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
 • Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
King of the French
(Roi des Français)

Second Republic (1848–1852)[edit]

The Second French Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.

House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870)[edit]

PortraitCoat of ArmsNameEmperor FromEmperor UntilRelationship with Predecessor(s)Title
Franz Xaver Winterhalter Napoleon III.jpgCoat of Arms Second French Empire (1852–1870)-2.svgNapoleon III
(Napoléon III)
2 December 18524 September 1870 • Nephew of Napoleon IEmperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Government of National Defence (Paris Commune 1870–1871)[edit]

The transition period between the fall of the Second Empire after the capture of Napoleon III by the Prussians and the assumption of the Third Republic by General Louis Jules Trochu.

Heads of State following 1871[edit]

The chronology of Head of State of France continues with the Presidents of France and short term interim periods by the Chief of State of the French State (1940–1944), the Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–1946) and the President of the French Senate (1969 and 1974) during the Fifth Republic.

Later pretenders[edit]

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ r. 481-511; first king of all Franks; first Christian king of Gaul.
  2. ^ Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480-1560. Warfare in History Series 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN 9781843834052. Retrieved 2012-11-27. "[...] Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX" 
  3. ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, the young child's reign was entirely fictional, as he was residing in Austria with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

References[edit]