List of British monarchs

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The British monarchy is the direct successor to those of England, Scotland and Ireland. For those, see List of English monarchs, List of Scottish monarchs and List of Irish monarchs.
The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom since the accession of Queen Victoria, (1837), featuring the arms of England in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland in the second, and Ireland in the third. In Scotland a separate version is used, (shown right), whereby the Arms of Scotland take precedence.[1]

There have been 12 monarchs of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see the Monarchy of the United Kingdom). A new Kingdom of Great Britain was formed on 1 May 1707 with the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, which had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

House of Stuart (1707–1714)[edit]

Main article: House of Stuart

Queen Anne had been queen of England, Scotland and Ireland since 8 March 1702, and so became Queen of Great Britain upon the Union of England and Scotland.

1 May 1707–1 August 1714
Anne1705.jpg6 February 1665
St. James's Palace
daughter of James II and VII and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St. James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 pregnancies, but no surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49
Daughter of James II and VII (cognatic primogeniture; Bill of Rights 1689); Queen of England and Scotland upon the Union; (Treaty of Union and Acts of Union 1707)

House of Hanover (1714–1901)[edit]

Main article: House of Hanover

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, which excluded "Papists" (that is, Roman Catholics) from the succession. In return for access to the English plantations in North America and the West Indies, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Queen Anne with no living children, George I, the son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England through his daughter Elizabeth of Bohemia, was the closest heir to the throne who was not a Roman Catholic.[2]

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeathSuccession rightReferences
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714 –
11 June 1727
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg28 May 1660
son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lueneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
aged 67
Great-grandson of James VI and I[3]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727 –
25 October 1760
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg30 October 1683
son of George I and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lueneburg-Celle
Caroline of Ansbach
22 August 1705
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
aged 76
Son of George I[4]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760 –
29 January 1820
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg4 June 1738
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
aged 81
Grandson of George II[5]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820 –
26 June 1830
(Prince Regent since 1811)
George IV 1821 color.jpg12 August 1762
St James's Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Anne Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
(2) Caroline of Brunswick
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
aged 67
Son of George III[6]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830 –
20 June 1837
William IV.jpg21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 children
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
aged 71
Son of George III[7]
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837 –
22 January 1901
Coronation portrait of Queen Victoria - Hayter 1838.jpg24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
aged 81
Granddaughter of George III[8]

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1901–1917)[edit]

Although he was the son and heir of Victoria, Edward VII inherited his father's names and is therefore counted as inaugurating a new royal house.

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeathSuccession rightReferences
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901 –
6 May 1910
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
son of Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
aged 68
Son of Victoria[9]

House of Windsor (1917–present)[edit]

Main article: House of Windsor

The house name Windsor was adopted in 1917, during World War I. It was changed from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom.

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeathSuccession rightReferences
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910 –
20 January 1936
George V of the united Kingdom.jpg3 June 1865
Marlborough House
son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70
Son of Edward VII[10]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January –
11 December 1936 (abdicated)
Portrait of Edward VIII of the United Kingdom.jpg23 June 1894
White Lodge
son of George V and Mary of Teck
Wallis Warfield Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
no children
28 May 1972
aged 77
Son of George V[11]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936 –
6 February 1952
King George VI crop.jpg14 December 1895
Sandringham House
son of George V and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 children
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56
Son of George V[12]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February
1952 – present
Queen Elizabeth II - 1953-Dress.JPG21 April 1926
daughter of George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
LivingDaughter of George VI[13]

Timeline of British monarchs[edit]

Elizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IV of the United KingdomGeorge IV of the United KingdomGeorge III of the United KingdomGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great BritainHouse of WindsorHouse of Saxe-Coburg and GothaHouse of HanoverHouse of Stuart

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Symbols of the Monarchy. Coats of Arms. - The official website of The British Monarchy". Retrieved 2011-05-09. 
  2. ^ For a family tree showing George's relationship to Anne, see George I of Great Britain#Family tree.
  3. ^ "George I". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  4. ^ "George II". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  5. ^ "George III". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  6. ^ "George IV". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  7. ^ "William IV". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  8. ^ "Victoria". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  9. ^ "Edward VII". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  10. ^ "George V". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  11. ^ "Edward VIII". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  12. ^ "George VI". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  13. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen". Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 

External links[edit]